Abstract

Directional mode coupling in an asymmetric holey fiber coupler is demonstrated both numerically and experimentally for the first time. The holey fiber mode couplers have interesting spectral characteristics and are also found to exhibit increased dimensional tolerances. Following a design based on numerical investigations, a dual-core polymer holey fiber coupler for LP01 and LP11 mode multiplexing was fabricated via a drilling and drawing technique. The measurements are compared with the simulation results.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-mode elliptical-core fiber data transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(5), 344–346 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, J. R. Salazar-Gil, B. Ercan, R. Ryf, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1036–1044 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. S. Yerolatsitis, I. Gris-Sánchez, and T. A. Birks, “Adiabatically-tapered fiber mode multiplexers,” Opt. Express 22(1), 608–617 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. S. Gross, N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and M. J. Withford, “Three-dimensional ultra-broadband integrated tapered mode multiplexers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), L81–L85 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. N. Riesen and J. D. Love, “Tapered velocity mode-selective couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(13), 2163–2169 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. J. Laegsgaard, O. Bang, and A. Bjarklev, “Photonic crystal fiber design for broadband directional coupling,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2473–2475 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. K. Saitoh, Y. Sato, and M. Koshiba, “Polarization splitter in three-core photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 12(17), 3940–3946 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. L. Zhang and C. Yang, “Polarization splitter based on photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 11(9), 1015–1020 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  23. Comsol Multiphysics, http://www.comsol.com
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. J. Laegsgaard, “Directional coupling in twin-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3281–3283 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. H. Arao, O. Shimakawa, M. Harumoto, T. Sano, and A. Inoue, “Compact multi-core fiber fan-in/out using GRIN lens and microlens array,” in Proc. OECC/ACOFT, p.42–43 (2014).
  27. Y. Sasaki, H. Uemura, K. Takenaga, S. Nishimoto, T. Uematsu, K. Omichi, R. Goto, S. Matsuo, and K. Saitoh, “Multicore fiber-based mode multiplexer/demultiplexer,” Proc. SPIE 9389, 938905 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  28. K. Watanabe, T. Saito, and M. Shiino, “Development of fiber bundle type fan-out for 19-core multicore fiber,” in Proc. OECC/ACOFT, p.44–45 (2014).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, “Form birefringence and negative index change created by femtosecond direct writing in transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 29(1), 119–121 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

Y. Sasaki, H. Uemura, K. Takenaga, S. Nishimoto, T. Uematsu, K. Omichi, R. Goto, S. Matsuo, and K. Saitoh, “Multicore fiber-based mode multiplexer/demultiplexer,” Proc. SPIE 9389, 938905 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

2013 (4)

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2005 (2)

2004 (3)

2003 (2)

2002 (2)

2000 (1)

B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and A. H. Greenaway, “Experimental study of dual-core photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 36(16), 1358–1359 (2000).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

Ams, M.

Argyros, A.

Arkwright, J. W.

N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-core spatial-mode multiplexers/demultiplexers based on evanescent coupling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1324–1327 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-mode elliptical-core fiber data transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(5), 344–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bang, O.

Bassi, P.

Bellanca, G.

Birks, T. A.

S. Yerolatsitis, I. Gris-Sánchez, and T. A. Birks, “Adiabatically-tapered fiber mode multiplexers,” Opt. Express 22(1), 608–617 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and A. H. Greenaway, “Experimental study of dual-core photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 36(16), 1358–1359 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bjarklev, A.

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

Bricchi, E.

Chang, S. H.

Chung, H. S.

Dadap, J. I.

Dong, X.

Driscoll, J. B.

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Eom, J. B.

Ercan, B.

Essiambre, R.

Fogli, F.

Fontaine, N. K.

Foschini, G. J.

Fuerbach, A.

Goebel, B.

Goto, R.

Y. Sasaki, H. Uemura, K. Takenaga, S. Nishimoto, T. Uematsu, K. Omichi, R. Goto, S. Matsuo, and K. Saitoh, “Multicore fiber-based mode multiplexer/demultiplexer,” Proc. SPIE 9389, 938905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Greenaway, A. H.

B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and A. H. Greenaway, “Experimental study of dual-core photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 36(16), 1358–1359 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gris-Sánchez, I.

Gross, S.

Grote, R. R.

Hanzawa, N.

Kai, G.

Kazansky, P. G.

Kim, B. Y.

Kim, J.

Kim, K.

Kim, Y. K.

Klappauf, B. G.

Knight, J. C.

B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and A. H. Greenaway, “Experimental study of dual-core photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 36(16), 1358–1359 (2000).
[Crossref]

Koshiba, M.

Kramer, G.

Kuan, K.

Laegsgaard, J.

Lancaster, D. G.

Lee, B. H.

Lee, J. C.

Lee, J. H.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Liu, J.

Liu, Y.

Love, J. D.

S. Gross, N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and M. J. Withford, “Three-dimensional ultra-broadband integrated tapered mode multiplexers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), L81–L85 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Riesen, S. Gross, J. D. Love, and M. J. Withford, “Femtosecond direct-written integrated mode couplers,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29855–29861 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Riesen and J. D. Love, “Tapered velocity mode-selective couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(13), 2163–2169 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-core spatial-mode multiplexers/demultiplexers based on evanescent coupling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1324–1327 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-mode elliptical-core fiber data transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(5), 344–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. D. Love and N. Riesen, “Mode-selective couplers for few-mode optical fiber networks,” Opt. Lett. 37(19), 3990–3992 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Love and N. Riesen, “Single-, few-, and multimode Y-junctions,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(3), 304–309 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lu, M.

Mangan, B. J.

B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and A. H. Greenaway, “Experimental study of dual-core photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 36(16), 1358–1359 (2000).
[Crossref]

Matsui, T.

Matsuo, S.

Y. Sasaki, H. Uemura, K. Takenaga, S. Nishimoto, T. Uematsu, K. Omichi, R. Goto, S. Matsuo, and K. Saitoh, “Multicore fiber-based mode multiplexer/demultiplexer,” Proc. SPIE 9389, 938905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Monro, T. M.

Moon, D. S.

Nishimoto, S.

Y. Sasaki, H. Uemura, K. Takenaga, S. Nishimoto, T. Uematsu, K. Omichi, R. Goto, S. Matsuo, and K. Saitoh, “Multicore fiber-based mode multiplexer/demultiplexer,” Proc. SPIE 9389, 938905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Omichi, K.

Y. Sasaki, H. Uemura, K. Takenaga, S. Nishimoto, T. Uematsu, K. Omichi, R. Goto, S. Matsuo, and K. Saitoh, “Multicore fiber-based mode multiplexer/demultiplexer,” Proc. SPIE 9389, 938905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Osgood, R. M.

Paek, U.-C.

Park, K. J.

Riesen, N.

N. Riesen, S. Gross, J. D. Love, and M. J. Withford, “Femtosecond direct-written integrated mode couplers,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29855–29861 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gross, N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and M. J. Withford, “Three-dimensional ultra-broadband integrated tapered mode multiplexers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), L81–L85 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-core spatial-mode multiplexers/demultiplexers based on evanescent coupling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1324–1327 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Riesen and J. D. Love, “Tapered velocity mode-selective couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(13), 2163–2169 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. D. Love and N. Riesen, “Single-, few-, and multimode Y-junctions,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(3), 304–309 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. D. Love and N. Riesen, “Mode-selective couplers for few-mode optical fiber networks,” Opt. Lett. 37(19), 3990–3992 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-mode elliptical-core fiber data transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(5), 344–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

Russell, P. St. J.

B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and A. H. Greenaway, “Experimental study of dual-core photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 36(16), 1358–1359 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ryf, R.

Saccomandi, L.

Saitoh, K.

Sakamoto, T.

Salazar-Gil, J. R.

Sasaki, Y.

Y. Sasaki, H. Uemura, K. Takenaga, S. Nishimoto, T. Uematsu, K. Omichi, R. Goto, S. Matsuo, and K. Saitoh, “Multicore fiber-based mode multiplexer/demultiplexer,” Proc. SPIE 9389, 938905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sato, Y.

Shaw, H. J.

Sorin, W. V.

Souhan, B.

Sun, T.

Takenaga, K.

Y. Sasaki, H. Uemura, K. Takenaga, S. Nishimoto, T. Uematsu, K. Omichi, R. Goto, S. Matsuo, and K. Saitoh, “Multicore fiber-based mode multiplexer/demultiplexer,” Proc. SPIE 9389, 938905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Trillo, S.

Tsujikawa, K.

Uematsu, T.

Y. Sasaki, H. Uemura, K. Takenaga, S. Nishimoto, T. Uematsu, K. Omichi, R. Goto, S. Matsuo, and K. Saitoh, “Multicore fiber-based mode multiplexer/demultiplexer,” Proc. SPIE 9389, 938905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Uemura, H.

Y. Sasaki, H. Uemura, K. Takenaga, S. Nishimoto, T. Uematsu, K. Omichi, R. Goto, S. Matsuo, and K. Saitoh, “Multicore fiber-based mode multiplexer/demultiplexer,” Proc. SPIE 9389, 938905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

Wang, Z.

Winzer, P. J.

Withford, M. J.

Yamamoto, F.

Yang, C.

Yang, G. H.

Yerolatsitis, S.

Yuan, S.

Zhang, C.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, W.

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and A. H. Greenaway, “Experimental study of dual-core photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 36(16), 1358–1359 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-mode elliptical-core fiber data transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(5), 344–346 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-core spatial-mode multiplexers/demultiplexers based on evanescent coupling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1324–1327 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

S. Gross, N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and M. J. Withford, “Three-dimensional ultra-broadband integrated tapered mode multiplexers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), L81–L85 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (9)

F. Fogli, L. Saccomandi, P. Bassi, G. Bellanca, and S. Trillo, “Full vectorial BPM modeling of index-guiding photonic crystal fibers and couplers,” Opt. Express 10(1), 54–59 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Riesen, S. Gross, J. D. Love, and M. J. Withford, “Femtosecond direct-written integrated mode couplers,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29855–29861 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Chang, H. S. Chung, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, K. J. Park, K. Kim, J. C. Lee, J. H. Lee, B. Y. Kim, and Y. K. Kim, “Mode division multiplexed optical transmission enabled by all-fiber mode multiplexer,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14229–14236 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Hanzawa, K. Saitoh, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, K. Tsujikawa, M. Koshiba, and F. Yamamoto, “Two-mode PLC-based mode multi/demultiplexer for mode and wavelength division multiplexed transmission,” Opt. Express 21(22), 25752–25760 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, J. R. Salazar-Gil, B. Ercan, R. Ryf, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1036–1044 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yerolatsitis, I. Gris-Sánchez, and T. A. Birks, “Adiabatically-tapered fiber mode multiplexers,” Opt. Express 22(1), 608–617 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Saitoh, Y. Sato, and M. Koshiba, “Coupling characteristics of dual-core photonic crystal fiber couplers,” Opt. Express 11(24), 3188–3195 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Saitoh, Y. Sato, and M. Koshiba, “Polarization splitter in three-core photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 12(17), 3940–3946 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang and C. Yang, “Polarization splitter based on photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 11(9), 1015–1020 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (9)

B. H. Lee, J. B. Eom, J. Kim, D. S. Moon, U.-C. Paek, and G. H. Yang, “Photonic crystal fiber coupler,” Opt. Lett. 27(10), 812–814 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Laegsgaard, O. Bang, and A. Bjarklev, “Photonic crystal fiber design for broadband directional coupling,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2473–2475 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, G. Kai, Y. Liu, J. Liu, C. Zhang, T. Sun, C. Wang, W. Zhang, S. Yuan, and X. Dong, “Coupling and decoupling of dual-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2542–2544 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Love and N. Riesen, “Mode-selective couplers for few-mode optical fiber networks,” Opt. Lett. 37(19), 3990–3992 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Driscoll, R. R. Grote, B. Souhan, J. I. Dadap, M. Lu, and R. M. Osgood., “Asymmetric Y junctions in silicon waveguides for on-chip mode-division multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1854–1856 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. V. Sorin, B. Y. Kim, and H. J. Shaw, “Highly selective evanescent modal filter for two-mode optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 11(9), 581–583 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Laegsgaard, “Directional coupling in twin-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3281–3283 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, T. M. Monro, M. Ams, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm³⁺:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1587–1589 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, “Form birefringence and negative index change created by femtosecond direct writing in transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 29(1), 119–121 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

Y. Sasaki, H. Uemura, K. Takenaga, S. Nishimoto, T. Uematsu, K. Omichi, R. Goto, S. Matsuo, and K. Saitoh, “Multicore fiber-based mode multiplexer/demultiplexer,” Proc. SPIE 9389, 938905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

K. Watanabe, T. Saito, and M. Shiino, “Development of fiber bundle type fan-out for 19-core multicore fiber,” in Proc. OECC/ACOFT, p.44–45 (2014).

H. Arao, O. Shimakawa, M. Harumoto, T. Sano, and A. Inoue, “Compact multi-core fiber fan-in/out using GRIN lens and microlens array,” in Proc. OECC/ACOFT, p.42–43 (2014).

Comsol Multiphysics, http://www.comsol.com

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Geometry of the large fiber core. Field patterns of the (b) Ex/Ey components of the LP11a mode and (c) Ex/Ey components of the LP11b mode.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Geometry of the dual-core coupler. (b)-(c) Distribution of the Ex/Ey field components of the two supermodes with PMCS/PECS along the horizontal x axis.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 FEM-calculated coupling length as a function of Coupling Hole Size Factor (CHSF) for a Structure Scale Factor, SSF = 1.0 (red), 0.85 (blue), 0.75 (green), 0.7 (black). Solid and dashed lines refer to Ex and Ey polarizations, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Values of supermode effective indices neff as a function of the Coupling Hole Size Factor (CHSF) for Structure Scale Factor, SSF = 0.85. Blue and red lines refer to Ex and Ey, respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Plot of the power in each fiber core for different excitations of the large core. Launching the two polarizations (Ex, Ey) of the LP01 mode (inset i) or those of the LP11b mode (inset ii) one gets nearly identical (i.e. superimposed) curves. In particular, the green and magenta curves (a,b) refer to the excitation of the LP11b mode polarizations. The blue and red curves (c) refer to the excitation of the two polarizations of the LP11a mode (inset iii). Solid lines refer to power evaluated in the larger fiber core, whereas dashed lines refer to power in the smaller core.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Field intensities calculated at Z = 0, Lc/2, and Lc when the Ex polarization of the LP11a mode of the large fiber core is launched.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Plot of the power in each fiber core for different excitations of the large core. Settings are identical to those of Fig. 5 except that CHSF = 0.4. As before, the blue and red curves refer to the power evolutions in the two cores when the two polarizations of the LP11a mode are launched. Dashed lines refer to power evaluated in the larger fiber core, whereas solid lines refer to power in the smaller core.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Wavelength-dependence of coupling from the LP01 mode excited in the small fiber core to the LP11a mode of the large core of the holey fiber coupler. Also shown is the spectral response of an analogous step-index fiber mode coupler. Results obtained using numerical BPM simulations.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) BPM-calculated intensity pattern for the 3 dB coupling cross section. Coupler output measured in the near-field after launching into the small core using a supercontinuum source for an approximately 600-700 nm bandwidth without (b) and with (c) a 10 nm bandpass filter centered at 600 nm.

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