Abstract

Single-mode distributed feedback laser structures and parity-time symmetry broken grating structures based on dielectric-loaded long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides are proposed. The structures comprise a thin Ag stripe on an active polymer bottom cladding with an active polymer ridge. The active polymer assumed is PMMA doped with IR140 dye providing optical gain at near infrared wavelengths. Cutoff top ridge dimensions (thickness and width) are calculated using a finite element method and selected to guarantee single-mode operation of the laser. Several parameters such as the threshold number of periods and the lasing wavelength are determined using the transfer matrix method. A related structure based on two pairs of waveguides of two widths, which have the same imaginary part but different real part of effective index, arranged within one grating period, is proposed as an active grating operating at the threshold for parity-time symmetry breaking (i.e., operating at an exceptional point). Such “exceptional point” gratings produce ideal reflectance asymmetry as demonstrated via transfer matrix computations.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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2014 (6)

J. S. Fakonas, H. Lee, Y. A. Kelaita, and H. A. Atwater, “Two-plasmon quantum interference,” Nat. Photonics 8(4), 317–320 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. K. Keshmarzi, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Spatially nonreciprocal Bragg gratings based on surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(19), 191110 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, S. Rotter, H. Yilmaz, M. Liertzer, F. Monifi, C. M. Bender, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Loss-induced suppression and revival of lasing,” Science 346(6207), 328–332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Peng, S. K. Ozdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity–time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10(5), 394–398 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Ghamsari, A. Olivieri, F. Variola, and P. Berini, “Enhanced Raman scattering in graphene by plasmonic resonant Stokes emission,” Nanophotonics 3(6), 363–371 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. K. Keshmarzi, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Near infrared amplified spontaneous emission in a dye-doped polymeric waveguide for active plasmonic applications,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12452–12460 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

O. Krupin, H. Asiri, C. Wang, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Biosensing using straight long-range surface plasmon waveguides,” Opt. Express 21(1), 698–709 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kulishov, B. Kress, and R. Slavík, “Resonant cavities based on parity-time-symmetric diffractive gratings,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9473–9483 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Feng, Y.-L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M.-H. Lu, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y.-F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 12(2), 108–113 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Tame, K. R. McEnery, Ş. K. Özdemir, J. Lee, S. A. Maier, and M. S. Kim, “Quantum plasmonics,” Nat. Phys. 9(6), 329–340 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

E. K. Keshmarzi, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon single-mode laser concepts,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(6), 063115 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. V. Konotop, V. S. Shchesnovich, and D. A. Zezyulin, “Giant amplification of modes in parity-time symmetric waveguides,” Phys. Lett. A 376(42-43), 2750–2753 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488(7410), 167–171 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (5)

T. Holmgaard, J. Gosciniak, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23009–23015 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Joo, S. H. Song, and R. Magnusson, “Demonstration of long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide sensors with asymmetric double-electrode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201105 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 382–387 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Longhi, “PT-symmetric laser absorber,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 031801 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of PT-symmetry breaking in complex optical potentials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(9), 093902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1, 484–588 (2009).

M. Mansuripur, A. R. Zakharian, A. Lesuffleur, S.-H. Oh, R. J. Jones, N. C. Lindquist, H. Im, A. Kobyakov, and J. V. Moloney, “Plasmonic nano-structures for optical data storage,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14001–14014 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

M. Kulishov, J. Laniel, N. Bélanger, J. Azaña, and D. Plant, “Nonreciprocal waveguide Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 13(8), 3068–3078 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Jetté-Charbonneau, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. A. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Bragg gratings based on long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguides : comparison of theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(12), 1480–1491 (2005).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61(15), 10484–10503 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

C. M. Bender and S. Boettcher, “Real spectra in non-hermitian hamiltonians having PT symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(24), 5243–5246 (1998).
[Crossref]

Aimez, V.

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of PT-symmetry breaking in complex optical potentials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(9), 093902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Almeida, V. R.

L. Feng, Y.-L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M.-H. Lu, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y.-F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 12(2), 108–113 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asiri, H.

Atwater, H. A.

J. S. Fakonas, H. Lee, Y. A. Kelaita, and H. A. Atwater, “Two-plasmon quantum interference,” Nat. Photonics 8(4), 317–320 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azaña, J.

Barbillon, G.

Bélanger, N.

Bender, C. M.

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, S. Rotter, H. Yilmaz, M. Liertzer, F. Monifi, C. M. Bender, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Loss-induced suppression and revival of lasing,” Science 346(6207), 328–332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Peng, S. K. Ozdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity–time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10(5), 394–398 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. M. Bender and S. Boettcher, “Real spectra in non-hermitian hamiltonians having PT symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(24), 5243–5246 (1998).
[Crossref]

Benisty, H.

Berini, P.

E. K. Keshmarzi, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Near infrared amplified spontaneous emission in a dye-doped polymeric waveguide for active plasmonic applications,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12452–12460 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Ghamsari, A. Olivieri, F. Variola, and P. Berini, “Enhanced Raman scattering in graphene by plasmonic resonant Stokes emission,” Nanophotonics 3(6), 363–371 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. K. Keshmarzi, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Spatially nonreciprocal Bragg gratings based on surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(19), 191110 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Krupin, H. Asiri, C. Wang, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Biosensing using straight long-range surface plasmon waveguides,” Opt. Express 21(1), 698–709 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. K. Keshmarzi, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon single-mode laser concepts,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(6), 063115 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Berini and I. De Leon, “Surface plasmon–polariton amplifiers and lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(1), 16–24 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 382–387 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1, 484–588 (2009).

S. Jetté-Charbonneau, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. A. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Bragg gratings based on long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguides : comparison of theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(12), 1480–1491 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61(15), 10484–10503 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bersch, C.

A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488(7410), 167–171 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Besbes, M.

Blaize, S.

Boettcher, S.

C. M. Bender and S. Boettcher, “Real spectra in non-hermitian hamiltonians having PT symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(24), 5243–5246 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Bruyant, A.

Charbonneau, R.

S. Jetté-Charbonneau, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. A. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Bragg gratings based on long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguides : comparison of theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(12), 1480–1491 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-F.

L. Feng, Y.-L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M.-H. Lu, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y.-F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 12(2), 108–113 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chénais, S.

Christodoulides, D. N.

A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488(7410), 167–171 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of PT-symmetry breaking in complex optical potentials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(9), 093902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Leon, I.

P. Berini and I. De Leon, “Surface plasmon–polariton amplifiers and lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(1), 16–24 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 382–387 (2010).
[Crossref]

De Lustrac, A.

Degiron, A.

Duchesne, D.

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of PT-symmetry breaking in complex optical potentials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(9), 093902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fakonas, J. S.

J. S. Fakonas, H. Lee, Y. A. Kelaita, and H. A. Atwater, “Two-plasmon quantum interference,” Nat. Photonics 8(4), 317–320 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

B. Peng, S. K. Ozdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity–time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10(5), 394–398 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fegadolli, W. S.

L. Feng, Y.-L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M.-H. Lu, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y.-F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 12(2), 108–113 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, L.

L. Feng, Y.-L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M.-H. Lu, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y.-F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 12(2), 108–113 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forget, S.

García-Blanco, S. M.

Ghamsari, B.

B. Ghamsari, A. Olivieri, F. Variola, and P. Berini, “Enhanced Raman scattering in graphene by plasmonic resonant Stokes emission,” Nanophotonics 3(6), 363–371 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gianfreda, M.

B. Peng, S. K. Ozdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity–time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10(5), 394–398 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gosciniak, J.

Guo, A.

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of PT-symmetry breaking in complex optical potentials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(9), 093902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holmgaard, T.

Im, H.

Jetté-Charbonneau, S.

S. Jetté-Charbonneau, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. A. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Bragg gratings based on long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguides : comparison of theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(12), 1480–1491 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jones, R. J.

Joo, Y. H.

Y. H. Joo, S. H. Song, and R. Magnusson, “Demonstration of long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide sensors with asymmetric double-electrode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kelaita, Y. A.

J. S. Fakonas, H. Lee, Y. A. Kelaita, and H. A. Atwater, “Two-plasmon quantum interference,” Nat. Photonics 8(4), 317–320 (2014).
[Crossref]

Keshmarzi, E. K.

E. K. Keshmarzi, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Spatially nonreciprocal Bragg gratings based on surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(19), 191110 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. K. Keshmarzi, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Near infrared amplified spontaneous emission in a dye-doped polymeric waveguide for active plasmonic applications,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12452–12460 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. K. Keshmarzi, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon single-mode laser concepts,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(6), 063115 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. S.

M. S. Tame, K. R. McEnery, Ş. K. Özdemir, J. Lee, S. A. Maier, and M. S. Kim, “Quantum plasmonics,” Nat. Phys. 9(6), 329–340 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kobyakov, A.

Konotop, V. V.

V. V. Konotop, V. S. Shchesnovich, and D. A. Zezyulin, “Giant amplification of modes in parity-time symmetric waveguides,” Phys. Lett. A 376(42-43), 2750–2753 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kress, B.

Krupin, O.

Kulishov, M.

Lahoud, N.

S. Jetté-Charbonneau, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. A. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Bragg gratings based on long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguides : comparison of theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(12), 1480–1491 (2005).
[Crossref]

Laniel, J.

Lee, H.

J. S. Fakonas, H. Lee, Y. A. Kelaita, and H. A. Atwater, “Two-plasmon quantum interference,” Nat. Photonics 8(4), 317–320 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

M. S. Tame, K. R. McEnery, Ş. K. Özdemir, J. Lee, S. A. Maier, and M. S. Kim, “Quantum plasmonics,” Nat. Phys. 9(6), 329–340 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lei, F.

B. Peng, S. K. Ozdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity–time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10(5), 394–398 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lérondel, G.

Lesuffleur, A.

Liertzer, M.

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, S. Rotter, H. Yilmaz, M. Liertzer, F. Monifi, C. M. Bender, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Loss-induced suppression and revival of lasing,” Science 346(6207), 328–332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lindquist, N. C.

Long, G. L.

B. Peng, S. K. Ozdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity–time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10(5), 394–398 (2014).
[Crossref]

Longhi, S.

S. Longhi, “PT-symmetric laser absorber,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 031801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lu, M.-H.

L. Feng, Y.-L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M.-H. Lu, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y.-F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 12(2), 108–113 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lupu, A.

Magnusson, R.

Y. H. Joo, S. H. Song, and R. Magnusson, “Demonstration of long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide sensors with asymmetric double-electrode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Maier, S. A.

M. S. Tame, K. R. McEnery, Ş. K. Özdemir, J. Lee, S. A. Maier, and M. S. Kim, “Quantum plasmonics,” Nat. Phys. 9(6), 329–340 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mansuripur, M.

Mattiussi, G. A.

S. Jetté-Charbonneau, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. A. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Bragg gratings based on long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguides : comparison of theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(12), 1480–1491 (2005).
[Crossref]

McEnery, K. R.

M. S. Tame, K. R. McEnery, Ş. K. Özdemir, J. Lee, S. A. Maier, and M. S. Kim, “Quantum plasmonics,” Nat. Phys. 9(6), 329–340 (2013).
[Crossref]

Miri, M.-A.

A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488(7410), 167–171 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moloney, J. V.

Monifi, F.

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, S. Rotter, H. Yilmaz, M. Liertzer, F. Monifi, C. M. Bender, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Loss-induced suppression and revival of lasing,” Science 346(6207), 328–332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Peng, S. K. Ozdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity–time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10(5), 394–398 (2014).
[Crossref]

Morandotti, R.

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of PT-symmetry breaking in complex optical potentials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(9), 093902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nori, F.

B. Peng, S. K. Ozdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity–time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10(5), 394–398 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, S. Rotter, H. Yilmaz, M. Liertzer, F. Monifi, C. M. Bender, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Loss-induced suppression and revival of lasing,” Science 346(6207), 328–332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, S.-H.

Oliveira, J. E. B.

L. Feng, Y.-L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M.-H. Lu, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y.-F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 12(2), 108–113 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olivieri, A.

B. Ghamsari, A. Olivieri, F. Variola, and P. Berini, “Enhanced Raman scattering in graphene by plasmonic resonant Stokes emission,” Nanophotonics 3(6), 363–371 (2014).
[Crossref]

Onishchukov, G.

A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488(7410), 167–171 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ozdemir, S. K.

B. Peng, S. K. Ozdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity–time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10(5), 394–398 (2014).
[Crossref]

Özdemir, S. K.

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, S. Rotter, H. Yilmaz, M. Liertzer, F. Monifi, C. M. Bender, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Loss-induced suppression and revival of lasing,” Science 346(6207), 328–332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Tame, K. R. McEnery, Ş. K. Özdemir, J. Lee, S. A. Maier, and M. S. Kim, “Quantum plasmonics,” Nat. Phys. 9(6), 329–340 (2013).
[Crossref]

Peng, B.

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, S. Rotter, H. Yilmaz, M. Liertzer, F. Monifi, C. M. Bender, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Loss-induced suppression and revival of lasing,” Science 346(6207), 328–332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Peng, S. K. Ozdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity–time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10(5), 394–398 (2014).
[Crossref]

Peschel, U.

A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488(7410), 167–171 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plant, D.

Pollnau, M.

Polman, A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Regensburger, A.

A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488(7410), 167–171 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rotter, S.

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, S. Rotter, H. Yilmaz, M. Liertzer, F. Monifi, C. M. Bender, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Loss-induced suppression and revival of lasing,” Science 346(6207), 328–332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salamo, G. J.

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of PT-symmetry breaking in complex optical potentials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(9), 093902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scherer, A.

L. Feng, Y.-L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M.-H. Lu, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y.-F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 12(2), 108–113 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shchesnovich, V. S.

V. V. Konotop, V. S. Shchesnovich, and D. A. Zezyulin, “Giant amplification of modes in parity-time symmetric waveguides,” Phys. Lett. A 376(42-43), 2750–2753 (2012).
[Crossref]

Siviloglou, G. A.

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of PT-symmetry breaking in complex optical potentials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(9), 093902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Slavík, R.

Song, S. H.

Y. H. Joo, S. H. Song, and R. Magnusson, “Demonstration of long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide sensors with asymmetric double-electrode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tait, R. N.

E. K. Keshmarzi, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Spatially nonreciprocal Bragg gratings based on surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(19), 191110 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. K. Keshmarzi, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Near infrared amplified spontaneous emission in a dye-doped polymeric waveguide for active plasmonic applications,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12452–12460 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Krupin, H. Asiri, C. Wang, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Biosensing using straight long-range surface plasmon waveguides,” Opt. Express 21(1), 698–709 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. K. Keshmarzi, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon single-mode laser concepts,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(6), 063115 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tame, M. S.

M. S. Tame, K. R. McEnery, Ş. K. Özdemir, J. Lee, S. A. Maier, and M. S. Kim, “Quantum plasmonics,” Nat. Phys. 9(6), 329–340 (2013).
[Crossref]

Variola, F.

B. Ghamsari, A. Olivieri, F. Variola, and P. Berini, “Enhanced Raman scattering in graphene by plasmonic resonant Stokes emission,” Nanophotonics 3(6), 363–371 (2014).
[Crossref]

Volatier-Ravat, M.

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of PT-symmetry breaking in complex optical potentials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(9), 093902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

Xu, Y.-L.

L. Feng, Y.-L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M.-H. Lu, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y.-F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 12(2), 108–113 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

B. Peng, S. K. Ozdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity–time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10(5), 394–398 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, S. Rotter, H. Yilmaz, M. Liertzer, F. Monifi, C. M. Bender, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Loss-induced suppression and revival of lasing,” Science 346(6207), 328–332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yilmaz, H.

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, S. Rotter, H. Yilmaz, M. Liertzer, F. Monifi, C. M. Bender, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Loss-induced suppression and revival of lasing,” Science 346(6207), 328–332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zakharian, A. R.

Zezyulin, D. A.

V. V. Konotop, V. S. Shchesnovich, and D. A. Zezyulin, “Giant amplification of modes in parity-time symmetric waveguides,” Phys. Lett. A 376(42-43), 2750–2753 (2012).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1, 484–588 (2009).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. H. Joo, S. H. Song, and R. Magnusson, “Demonstration of long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide sensors with asymmetric double-electrode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201105 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. K. Keshmarzi, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Spatially nonreciprocal Bragg gratings based on surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(19), 191110 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Jetté-Charbonneau, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. A. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Bragg gratings based on long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguides : comparison of theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(12), 1480–1491 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

E. K. Keshmarzi, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon single-mode laser concepts,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(6), 063115 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nanophotonics (1)

B. Ghamsari, A. Olivieri, F. Variola, and P. Berini, “Enhanced Raman scattering in graphene by plasmonic resonant Stokes emission,” Nanophotonics 3(6), 363–371 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (2)

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Feng, Y.-L. Xu, W. S. Fegadolli, M.-H. Lu, J. E. B. Oliveira, V. R. Almeida, Y.-F. Chen, and A. Scherer, “Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional reflectionless parity-time metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 12(2), 108–113 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

I. De Leon and P. Berini, “Amplification of long-range surface plasmons by a dipolar gain medium,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 382–387 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. S. Fakonas, H. Lee, Y. A. Kelaita, and H. A. Atwater, “Two-plasmon quantum interference,” Nat. Photonics 8(4), 317–320 (2014).
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P. Berini and I. De Leon, “Surface plasmon–polariton amplifiers and lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(1), 16–24 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (2)

M. S. Tame, K. R. McEnery, Ş. K. Özdemir, J. Lee, S. A. Maier, and M. S. Kim, “Quantum plasmonics,” Nat. Phys. 9(6), 329–340 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Peng, S. K. Ozdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity–time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10(5), 394–398 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M.-A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, “Parity-time synthetic photonic lattices,” Nature 488(7410), 167–171 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

M. Kulishov, J. Laniel, N. Bélanger, J. Azaña, and D. Plant, “Nonreciprocal waveguide Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 13(8), 3068–3078 (2005).
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M. Mansuripur, A. R. Zakharian, A. Lesuffleur, S.-H. Oh, R. J. Jones, N. C. Lindquist, H. Im, A. Kobyakov, and J. V. Moloney, “Plasmonic nano-structures for optical data storage,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14001–14014 (2009).
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T. Holmgaard, J. Gosciniak, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23009–23015 (2010).
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H. Benisty, A. Degiron, A. Lupu, A. De Lustrac, S. Chénais, S. Forget, M. Besbes, G. Barbillon, A. Bruyant, S. Blaize, and G. Lérondel, “Implementation of PT symmetric devices using plasmonics: principle and applications,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18004–18019 (2011).
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S. M. García-Blanco, M. Pollnau, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Loss compensation in long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25298–25311 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Krupin, H. Asiri, C. Wang, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Biosensing using straight long-range surface plasmon waveguides,” Opt. Express 21(1), 698–709 (2013).
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M. Kulishov, B. Kress, and R. Slavík, “Resonant cavities based on parity-time-symmetric diffractive gratings,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9473–9483 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. K. Keshmarzi, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Near infrared amplified spontaneous emission in a dye-doped polymeric waveguide for active plasmonic applications,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12452–12460 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Lett. A (1)

V. V. Konotop, V. S. Shchesnovich, and D. A. Zezyulin, “Giant amplification of modes in parity-time symmetric waveguides,” Phys. Lett. A 376(42-43), 2750–2753 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S. Longhi, “PT-symmetric laser absorber,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 031801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61(15), 10484–10503 (2000).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

C. M. Bender and S. Boettcher, “Real spectra in non-hermitian hamiltonians having PT symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(24), 5243–5246 (1998).
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A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of PT-symmetry breaking in complex optical potentials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(9), 093902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

B. Peng, S. K. Özdemir, S. Rotter, H. Yilmaz, M. Liertzer, F. Monifi, C. M. Bender, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “Loss-induced suppression and revival of lasing,” Science 346(6207), 328–332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, 1988).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) 3D view of a DFB laser structure. (b) Cross sectional view of the DL-LRSPP waveguide. (c) Top view of a DFB laser structure. (d) 3D view and (e) top view of a PTS grating structure.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Effective index as function of the ridge width of the DL-LRSPP waveguide for a 25 nm thick Ag stripe and a 950 nm thick ridge. Red curves represent effective indices for ssb 0 mode and black curves are for asb 2 mode. The solid curves are for the passive case and the dashed curves for the active case (67 cm−1 of material gain for IR140-doped PMMA). (b) TE mode cutoff thickness of top ridge. (c) Mode profiles for widths having a low propagation loss.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Effective index as function of width of the ssb 0 mode and several asymmetric modes in a DL-LRSPP waveguide with a 30 nm thick Ag stripe. Vertical red dashed lines indicate cutoff widths for each mode and the figures in inset show the mode profile of each mode. (b-d) Expanded plots for the range marked with black dashed circles in Fig. 3(a). The insets of (b-d) are mode profiles for the widths marked with a black dot.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Real and imaginary part of effective index near the nR crossing region of the ssb 0 and sab 3 modes. Vertical red dashed lines indicate four widths selected for a PTS grating. (b) Schematic of the real and imaginary index distribution within one period. (c) Index difference as a function of Ag thickness.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Reflectance from the left side Rl and the right side Rr of a passive PTS grating operating at the exceptional point. (b) Reflectance at 880 nm from the left and right sides as a function of material gain. (c) Direct and contrast ratio computed from the passive reflectances. (d) Left and right passive reflectances at 880 nm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Threshold number of pitches and lasing wavelength of DFB laser designs.

Equations (1)

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Re { n 1 } = Re { n 3 } Re { n 2 } = Re { n 4 } , Im { n 1 } = Im { n 4 } Im { n 2 } = Im { n 3 } .

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