Abstract

heat-stop is one of the essential thermal control devices of solar telescope. The internal seeing induced by its temperature rise will degrade the imaging quality significantly. For quantitative evaluation on internal seeing, an integrated analysis method based on computational fluid dynamics and geometric optics is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the temperature field of the heat-affected zone induced by heat-stop temperature rise is obtained by the method of computational fluid dynamics calculation. Secondly, the temperature field is transformed to refractive index field by corresponding equations. Thirdly, the wavefront aberration induced by internal seeing is calculated by geometric optics based on optical integration in the refractive index field. This integrated method is applied in the heat-stop of the Chinese Large Solar Telescope to quantitatively evaluate its internal seeing. The analytical results show that the maximum acceptable temperature rise of heat-stop is up to 5 Kelvins above the ambient air at any telescope pointing directions under the condition that the root-mean-square of wavefront aberration induced by internal seeing is less than 25nm. Furthermore, it is found that the magnitude of wavefront aberration gradually increases with the increase of heat-stop temperature rise for a certain telescope pointing direction. Meanwhile, with the variation of telescope pointing varying from the horizontal to the vertical direction, the magnitude of wavefront aberration decreases at first and then increases for the same heat-stop temperature rise.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (2)

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, J. Huang, C. Li, T. Cheng, Y. Liu, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-m solar telescope in China: Chinese Large Solar Telescope,” J. Astronom. Teles., Instrum., Syst. 1(2), 024001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, N. Gu, C. Rao, and C. Li, “A heat-stop structure design with high cooling efficiency for large aperture size ground based solar telescope,” Appl. Opt. 54(21), 1–7 (2015).

2014 (1)

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, Y. Liu, J. Huang, C. Li, Y. Cheng, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-M solar telescope in China: the CLST,” Proc. SPIE 9145, 914525 (2014).

2012 (1)

2010 (1)

F. Berrilli, A. Egidi, D. Del Moro, F. Manni, M. Cocciolo, A. Scotto, R. Volkmer, F. C. M. Bettonvil, M. Collados Vera, L. Cavaller Marquez, and J. Sanchez Capuchino, “The heat stop for the 4-m European Solar Telescope EST,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77332Z (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. Wagnera, T. R. Rimmeleb, S. Keil, R. Hubbard, E. Hansen, L. Phelps, M. Warner, B. Goodrich, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, R. Knealea, and J. Ditsler, “Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: A progress report,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120I (2008).

2003 (2)

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, D. Soltau, P. Emde, M. Krodel, N. Pailer, and E. Wiehr, “Optical and thermal design of the main optic of the solar telescope GREGOR,” Proc. SPIE 5179, 270–281 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, F. Kneer, J. Staude, A. Hofmann, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, E. Wiehr, A. Wittmann, and T. Berkefeld, “GREGOR: the new 1.5 m solar telescope on Tenerife,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 360–369 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. B. Zhong, W. S. Yan, N. H. Ben, and L. S. Hao, “Zernike polynomial fitting method and its application,” Opt. Precision Eng. 10(3), 319–320 (2002).

2001 (1)

O. V. D. L. Uhe, W. Schmidt, D. Soltau, T. Berkefeld, F. Kneer, and J. Staude, “GREGOR: a 1.5 m telescope for solar research,” Astronom. Notes 322, 353–360 (2001).

1997 (1)

L. Zago, “An engineering handbook for local and dome seeing,” Proc. SPIE 2871, 726–736 (1997).
[Crossref]

1982 (2)

N. J. Woolf, “Seeing and the design and location of a 15 meter telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 332, 193–197 (1982).
[Crossref]

N. J. Woolf, “High resolution imaging from the ground,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 20(1), 367–398 (1982).
[Crossref]

Bao, H.

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, J. Huang, C. Li, T. Cheng, Y. Liu, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-m solar telescope in China: Chinese Large Solar Telescope,” J. Astronom. Teles., Instrum., Syst. 1(2), 024001 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, Y. Liu, J. Huang, C. Li, Y. Cheng, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-M solar telescope in China: the CLST,” Proc. SPIE 9145, 914525 (2014).

Ben, N. H.

S. B. Zhong, W. S. Yan, N. H. Ben, and L. S. Hao, “Zernike polynomial fitting method and its application,” Opt. Precision Eng. 10(3), 319–320 (2002).

Berkefeld, T.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, F. Kneer, J. Staude, A. Hofmann, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, E. Wiehr, A. Wittmann, and T. Berkefeld, “GREGOR: the new 1.5 m solar telescope on Tenerife,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 360–369 (2003).
[Crossref]

O. V. D. L. Uhe, W. Schmidt, D. Soltau, T. Berkefeld, F. Kneer, and J. Staude, “GREGOR: a 1.5 m telescope for solar research,” Astronom. Notes 322, 353–360 (2001).

Berrilli, F.

F. Berrilli, A. Egidi, D. Del Moro, F. Manni, M. Cocciolo, A. Scotto, R. Volkmer, F. C. M. Bettonvil, M. Collados Vera, L. Cavaller Marquez, and J. Sanchez Capuchino, “The heat stop for the 4-m European Solar Telescope EST,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77332Z (2010).
[Crossref]

Bettonvil, F. C. M.

F. Berrilli, A. Egidi, D. Del Moro, F. Manni, M. Cocciolo, A. Scotto, R. Volkmer, F. C. M. Bettonvil, M. Collados Vera, L. Cavaller Marquez, and J. Sanchez Capuchino, “The heat stop for the 4-m European Solar Telescope EST,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77332Z (2010).
[Crossref]

Cao, X.

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, J. Huang, C. Li, T. Cheng, Y. Liu, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-m solar telescope in China: Chinese Large Solar Telescope,” J. Astronom. Teles., Instrum., Syst. 1(2), 024001 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, Y. Liu, J. Huang, C. Li, Y. Cheng, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-M solar telescope in China: the CLST,” Proc. SPIE 9145, 914525 (2014).

Cavaller Marquez, L.

F. Berrilli, A. Egidi, D. Del Moro, F. Manni, M. Cocciolo, A. Scotto, R. Volkmer, F. C. M. Bettonvil, M. Collados Vera, L. Cavaller Marquez, and J. Sanchez Capuchino, “The heat stop for the 4-m European Solar Telescope EST,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77332Z (2010).
[Crossref]

Cen, Y.

Chen, D.

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, J. Huang, C. Li, T. Cheng, Y. Liu, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-m solar telescope in China: Chinese Large Solar Telescope,” J. Astronom. Teles., Instrum., Syst. 1(2), 024001 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, Y. Liu, J. Huang, C. Li, Y. Cheng, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-M solar telescope in China: the CLST,” Proc. SPIE 9145, 914525 (2014).

Cheng, T.

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, J. Huang, C. Li, T. Cheng, Y. Liu, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-m solar telescope in China: Chinese Large Solar Telescope,” J. Astronom. Teles., Instrum., Syst. 1(2), 024001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, Y. Liu, J. Huang, C. Li, Y. Cheng, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-M solar telescope in China: the CLST,” Proc. SPIE 9145, 914525 (2014).

Cocciolo, M.

F. Berrilli, A. Egidi, D. Del Moro, F. Manni, M. Cocciolo, A. Scotto, R. Volkmer, F. C. M. Bettonvil, M. Collados Vera, L. Cavaller Marquez, and J. Sanchez Capuchino, “The heat stop for the 4-m European Solar Telescope EST,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77332Z (2010).
[Crossref]

Collados Vera, M.

F. Berrilli, A. Egidi, D. Del Moro, F. Manni, M. Cocciolo, A. Scotto, R. Volkmer, F. C. M. Bettonvil, M. Collados Vera, L. Cavaller Marquez, and J. Sanchez Capuchino, “The heat stop for the 4-m European Solar Telescope EST,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77332Z (2010).
[Crossref]

Del Moro, D.

F. Berrilli, A. Egidi, D. Del Moro, F. Manni, M. Cocciolo, A. Scotto, R. Volkmer, F. C. M. Bettonvil, M. Collados Vera, L. Cavaller Marquez, and J. Sanchez Capuchino, “The heat stop for the 4-m European Solar Telescope EST,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77332Z (2010).
[Crossref]

Ditsler, J.

J. Wagnera, T. R. Rimmeleb, S. Keil, R. Hubbard, E. Hansen, L. Phelps, M. Warner, B. Goodrich, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, R. Knealea, and J. Ditsler, “Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: A progress report,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120I (2008).

Egidi, A.

F. Berrilli, A. Egidi, D. Del Moro, F. Manni, M. Cocciolo, A. Scotto, R. Volkmer, F. C. M. Bettonvil, M. Collados Vera, L. Cavaller Marquez, and J. Sanchez Capuchino, “The heat stop for the 4-m European Solar Telescope EST,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77332Z (2010).
[Crossref]

Emde, P.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, D. Soltau, P. Emde, M. Krodel, N. Pailer, and E. Wiehr, “Optical and thermal design of the main optic of the solar telescope GREGOR,” Proc. SPIE 5179, 270–281 (2003).
[Crossref]

Goodrich, B.

J. Wagnera, T. R. Rimmeleb, S. Keil, R. Hubbard, E. Hansen, L. Phelps, M. Warner, B. Goodrich, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, R. Knealea, and J. Ditsler, “Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: A progress report,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120I (2008).

Gu, N.

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, J. Huang, C. Li, T. Cheng, Y. Liu, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-m solar telescope in China: Chinese Large Solar Telescope,” J. Astronom. Teles., Instrum., Syst. 1(2), 024001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, N. Gu, C. Rao, and C. Li, “A heat-stop structure design with high cooling efficiency for large aperture size ground based solar telescope,” Appl. Opt. 54(21), 1–7 (2015).

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, Y. Liu, J. Huang, C. Li, Y. Cheng, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-M solar telescope in China: the CLST,” Proc. SPIE 9145, 914525 (2014).

Guan, C.

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, J. Huang, C. Li, T. Cheng, Y. Liu, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-m solar telescope in China: Chinese Large Solar Telescope,” J. Astronom. Teles., Instrum., Syst. 1(2), 024001 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, Y. Liu, J. Huang, C. Li, Y. Cheng, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-M solar telescope in China: the CLST,” Proc. SPIE 9145, 914525 (2014).

Hansen, E.

J. Wagnera, T. R. Rimmeleb, S. Keil, R. Hubbard, E. Hansen, L. Phelps, M. Warner, B. Goodrich, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, R. Knealea, and J. Ditsler, “Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: A progress report,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120I (2008).

Hao, L. S.

S. B. Zhong, W. S. Yan, N. H. Ben, and L. S. Hao, “Zernike polynomial fitting method and its application,” Opt. Precision Eng. 10(3), 319–320 (2002).

Hegwer, S.

J. Wagnera, T. R. Rimmeleb, S. Keil, R. Hubbard, E. Hansen, L. Phelps, M. Warner, B. Goodrich, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, R. Knealea, and J. Ditsler, “Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: A progress report,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120I (2008).

Hofmann, A.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, F. Kneer, J. Staude, A. Hofmann, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, E. Wiehr, A. Wittmann, and T. Berkefeld, “GREGOR: the new 1.5 m solar telescope on Tenerife,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 360–369 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hu, S.

Huang, J.

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, J. Huang, C. Li, T. Cheng, Y. Liu, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-m solar telescope in China: Chinese Large Solar Telescope,” J. Astronom. Teles., Instrum., Syst. 1(2), 024001 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, Y. Liu, J. Huang, C. Li, Y. Cheng, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-M solar telescope in China: the CLST,” Proc. SPIE 9145, 914525 (2014).

Hubbard, R.

J. Wagnera, T. R. Rimmeleb, S. Keil, R. Hubbard, E. Hansen, L. Phelps, M. Warner, B. Goodrich, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, R. Knealea, and J. Ditsler, “Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: A progress report,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120I (2008).

Keil, S.

J. Wagnera, T. R. Rimmeleb, S. Keil, R. Hubbard, E. Hansen, L. Phelps, M. Warner, B. Goodrich, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, R. Knealea, and J. Ditsler, “Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: A progress report,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120I (2008).

Knealea, R.

J. Wagnera, T. R. Rimmeleb, S. Keil, R. Hubbard, E. Hansen, L. Phelps, M. Warner, B. Goodrich, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, R. Knealea, and J. Ditsler, “Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: A progress report,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120I (2008).

Kneer, F.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, F. Kneer, J. Staude, A. Hofmann, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, E. Wiehr, A. Wittmann, and T. Berkefeld, “GREGOR: the new 1.5 m solar telescope on Tenerife,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 360–369 (2003).
[Crossref]

O. V. D. L. Uhe, W. Schmidt, D. Soltau, T. Berkefeld, F. Kneer, and J. Staude, “GREGOR: a 1.5 m telescope for solar research,” Astronom. Notes 322, 353–360 (2001).

Krodel, M.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, D. Soltau, P. Emde, M. Krodel, N. Pailer, and E. Wiehr, “Optical and thermal design of the main optic of the solar telescope GREGOR,” Proc. SPIE 5179, 270–281 (2003).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, J. Huang, C. Li, T. Cheng, Y. Liu, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-m solar telescope in China: Chinese Large Solar Telescope,” J. Astronom. Teles., Instrum., Syst. 1(2), 024001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, N. Gu, C. Rao, and C. Li, “A heat-stop structure design with high cooling efficiency for large aperture size ground based solar telescope,” Appl. Opt. 54(21), 1–7 (2015).

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, Y. Liu, J. Huang, C. Li, Y. Cheng, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-M solar telescope in China: the CLST,” Proc. SPIE 9145, 914525 (2014).

Li, M.

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, J. Huang, C. Li, T. Cheng, Y. Liu, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-m solar telescope in China: Chinese Large Solar Telescope,” J. Astronom. Teles., Instrum., Syst. 1(2), 024001 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, Y. Liu, J. Huang, C. Li, Y. Cheng, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-M solar telescope in China: the CLST,” Proc. SPIE 9145, 914525 (2014).

Liu, H.

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, J. Huang, C. Li, T. Cheng, Y. Liu, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-m solar telescope in China: Chinese Large Solar Telescope,” J. Astronom. Teles., Instrum., Syst. 1(2), 024001 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, Y. Liu, J. Huang, C. Li, Y. Cheng, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-M solar telescope in China: the CLST,” Proc. SPIE 9145, 914525 (2014).

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, N. Gu, C. Rao, and C. Li, “A heat-stop structure design with high cooling efficiency for large aperture size ground based solar telescope,” Appl. Opt. 54(21), 1–7 (2015).

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, J. Huang, C. Li, T. Cheng, Y. Liu, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-m solar telescope in China: Chinese Large Solar Telescope,” J. Astronom. Teles., Instrum., Syst. 1(2), 024001 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, Y. Liu, J. Huang, C. Li, Y. Cheng, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-M solar telescope in China: the CLST,” Proc. SPIE 9145, 914525 (2014).

Ma, W.

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, J. Huang, C. Li, T. Cheng, Y. Liu, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-m solar telescope in China: Chinese Large Solar Telescope,” J. Astronom. Teles., Instrum., Syst. 1(2), 024001 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, Y. Liu, J. Huang, C. Li, Y. Cheng, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-M solar telescope in China: the CLST,” Proc. SPIE 9145, 914525 (2014).

Manni, F.

F. Berrilli, A. Egidi, D. Del Moro, F. Manni, M. Cocciolo, A. Scotto, R. Volkmer, F. C. M. Bettonvil, M. Collados Vera, L. Cavaller Marquez, and J. Sanchez Capuchino, “The heat stop for the 4-m European Solar Telescope EST,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77332Z (2010).
[Crossref]

Pailer, N.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, D. Soltau, P. Emde, M. Krodel, N. Pailer, and E. Wiehr, “Optical and thermal design of the main optic of the solar telescope GREGOR,” Proc. SPIE 5179, 270–281 (2003).
[Crossref]

Phelps, L.

J. Wagnera, T. R. Rimmeleb, S. Keil, R. Hubbard, E. Hansen, L. Phelps, M. Warner, B. Goodrich, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, R. Knealea, and J. Ditsler, “Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: A progress report,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120I (2008).

Rao, C.

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, J. Huang, C. Li, T. Cheng, Y. Liu, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-m solar telescope in China: Chinese Large Solar Telescope,” J. Astronom. Teles., Instrum., Syst. 1(2), 024001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, N. Gu, C. Rao, and C. Li, “A heat-stop structure design with high cooling efficiency for large aperture size ground based solar telescope,” Appl. Opt. 54(21), 1–7 (2015).

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, Y. Liu, J. Huang, C. Li, Y. Cheng, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-M solar telescope in China: the CLST,” Proc. SPIE 9145, 914525 (2014).

Richards, K.

J. Wagnera, T. R. Rimmeleb, S. Keil, R. Hubbard, E. Hansen, L. Phelps, M. Warner, B. Goodrich, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, R. Knealea, and J. Ditsler, “Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: A progress report,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120I (2008).

Rimmeleb, T. R.

J. Wagnera, T. R. Rimmeleb, S. Keil, R. Hubbard, E. Hansen, L. Phelps, M. Warner, B. Goodrich, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, R. Knealea, and J. Ditsler, “Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: A progress report,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120I (2008).

Sanchez Capuchino, J.

F. Berrilli, A. Egidi, D. Del Moro, F. Manni, M. Cocciolo, A. Scotto, R. Volkmer, F. C. M. Bettonvil, M. Collados Vera, L. Cavaller Marquez, and J. Sanchez Capuchino, “The heat stop for the 4-m European Solar Telescope EST,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77332Z (2010).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, W.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, F. Kneer, J. Staude, A. Hofmann, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, E. Wiehr, A. Wittmann, and T. Berkefeld, “GREGOR: the new 1.5 m solar telescope on Tenerife,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 360–369 (2003).
[Crossref]

O. V. D. L. Uhe, W. Schmidt, D. Soltau, T. Berkefeld, F. Kneer, and J. Staude, “GREGOR: a 1.5 m telescope for solar research,” Astronom. Notes 322, 353–360 (2001).

Scotto, A.

F. Berrilli, A. Egidi, D. Del Moro, F. Manni, M. Cocciolo, A. Scotto, R. Volkmer, F. C. M. Bettonvil, M. Collados Vera, L. Cavaller Marquez, and J. Sanchez Capuchino, “The heat stop for the 4-m European Solar Telescope EST,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77332Z (2010).
[Crossref]

Sobotka, M.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, F. Kneer, J. Staude, A. Hofmann, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, E. Wiehr, A. Wittmann, and T. Berkefeld, “GREGOR: the new 1.5 m solar telescope on Tenerife,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 360–369 (2003).
[Crossref]

Soltau, D.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, F. Kneer, J. Staude, A. Hofmann, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, E. Wiehr, A. Wittmann, and T. Berkefeld, “GREGOR: the new 1.5 m solar telescope on Tenerife,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 360–369 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, D. Soltau, P. Emde, M. Krodel, N. Pailer, and E. Wiehr, “Optical and thermal design of the main optic of the solar telescope GREGOR,” Proc. SPIE 5179, 270–281 (2003).
[Crossref]

O. V. D. L. Uhe, W. Schmidt, D. Soltau, T. Berkefeld, F. Kneer, and J. Staude, “GREGOR: a 1.5 m telescope for solar research,” Astronom. Notes 322, 353–360 (2001).

Staude, J.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, F. Kneer, J. Staude, A. Hofmann, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, E. Wiehr, A. Wittmann, and T. Berkefeld, “GREGOR: the new 1.5 m solar telescope on Tenerife,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 360–369 (2003).
[Crossref]

O. V. D. L. Uhe, W. Schmidt, D. Soltau, T. Berkefeld, F. Kneer, and J. Staude, “GREGOR: a 1.5 m telescope for solar research,” Astronom. Notes 322, 353–360 (2001).

Uhe, O. V. D. L.

O. V. D. L. Uhe, W. Schmidt, D. Soltau, T. Berkefeld, F. Kneer, and J. Staude, “GREGOR: a 1.5 m telescope for solar research,” Astronom. Notes 322, 353–360 (2001).

Volkmer, R.

F. Berrilli, A. Egidi, D. Del Moro, F. Manni, M. Cocciolo, A. Scotto, R. Volkmer, F. C. M. Bettonvil, M. Collados Vera, L. Cavaller Marquez, and J. Sanchez Capuchino, “The heat stop for the 4-m European Solar Telescope EST,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77332Z (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, D. Soltau, P. Emde, M. Krodel, N. Pailer, and E. Wiehr, “Optical and thermal design of the main optic of the solar telescope GREGOR,” Proc. SPIE 5179, 270–281 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, F. Kneer, J. Staude, A. Hofmann, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, E. Wiehr, A. Wittmann, and T. Berkefeld, “GREGOR: the new 1.5 m solar telescope on Tenerife,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 360–369 (2003).
[Crossref]

von der Lühe, O.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, F. Kneer, J. Staude, A. Hofmann, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, E. Wiehr, A. Wittmann, and T. Berkefeld, “GREGOR: the new 1.5 m solar telescope on Tenerife,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 360–369 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, D. Soltau, P. Emde, M. Krodel, N. Pailer, and E. Wiehr, “Optical and thermal design of the main optic of the solar telescope GREGOR,” Proc. SPIE 5179, 270–281 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wagnera, J.

J. Wagnera, T. R. Rimmeleb, S. Keil, R. Hubbard, E. Hansen, L. Phelps, M. Warner, B. Goodrich, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, R. Knealea, and J. Ditsler, “Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: A progress report,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120I (2008).

Wan, Y.

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, J. Huang, C. Li, T. Cheng, Y. Liu, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-m solar telescope in China: Chinese Large Solar Telescope,” J. Astronom. Teles., Instrum., Syst. 1(2), 024001 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, Y. Liu, J. Huang, C. Li, Y. Cheng, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-M solar telescope in China: the CLST,” Proc. SPIE 9145, 914525 (2014).

Warner, M.

J. Wagnera, T. R. Rimmeleb, S. Keil, R. Hubbard, E. Hansen, L. Phelps, M. Warner, B. Goodrich, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, R. Knealea, and J. Ditsler, “Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: A progress report,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120I (2008).

Wiehr, E.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, D. Soltau, P. Emde, M. Krodel, N. Pailer, and E. Wiehr, “Optical and thermal design of the main optic of the solar telescope GREGOR,” Proc. SPIE 5179, 270–281 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, F. Kneer, J. Staude, A. Hofmann, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, E. Wiehr, A. Wittmann, and T. Berkefeld, “GREGOR: the new 1.5 m solar telescope on Tenerife,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 360–369 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wittmann, A.

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, F. Kneer, J. Staude, A. Hofmann, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, E. Wiehr, A. Wittmann, and T. Berkefeld, “GREGOR: the new 1.5 m solar telescope on Tenerife,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 360–369 (2003).
[Crossref]

Woolf, N. J.

N. J. Woolf, “Seeing and the design and location of a 15 meter telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 332, 193–197 (1982).
[Crossref]

N. J. Woolf, “High resolution imaging from the ground,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 20(1), 367–398 (1982).
[Crossref]

Xian, H.

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, J. Huang, C. Li, T. Cheng, Y. Liu, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-m solar telescope in China: Chinese Large Solar Telescope,” J. Astronom. Teles., Instrum., Syst. 1(2), 024001 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, Y. Liu, J. Huang, C. Li, Y. Cheng, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-M solar telescope in China: the CLST,” Proc. SPIE 9145, 914525 (2014).

Yan, W. S.

S. B. Zhong, W. S. Yan, N. H. Ben, and L. S. Hao, “Zernike polynomial fitting method and its application,” Opt. Precision Eng. 10(3), 319–320 (2002).

Yu, G.

Zago, L.

L. Zago, “An engineering handbook for local and dome seeing,” Proc. SPIE 2871, 726–736 (1997).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, J. Huang, C. Li, T. Cheng, Y. Liu, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-m solar telescope in China: Chinese Large Solar Telescope,” J. Astronom. Teles., Instrum., Syst. 1(2), 024001 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, Y. Liu, J. Huang, C. Li, Y. Cheng, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-M solar telescope in China: the CLST,” Proc. SPIE 9145, 914525 (2014).

Zhang, M.

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, J. Huang, C. Li, T. Cheng, Y. Liu, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-m solar telescope in China: Chinese Large Solar Telescope,” J. Astronom. Teles., Instrum., Syst. 1(2), 024001 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, Y. Liu, J. Huang, C. Li, Y. Cheng, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-M solar telescope in China: the CLST,” Proc. SPIE 9145, 914525 (2014).

Zhang, X.

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, J. Huang, C. Li, T. Cheng, Y. Liu, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-m solar telescope in China: Chinese Large Solar Telescope,” J. Astronom. Teles., Instrum., Syst. 1(2), 024001 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, Y. Liu, J. Huang, C. Li, Y. Cheng, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-M solar telescope in China: the CLST,” Proc. SPIE 9145, 914525 (2014).

Zhong, S. B.

S. B. Zhong, W. S. Yan, N. H. Ben, and L. S. Hao, “Zernike polynomial fitting method and its application,” Opt. Precision Eng. 10(3), 319–320 (2002).

Zhu, L.

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, J. Huang, C. Li, T. Cheng, Y. Liu, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-m solar telescope in China: Chinese Large Solar Telescope,” J. Astronom. Teles., Instrum., Syst. 1(2), 024001 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, Y. Liu, J. Huang, C. Li, Y. Cheng, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-M solar telescope in China: the CLST,” Proc. SPIE 9145, 914525 (2014).

Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (1)

N. J. Woolf, “High resolution imaging from the ground,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 20(1), 367–398 (1982).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Astronom. Notes (1)

O. V. D. L. Uhe, W. Schmidt, D. Soltau, T. Berkefeld, F. Kneer, and J. Staude, “GREGOR: a 1.5 m telescope for solar research,” Astronom. Notes 322, 353–360 (2001).

J. Astronom. Teles., Instrum., Syst. (1)

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, J. Huang, C. Li, T. Cheng, Y. Liu, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-m solar telescope in China: Chinese Large Solar Telescope,” J. Astronom. Teles., Instrum., Syst. 1(2), 024001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Precision Eng. (1)

S. B. Zhong, W. S. Yan, N. H. Ben, and L. S. Hao, “Zernike polynomial fitting method and its application,” Opt. Precision Eng. 10(3), 319–320 (2002).

Proc. SPIE (7)

C. Rao, N. Gu, L. Zhu, Y. Liu, J. Huang, C. Li, Y. Cheng, X. Cao, M. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Wan, H. Xian, W. Ma, H. Bao, X. Zhang, C. Guan, D. Chen, and M. Li, “1.8-M solar telescope in China: the CLST,” Proc. SPIE 9145, 914525 (2014).

L. Zago, “An engineering handbook for local and dome seeing,” Proc. SPIE 2871, 726–736 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, D. Soltau, P. Emde, M. Krodel, N. Pailer, and E. Wiehr, “Optical and thermal design of the main optic of the solar telescope GREGOR,” Proc. SPIE 5179, 270–281 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Wagnera, T. R. Rimmeleb, S. Keil, R. Hubbard, E. Hansen, L. Phelps, M. Warner, B. Goodrich, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, R. Knealea, and J. Ditsler, “Advanced Technology Solar Telescope: A progress report,” Proc. SPIE 7012, 70120I (2008).

F. Berrilli, A. Egidi, D. Del Moro, F. Manni, M. Cocciolo, A. Scotto, R. Volkmer, F. C. M. Bettonvil, M. Collados Vera, L. Cavaller Marquez, and J. Sanchez Capuchino, “The heat stop for the 4-m European Solar Telescope EST,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 77332Z (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Volkmer, O. von der Lühe, F. Kneer, J. Staude, A. Hofmann, W. Schmidt, M. Sobotka, D. Soltau, E. Wiehr, A. Wittmann, and T. Berkefeld, “GREGOR: the new 1.5 m solar telescope on Tenerife,” Proc. SPIE 4853, 360–369 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. J. Woolf, “Seeing and the design and location of a 15 meter telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 332, 193–197 (1982).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

Zago, Lorenzo, “The effects of the local atmospheric environment on astronomical observations,” Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Switzerland, (1995).

J. M. Rueger, “Refractive Indices of Light, Infrared and Radio Waves in the Atmosphere,” 22nd General Assemble of IUGG Sapporo, UK, 18–30 July. (1999).

J. M Rueger. “Refractive Indices of Light, Infrared and Radio Waves in the Atmosphere,” School of Surveying and Spatial Information Systems, University of New South Wales, (2002).

Y. Zhang and Z. Chi, Optical wave propagation and imaging in the atmosphere, (National Defence Industry, 1997), p. 123.

Y. Sun, Study on the Thermal Blooming of Beam Propagation in the inner channel,” National University of Defense Technology, China, (2011).

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Figures (19)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Integrated analysis method for internal seeing.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 3D sketch of mechanical design for the CLST.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Reflecting heat-stop of CLST (a). 3-D sketch (b). engineering drawing.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Selection of air fluid domain.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Boundary condition of air domain.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Optical paths for optical integration (a). rays transmission process of M1, (b). rays transmission process from M1 to M2, (c). rays transmission process from M2 to M3.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Wavefront (without piston and tilt) of M1with different telescope pointing directions and temperature rises variation (a). RMS (b). PV.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Temperature field of ambient air when the heat-stop temperature rise is 25 Kelvins at different telescope pointing directions (a). α= 0 , (b). α= 30 , (c). α= 60 , (d). α= 90 .
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Wavefront diagrams of M1 at different telescope pointing directions.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Wavefront diagrams of different heat-stop temperature rises.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Wavefront RMS (without piston and tilt) of M1→M2 with different telescope pointing directions and temperature rises variation.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Velocity field of ambient air when the heat-stop temperature rise is 25 Kelvins at different telescope pointing directions (a). α= 0 , (b). α= 30 , (c). α= 60 , (d). α= 90 .
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Temperature field of ambient air when the heat-stop temperature rise is 25 Kelvins at different telescope pointing directions (a). α= 0 , (b). α= 30 , (c). α= 60 , (d). α= 90 .
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Wavefront diagrams of M1-M2 at different heat-stop temperature rises.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 Wavefront RMS (without piston and tilt) of M2→M3 with different telescope pointing directions and temperature rises variation.
Fig. 16
Fig. 16 Wavefront diagrams of M2-M3 at different telescope pointing directions.
Fig. 17
Fig. 17 Position of ray and heat-affected zone.
Fig. 18
Fig. 18 Wavefront diagrams of M2-M3 at different heat-stop temperature rises.
Fig. 19
Fig. 19 Total wavefront RMS (without piston and tilt) with different telescope pointing directions and temperature rises variation.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of the CLST

Tables Icon

Table 2 Model Selection and Boundary Setting of CFD

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( ρφ ) t +div( ρφu )=div( Γgradφ )+ S φ
S M =( ρ ρ ref )g
n=1+( 273.15 101325 P T ( 287.6155+ 1.62887 λ 2 + 0.0136 λ 4 )0.1127 e T )× 10 6
n=1+ 273.15 101325 P T ( 287.6155+ 1.62887 λ 2 + 0.0136 λ 4 )× 10 6
dn= 273.15 101325 N sp 1 T × 10 6 dP 273.15 101325 N sp P T 2 × 10 6 dT
N sp =( 287.6155+ 1.62887 λ 2 + 0.0136 λ 4 )
Δ n i = T std T i 7.853( 1+ 5.666× 10 3 λ 2 + 4.731× 10 5 λ 4 ) 1 T 2 × 10 4 dT
OP D k = L Δn(x,y,z)ds
Δ l i ( x,y,z )=Δ n i ( x,y,z )dz
OP D k = i=1 N Δ l i ( x,y,z )
Δ n i ( x,y,z )= j=1 N Δ n j ( x,y,z ) d j ( x,y ) /( j=1 N 1 d j ( x,y ) )
Δ n i = T std T i 0.0804 T i 2 dT
RMS= 1 mn x=1 m y=1 n [ φ e ( x,y ) φ e ( x,y ) ¯ ] 2

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