Abstract

In this paper, we demonstrate a holographic polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal grating fabricated using a visible laser. As blue phase is stabilized by the interfered light, polymer-concentration gradient is achieved simultaneously. With the application of a uniform vertical electric field, periodic index distribution is obtained due to polymer-concentration gradient. The grating exhibits several attractive features such as polarization-independency, a broad temperature range, sub-millisecond response, simple fabrication, and low cost, thus holding great potential for photonics applications.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  2. L. Gu, X. Chen, W. Jiang, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Fringing-field minimization in liquid-crystal-based high-resolution switchable gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201106 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. M. Titus and P. J. Bos, “Efficient, polarization-independent, reflective liquid crystal phase grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(16), 2239–2241 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid-crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2588–2590 (1995).
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  5. R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(9), 1074–1076 (1994).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. J. Sun and S. T. Wu, “Recent advances in polymer network liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” J. Polym. Sci., Part B, Polym. Phys. 52(3), 183–192 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  11. H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. J. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature 436(7053), 997–1000 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  19. Y. Lin, H. C. Jau, and T. H. Lin, “Polarization-independent rapidly responding phase grating based on hybrid blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(6), 063103 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. Yan, Q. Li, and K. Hu, “Polarization independent blue phase liquid crystal gratings based on periodic polymer slices structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(15), 153104 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  21. Z. H. He, C. P. Chen, J. L. Zhu, Y. C. Yuan, Y. Li, W. Hu, X. Li, H. J. Li, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Electrically tunable holographic polymer templated blue phase liquid crystal grating,” Chin. Phys. B 24(6), 064203 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  22. Y. J. Liu and X. W. Sun, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals materials, formation, and applications,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2008, 684349 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  23. J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  24. J. Tan, Y. Song, J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, Y. J. Wang, X. Y. Sun, J. G. Lu, B. R. Yang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Blue phase LC/polymer Fresnel lens fabricated by holographics,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(2), 157–161 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  25. J. Yan, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Direct measurement of electric-field-induced birefringence in a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal composite,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11450–11455 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. G. Zhao and P. Mouroulis, “Diffusion model of hologram formation in dry photopolymer materials,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(10), 1929–1939 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  27. Y. Chen, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage and submillisecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141116 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

D. Xu, G. Tan, and S. T. Wu, “Large-angle and high-efficiency tunable phase grating using fringe field switching liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 23(9), 12274–12285 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. H. He, C. P. Chen, J. L. Zhu, Y. C. Yuan, Y. Li, W. Hu, X. Li, H. J. Li, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Electrically tunable holographic polymer templated blue phase liquid crystal grating,” Chin. Phys. B 24(6), 064203 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

L. Yang, J. Xia, X. Zhang, Y. Xie, M. Kang, and Q. Zhang, “Fringing field suppression for liquid crystal gratings using equivalent capacitance configuration,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 102201 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Tan, Y. Song, J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, Y. J. Wang, X. Y. Sun, J. G. Lu, B. R. Yang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Blue phase LC/polymer Fresnel lens fabricated by holographics,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(2), 157–161 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sun and S. T. Wu, “Recent advances in polymer network liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” J. Polym. Sci., Part B, Polym. Phys. 52(3), 183–192 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

J. Sun, S. Xu, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Reconfigurable fabrication of scattering-free polymer network liquid crystal prism/grating/lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage and submillisecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141116 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lin, H. C. Jau, and T. H. Lin, “Polarization-independent rapidly responding phase grating based on hybrid blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(6), 063103 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, Q. Li, and K. Hu, “Polarization independent blue phase liquid crystal gratings based on periodic polymer slices structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(15), 153104 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, J. G. Lu, J. Qiang, E. Zhong, Z. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C. Dong, Y. Su, and H. P. D. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Direct measurement of electric-field-induced birefringence in a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal composite,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11450–11455 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

Y. J. Liu and X. W. Sun, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals materials, formation, and applications,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2008, 684349 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

R. K. Komanduri, W. M. Jones, C. Oh, and M. J. Escuti, “Polarization-independent modulation for projection displays using small-period LC polarization gratings,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15(8), 589–594 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

H. J. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature 436(7053), 997–1000 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Gu, X. Chen, W. Jiang, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Fringing-field minimization in liquid-crystal-based high-resolution switchable gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201106 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

C. M. Titus and P. J. Bos, “Efficient, polarization-independent, reflective liquid crystal phase grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(16), 2239–2241 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid-crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2588–2590 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(9), 1074–1076 (1994).
[Crossref]

G. Zhao and P. Mouroulis, “Diffusion model of hologram formation in dry photopolymer materials,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(10), 1929–1939 (1994).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

T. O. Carroll, “Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 43(3), 767–770 (1972).
[Crossref]

Adams, W. W.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(9), 1074–1076 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bos, P. J.

C. M. Titus and P. J. Bos, “Efficient, polarization-independent, reflective liquid crystal phase grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(16), 2239–2241 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid-crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2588–2590 (1995).
[Crossref]

Bunning, T. J.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(9), 1074–1076 (1994).
[Crossref]

Carroll, T. O.

T. O. Carroll, “Liquid-crystal diffraction gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 43(3), 767–770 (1972).
[Crossref]

Castles, F.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. P.

Z. H. He, C. P. Chen, J. L. Zhu, Y. C. Yuan, Y. Li, W. Hu, X. Li, H. J. Li, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Electrically tunable holographic polymer templated blue phase liquid crystal grating,” Chin. Phys. B 24(6), 064203 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid-crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2588–2590 (1995).
[Crossref]

Chen, R. T.

L. Gu, X. Chen, W. Jiang, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Fringing-field minimization in liquid-crystal-based high-resolution switchable gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201106 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

L. Gu, X. Chen, W. Jiang, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Fringing-field minimization in liquid-crystal-based high-resolution switchable gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201106 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage and submillisecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141116 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, H. C.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Choi, S. S.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coles, H. J.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature 436(7053), 997–1000 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Day, F. V.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, C.

J. Zhu, J. G. Lu, J. Qiang, E. Zhong, Z. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C. Dong, Y. Su, and H. P. D. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dorschner, T. A.

Escuti, M. J.

R. K. Komanduri, W. M. Jones, C. Oh, and M. J. Escuti, “Polarization-independent modulation for projection displays using small-period LC polarization gratings,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15(8), 589–594 (2007).
[Crossref]

Friedman, L. J.

Friend, R. H.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gardiner, D. J.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gauza, S.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ge, Z.

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gu, L.

L. Gu, X. Chen, W. Jiang, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Fringing-field minimization in liquid-crystal-based high-resolution switchable gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201106 (2005).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

J. Zhu, J. G. Lu, J. Qiang, E. Zhong, Z. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C. Dong, Y. Su, and H. P. D. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hands, P. J. W.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haseba, Y.

Y. Chen, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage and submillisecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141116 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, Z.

J. Zhu, J. G. Lu, J. Qiang, E. Zhong, Z. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C. Dong, Y. Su, and H. P. D. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

He, Z. H.

Z. H. He, C. P. Chen, J. L. Zhu, Y. C. Yuan, Y. Li, W. Hu, X. Li, H. J. Li, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Electrically tunable holographic polymer templated blue phase liquid crystal grating,” Chin. Phys. B 24(6), 064203 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hisakado, Y.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hobbs, D. S.

Howley, B.

L. Gu, X. Chen, W. Jiang, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Fringing-field minimization in liquid-crystal-based high-resolution switchable gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201106 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hu, K.

J. Yan, Q. Li, and K. Hu, “Polarization independent blue phase liquid crystal gratings based on periodic polymer slices structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(15), 153104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hu, W.

Z. H. He, C. P. Chen, J. L. Zhu, Y. C. Yuan, Y. Li, W. Hu, X. Li, H. J. Li, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Electrically tunable holographic polymer templated blue phase liquid crystal grating,” Chin. Phys. B 24(6), 064203 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jau, H. C.

Y. Lin, H. C. Jau, and T. H. Lin, “Polarization-independent rapidly responding phase grating based on hybrid blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(6), 063103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jiang, W.

L. Gu, X. Chen, W. Jiang, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Fringing-field minimization in liquid-crystal-based high-resolution switchable gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201106 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jiao, M.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Direct measurement of electric-field-induced birefringence in a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal composite,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11450–11455 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Johnson, D. L.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid-crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2588–2590 (1995).
[Crossref]

Jones, W. M.

R. K. Komanduri, W. M. Jones, C. Oh, and M. J. Escuti, “Polarization-independent modulation for projection displays using small-period LC polarization gratings,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15(8), 589–594 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kajiyama, T.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, M.

L. Yang, J. Xia, X. Zhang, Y. Xie, M. Kang, and Q. Zhang, “Fringing field suppression for liquid crystal gratings using equivalent capacitance configuration,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 102201 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kikuchi, H.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, D. H.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Komanduri, R. K.

R. K. Komanduri, W. M. Jones, C. Oh, and M. J. Escuti, “Polarization-independent modulation for projection displays using small-period LC polarization gratings,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15(8), 589–594 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, H. J.

Z. H. He, C. P. Chen, J. L. Zhu, Y. C. Yuan, Y. Li, W. Hu, X. Li, H. J. Li, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Electrically tunable holographic polymer templated blue phase liquid crystal grating,” Chin. Phys. B 24(6), 064203 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, Q.

J. Yan, Q. Li, and K. Hu, “Polarization independent blue phase liquid crystal gratings based on periodic polymer slices structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(15), 153104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Z. H. He, C. P. Chen, J. L. Zhu, Y. C. Yuan, Y. Li, W. Hu, X. Li, H. J. Li, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Electrically tunable holographic polymer templated blue phase liquid crystal grating,” Chin. Phys. B 24(6), 064203 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Z. H. He, C. P. Chen, J. L. Zhu, Y. C. Yuan, Y. Li, W. Hu, X. Li, H. J. Li, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Electrically tunable holographic polymer templated blue phase liquid crystal grating,” Chin. Phys. B 24(6), 064203 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1404–1406 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, T. H.

Y. Lin, H. C. Jau, and T. H. Lin, “Polarization-independent rapidly responding phase grating based on hybrid blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(6), 063103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.

Y. Lin, H. C. Jau, and T. H. Lin, “Polarization-independent rapidly responding phase grating based on hybrid blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(6), 063103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y. J.

Y. J. Liu and X. W. Sun, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals materials, formation, and applications,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2008, 684349 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lu, J. G.

Z. H. He, C. P. Chen, J. L. Zhu, Y. C. Yuan, Y. Li, W. Hu, X. Li, H. J. Li, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Electrically tunable holographic polymer templated blue phase liquid crystal grating,” Chin. Phys. B 24(6), 064203 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Tan, Y. Song, J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, Y. J. Wang, X. Y. Sun, J. G. Lu, B. R. Yang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Blue phase LC/polymer Fresnel lens fabricated by holographics,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(2), 157–161 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, J. G. Lu, J. Qiang, E. Zhong, Z. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C. Dong, Y. Su, and H. P. D. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Morris, S. M.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mouroulis, P.

G. Zhao and P. Mouroulis, “Diffusion model of hologram formation in dry photopolymer materials,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(10), 1929–1939 (1994).
[Crossref]

Natarajan, L. V.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(9), 1074–1076 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ni, S. B.

J. Tan, Y. Song, J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, Y. J. Wang, X. Y. Sun, J. G. Lu, B. R. Yang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Blue phase LC/polymer Fresnel lens fabricated by holographics,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(2), 157–161 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nosheen, S.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, C.

R. K. Komanduri, W. M. Jones, C. Oh, and M. J. Escuti, “Polarization-independent modulation for projection displays using small-period LC polarization gratings,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15(8), 589–594 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pivnenko, M. N.

H. J. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature 436(7053), 997–1000 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qasim, M. M.

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiang, J.

J. Zhu, J. G. Lu, J. Qiang, E. Zhong, Z. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C. Dong, Y. Su, and H. P. D. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rao, L.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Direct measurement of electric-field-induced birefringence in a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal composite,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11450–11455 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ren, H.

J. Sun, S. Xu, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Reconfigurable fabrication of scattering-free polymer network liquid crystal prism/grating/lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Resler, D. P.

Sharp, R. C.

Shieh, H. P. D.

J. Tan, Y. Song, J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, Y. J. Wang, X. Y. Sun, J. G. Lu, B. R. Yang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Blue phase LC/polymer Fresnel lens fabricated by holographics,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(2), 157–161 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, J. G. Lu, J. Qiang, E. Zhong, Z. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C. Dong, Y. Su, and H. P. D. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Song, Y.

J. Tan, Y. Song, J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, Y. J. Wang, X. Y. Sun, J. G. Lu, B. R. Yang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Blue phase LC/polymer Fresnel lens fabricated by holographics,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(2), 157–161 (2014).
[Crossref]

Su, Y.

J. Zhu, J. G. Lu, J. Qiang, E. Zhong, Z. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C. Dong, Y. Su, and H. P. D. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Su, Y. K.

Z. H. He, C. P. Chen, J. L. Zhu, Y. C. Yuan, Y. Li, W. Hu, X. Li, H. J. Li, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Electrically tunable holographic polymer templated blue phase liquid crystal grating,” Chin. Phys. B 24(6), 064203 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.

J. Sun and S. T. Wu, “Recent advances in polymer network liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” J. Polym. Sci., Part B, Polym. Phys. 52(3), 183–192 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, S. Xu, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Reconfigurable fabrication of scattering-free polymer network liquid crystal prism/grating/lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sun, X. W.

Y. J. Liu and X. W. Sun, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals materials, formation, and applications,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2008, 684349 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sun, X. Y.

J. Tan, Y. Song, J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, Y. J. Wang, X. Y. Sun, J. G. Lu, B. R. Yang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Blue phase LC/polymer Fresnel lens fabricated by holographics,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(2), 157–161 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sutherland, R. L.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(9), 1074–1076 (1994).
[Crossref]

Tan, G.

Tan, J.

J. Tan, Y. Song, J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, Y. J. Wang, X. Y. Sun, J. G. Lu, B. R. Yang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Blue phase LC/polymer Fresnel lens fabricated by holographics,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(2), 157–161 (2014).
[Crossref]

Titus, C. M.

C. M. Titus and P. J. Bos, “Efficient, polarization-independent, reflective liquid crystal phase grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(16), 2239–2241 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tondiglia, V. P.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(9), 1074–1076 (1994).
[Crossref]

Vithana, H.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid-crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2588–2590 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. J.

J. Tan, Y. Song, J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, Y. J. Wang, X. Y. Sun, J. G. Lu, B. R. Yang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Blue phase LC/polymer Fresnel lens fabricated by holographics,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(2), 157–161 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. T.

D. Xu, G. Tan, and S. T. Wu, “Large-angle and high-efficiency tunable phase grating using fringe field switching liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 23(9), 12274–12285 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sun and S. T. Wu, “Recent advances in polymer network liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” J. Polym. Sci., Part B, Polym. Phys. 52(3), 183–192 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, S. Xu, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Reconfigurable fabrication of scattering-free polymer network liquid crystal prism/grating/lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage and submillisecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141116 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yan, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1404–1406 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yan, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Direct measurement of electric-field-induced birefringence in a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal composite,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11450–11455 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xia, J.

L. Yang, J. Xia, X. Zhang, Y. Xie, M. Kang, and Q. Zhang, “Fringing field suppression for liquid crystal gratings using equivalent capacitance configuration,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 102201 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xianyu, H.

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xie, Y.

L. Yang, J. Xia, X. Zhang, Y. Xie, M. Kang, and Q. Zhang, “Fringing field suppression for liquid crystal gratings using equivalent capacitance configuration,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 102201 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, D.

D. Xu, G. Tan, and S. T. Wu, “Large-angle and high-efficiency tunable phase grating using fringe field switching liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 23(9), 12274–12285 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage and submillisecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141116 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, S.

J. Sun, S. Xu, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Reconfigurable fabrication of scattering-free polymer network liquid crystal prism/grating/lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, S.

Y. Chen, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage and submillisecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141116 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, J.

J. Yan, Q. Li, and K. Hu, “Polarization independent blue phase liquid crystal gratings based on periodic polymer slices structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(15), 153104 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1404–1406 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yan, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Direct measurement of electric-field-induced birefringence in a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal composite,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11450–11455 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, B. R.

J. Tan, Y. Song, J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, Y. J. Wang, X. Y. Sun, J. G. Lu, B. R. Yang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Blue phase LC/polymer Fresnel lens fabricated by holographics,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(2), 157–161 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

L. Yang, J. Xia, X. Zhang, Y. Xie, M. Kang, and Q. Zhang, “Fringing field suppression for liquid crystal gratings using equivalent capacitance configuration,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 102201 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ye, Z.

J. Zhu, J. G. Lu, J. Qiang, E. Zhong, Z. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C. Dong, Y. Su, and H. P. D. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yokota, M.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, Y. C.

Z. H. He, C. P. Chen, J. L. Zhu, Y. C. Yuan, Y. Li, W. Hu, X. Li, H. J. Li, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Electrically tunable holographic polymer templated blue phase liquid crystal grating,” Chin. Phys. B 24(6), 064203 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

L. Yang, J. Xia, X. Zhang, Y. Xie, M. Kang, and Q. Zhang, “Fringing field suppression for liquid crystal gratings using equivalent capacitance configuration,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 102201 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

L. Yang, J. Xia, X. Zhang, Y. Xie, M. Kang, and Q. Zhang, “Fringing field suppression for liquid crystal gratings using equivalent capacitance configuration,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 102201 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, G.

G. Zhao and P. Mouroulis, “Diffusion model of hologram formation in dry photopolymer materials,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(10), 1929–1939 (1994).
[Crossref]

Zhong, E.

J. Zhu, J. G. Lu, J. Qiang, E. Zhong, Z. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C. Dong, Y. Su, and H. P. D. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, J. G. Lu, J. Qiang, E. Zhong, Z. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C. Dong, Y. Su, and H. P. D. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J. L.

Z. H. He, C. P. Chen, J. L. Zhu, Y. C. Yuan, Y. Li, W. Hu, X. Li, H. J. Li, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Electrically tunable holographic polymer templated blue phase liquid crystal grating,” Chin. Phys. B 24(6), 064203 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Tan, Y. Song, J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, Y. J. Wang, X. Y. Sun, J. G. Lu, B. R. Yang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Blue phase LC/polymer Fresnel lens fabricated by holographics,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(2), 157–161 (2014).
[Crossref]

Adv. Optoelectron. (1)

Y. J. Liu and X. W. Sun, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals materials, formation, and applications,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2008, 684349 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage and submillisecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141116 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Gu, X. Chen, W. Jiang, B. Howley, and R. T. Chen, “Fringing-field minimization in liquid-crystal-based high-resolution switchable gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201106 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. M. Titus and P. J. Bos, “Efficient, polarization-independent, reflective liquid crystal phase grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(16), 2239–2241 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid-crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2588–2590 (1995).
[Crossref]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(9), 1074–1076 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, S. Xu, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Reconfigurable fabrication of scattering-free polymer network liquid crystal prism/grating/lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161106 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chin. Phys. B (1)

Z. H. He, C. P. Chen, J. L. Zhu, Y. C. Yuan, Y. Li, W. Hu, X. Li, H. J. Li, J. G. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Electrically tunable holographic polymer templated blue phase liquid crystal grating,” Chin. Phys. B 24(6), 064203 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

Y. Lin, H. C. Jau, and T. H. Lin, “Polarization-independent rapidly responding phase grating based on hybrid blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(6), 063103 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, Q. Li, and K. Hu, “Polarization independent blue phase liquid crystal gratings based on periodic polymer slices structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(15), 153104 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, J. G. Lu, J. Qiang, E. Zhong, Z. Ye, Z. He, X. Guo, C. Dong, Y. Su, and H. P. D. Shieh, “1D/2D switchable grating based on field-induced polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033101 (2012).
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J. Disp. Technol. (1)

J. Tan, Y. Song, J. L. Zhu, S. B. Ni, Y. J. Wang, X. Y. Sun, J. G. Lu, B. R. Yang, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Blue phase LC/polymer Fresnel lens fabricated by holographics,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(2), 157–161 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

G. Zhao and P. Mouroulis, “Diffusion model of hologram formation in dry photopolymer materials,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(10), 1929–1939 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Polym. Sci., Part B, Polym. Phys. (1)

J. Sun and S. T. Wu, “Recent advances in polymer network liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” J. Polym. Sci., Part B, Polym. Phys. 52(3), 183–192 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

R. K. Komanduri, W. M. Jones, C. Oh, and M. J. Escuti, “Polarization-independent modulation for projection displays using small-period LC polarization gratings,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15(8), 589–594 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Yang, J. Xia, X. Zhang, Y. Xie, M. Kang, and Q. Zhang, “Fringing field suppression for liquid crystal gratings using equivalent capacitance configuration,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 102201 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (2)

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Castles, F. V. Day, S. M. Morris, D. H. Ko, D. J. Gardiner, M. M. Qasim, S. Nosheen, P. J. W. Hands, S. S. Choi, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Coles, “Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications,” Nat. Mater. 11(7), 599–603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

H. J. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature 436(7053), 997–1000 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the H-PSBPLC grating formation process: (a) uniform BPLC precursor filled into a cell; (b) cell exposure under holographic interference pattern and monomers diffusion from the dark regions to the bright regions; (c) periodic distribution of polymer chains after exposure; and (d) periodic birefringence distribution under a uniform vertical electric field.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Experimental setup of fabricating the H-PSBPLC grating. PBS is a polarization beam splitter. (b) Platelet texture observed under an optical polarizing microscope of the H-PSBPLC grating at room temperature.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Measured first-order diffraction efficiency versus applied voltage of the H-PSBPLC grating (blue squares) and simulation results (red dash curve); Diffraction patterns of the H-PSBPLC grating probed using 633nm He-Ne laser beam with a 1 KHz square-wave voltage source at (b) 0 V and (c) 200 V.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 First-order diffraction efficiency versus polarization angle of incident light under 0 V, 100 V, and 200 V applied voltages, respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Electro-optical response of (a) rise time and (b) decay time of the first-order diffraction efficiency of the H-PSBPLC grating.

Equations (5)

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Δ n ( E ) = Δ n s a t ( 1 exp [ ( E E s ) 2 ] ) ,
n o ( E ) = n i s o Δ n ( E ) / 3 , n e ( E ) = n i s o + 2 Δ n ( E ) / 3.
δ n o ( E ) = n o , B ( E ) n o , D ( E ) ,
δ n o ( E ) = n i s o , B n i s o , D λ 3 i = 1 + ( K B , i K D , i ) E 2 i = Δ n i s o λ 3 i = 1 + Δ K i E 2 i ,
η = J 1 2 ( 2 π d δ n o ( E ) λ ) = J 1 2 ( 2 π d Δ n i s o λ 2 π d 3 i = 1 + Δ K i E 2 i ) ,

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