Abstract

In this paper, the high performance GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on carbon-nanotube-patterned sapphire substrate (CNPSS) by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are demonstrated. By studying the mechanism of nucleation, we analyze the reasons of the crystal quality improvement induced by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in different growth process. Combining with low temperatures photoluminescence (PL) measurements and two-dimensional (2D) finite difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation results, we conclude that the improvement of optical properties and electrical properties of CNPSS mainly originates from the improvement of the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) due to decreased dislocation density during nano-epitaxial growth on CNPSS. Additionally, in order to reduce the light absorption characteristics of CNTs, different time annealing under the oxygen environment is carried out to remove part of CNTs. Under 350 mA current injections, the light output power (LOP) of CNPSS-LED annealed 2 h and 10 h exhibit 11% and 6% enhancement, respectively, compared to that of the CNPSS-LED without annealing. Therefore, high temperature annealing can effectively remove parts of CNTs and further increase the LOP, while overlong annealing time has caused degradation of the quantum well resulting in the attenuation of optical power.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. H. Long, Y. Wei, T. Yu, Z. Wang, C. Jia, Z. Yang, G. Zhang, and S. Fan, “Modulating lateral strain in GaN-based epitaxial layers by patterning sapphire substrates with aligned carbon nanotube films,” Nano Res. 5(9), 646–653 (2012).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  24. V. Srikant, J. S. Speck, and D. R. Clarke, “Mosaic structure in epitaxial thin films having large lattice mismatch,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(9), 4286–4295 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  25. M. A. Moram, C. S. Ghedia, D. V. S. Rao, J. S. Barnard, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “On the origin of threading dislocations in GaN films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073513 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  26. X. H. Wu, P. Fini, E. J. Tarsa, B. Heying, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Dislocation generation in GaN heteroepitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 189-190, 231–243 (1998).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  28. C. Y. Cho, Y. J. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. B. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  29. H. K. Kim, Y. J. Park, J. H. Kang, N. Han, M. Han, B. D. Ryu, K. B. Ko, J. H. Yang, Y. T. Kim, S. Chandramohan, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and C. H. Hong, “Air-ring microstructure arrays for enhanced light extraction from a face-up light-emitting diode,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1491–1493 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. W.-Y. Lin, K.-C. Shen, R.-H. Horng, and D.-S. Wuu, “Enhancing Light Output Power of InGaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes with an Embedded Self-Textured Oxide Mask Structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(12), H1242 (2011).
    [Crossref]

2014 (1)

L. Cui, G.-G. Wang, H.-Y. Zhang, and J.-C. Han, “Effect of exposure parameters and annealing on the structure and morphological properties of nanopatterned sapphire substrates prepared by solid state reaction,” Ceram. Int. 40(3), 4731–4737 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

C. Y. Cho, Y. J. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. B. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. K. Kim, Y. J. Park, J. H. Kang, N. Han, M. Han, B. D. Ryu, K. B. Ko, J. H. Yang, Y. T. Kim, S. Chandramohan, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and C. H. Hong, “Air-ring microstructure arrays for enhanced light extraction from a face-up light-emitting diode,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1491–1493 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

H. Long, Y. Wei, T. Yu, Z. Wang, C. Jia, Z. Yang, G. Zhang, and S. Fan, “Modulating lateral strain in GaN-based epitaxial layers by patterning sapphire substrates with aligned carbon nanotube films,” Nano Res. 5(9), 646–653 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Fan and X. Wang, “High Light Extracting Efficiency of Gan-Based LED Based on Photonic Crystal,” Procedia Eng. 29, 2332–2336 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

T. Wei, Q. Kong, J. Wang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, G. Wang, J. Li, Y. Liao, and F. Yi, “Improving light extraction of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with a roughened p-GaN surface using CsCl nano-islands,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1065–1071 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. H. Huang, J. P. Liu, Y. Y. Fan, J. J. Kong, H. Yang, and H. B. Wang, “Effect of Patterned Sapphire Substrate Shape on Light Output Power of GaN-Based LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 944–946 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. H. Jang, J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, M. L. Lee, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and C. K. Hsu, “Effect of Growth Pressure of Undoped GaN Layer on the ESD Characteristics of GaN-Based LEDs Grown on Patterned Sapphire,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 968–970 (2011).
[Crossref]

W.-Y. Lin, K.-C. Shen, R.-H. Horng, and D.-S. Wuu, “Enhancing Light Output Power of InGaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes with an Embedded Self-Textured Oxide Mask Structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(12), H1242 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kim, D. J. Chae, J. W. Yang, J. I. Shim, J. M. Park, K. M. Ho, K. Constant, H. Y. Ryu, and T. G. Kim, “Effects of Nanometer-Scale Photonic Crystal Structures on the Light Extraction From GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 46(9), 1375–1380 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and J. J. Chen, “The aspect ratio effects on the performances of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanopatterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 023111 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. J. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Su, J. J. Chen, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Pattern-size dependence of characteristics of nitride-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2973–2976 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, Y. J. Cheng, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and C. M. Liu, “Defect selective passivation in GaN epitaxial growth and its application to light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(21), 211103 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. A. Moram, C. S. Ghedia, D. V. S. Rao, J. S. Barnard, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “On the origin of threading dislocations in GaN films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073513 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

Y. S. Wu, C. Liao, and W. C. Peng, “Effect of the silver mirror location on the luminance intensity of double-roughened GaN light-emitting diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(10), J126–J128 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. E. Lee, Y. C. Lee, H. C. Kuo, M. R. Tsai, B. S. Cheng, T. C. Lu, H. C. Wang, and C. T. Kuo, “Enhancement of flip-chip light-emitting diodes with omni-directional reflector and textured micropillar arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(16), 1200–1202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Wei, K. Jiang, X. Feng, P. Liu, L. Liu, and S. Fan, “Comparative studies of multiwalled carbon nanotube sheets before and after shrinking,” Phys. Rev. B 76(4), 045423 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-State Light Sources Getting Smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

X. A. Cao, E. B. Stokes, P. M. Sandvik, S. F. LeBoeuf, J. Kretchmer, and D. Walker, “Diffusion and tunneling currents in GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23(9), 535–537 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, T. Izumi, S. Sajou, K. Inoue, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in GaN-based semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi A 183(1), 41–50 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

H. Heinke, V. Kirchner, S. Einfeldt, and D. Hommel, “X-ray diffraction analysis of the defect structure in epitaxial GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(14), 2145–2147 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

X. H. Wu, P. Fini, E. J. Tarsa, B. Heying, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Dislocation generation in GaN heteroepitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 189-190, 231–243 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

V. Srikant, J. S. Speck, and D. R. Clarke, “Mosaic structure in epitaxial thin films having large lattice mismatch,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(9), 4286–4295 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Sakai, H. Sunakawa, and A. Usui, “Defect structure in selectively grown GaN films with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(16), 2259 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bai, Y. B.

C. Y. Cho, Y. J. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. B. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barnard, J. S.

M. A. Moram, C. S. Ghedia, D. V. S. Rao, J. S. Barnard, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “On the origin of threading dislocations in GaN films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073513 (2009).
[Crossref]

Biser, J. M.

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. J. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cao, W. J.

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. J. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cao, X. A.

X. A. Cao, E. B. Stokes, P. M. Sandvik, S. F. LeBoeuf, J. Kretchmer, and D. Walker, “Diffusion and tunneling currents in GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23(9), 535–537 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chae, D. J.

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kim, D. J. Chae, J. W. Yang, J. I. Shim, J. M. Park, K. M. Ho, K. Constant, H. Y. Ryu, and T. G. Kim, “Effects of Nanometer-Scale Photonic Crystal Structures on the Light Extraction From GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 46(9), 1375–1380 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chan, H. M.

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. J. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chandramohan, S.

Chang, C. Y.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, Y. J. Cheng, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and C. M. Liu, “Defect selective passivation in GaN epitaxial growth and its application to light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(21), 211103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chang, S. J.

C. H. Jang, J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, M. L. Lee, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and C. K. Hsu, “Effect of Growth Pressure of Undoped GaN Layer on the ESD Characteristics of GaN-Based LEDs Grown on Patterned Sapphire,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 968–970 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. J.

C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and J. J. Chen, “The aspect ratio effects on the performances of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanopatterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 023111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Su, J. J. Chen, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Pattern-size dependence of characteristics of nitride-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2973–2976 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, S. M.

Y. K. Su, J. J. Chen, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Pattern-size dependence of characteristics of nitride-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2973–2976 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheng, B. S.

C. E. Lee, Y. C. Lee, H. C. Kuo, M. R. Tsai, B. S. Cheng, T. C. Lu, H. C. Wang, and C. T. Kuo, “Enhancement of flip-chip light-emitting diodes with omni-directional reflector and textured micropillar arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(16), 1200–1202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y. J.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, Y. J. Cheng, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and C. M. Liu, “Defect selective passivation in GaN epitaxial growth and its application to light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(21), 211103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cho, C. Y.

C. Y. Cho, Y. J. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. B. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cicek, E.

C. Y. Cho, Y. J. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. B. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Clarke, D. R.

V. Srikant, J. S. Speck, and D. R. Clarke, “Mosaic structure in epitaxial thin films having large lattice mismatch,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(9), 4286–4295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Constant, K.

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kim, D. J. Chae, J. W. Yang, J. I. Shim, J. M. Park, K. M. Ho, K. Constant, H. Y. Ryu, and T. G. Kim, “Effects of Nanometer-Scale Photonic Crystal Structures on the Light Extraction From GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 46(9), 1375–1380 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cui, L.

L. Cui, G.-G. Wang, H.-Y. Zhang, and J.-C. Han, “Effect of exposure parameters and annealing on the structure and morphological properties of nanopatterned sapphire substrates prepared by solid state reaction,” Ceram. Int. 40(3), 4731–4737 (2014).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

X. H. Wu, P. Fini, E. J. Tarsa, B. Heying, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Dislocation generation in GaN heteroepitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 189-190, 231–243 (1998).
[Crossref]

Du, C. X.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dubonos, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
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Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. J. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[Crossref]

Einfeldt, S.

H. Heinke, V. Kirchner, S. Einfeldt, and D. Hommel, “X-ray diffraction analysis of the defect structure in epitaxial GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(14), 2145–2147 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

H. Long, Y. Wei, T. Yu, Z. Wang, C. Jia, Z. Yang, G. Zhang, and S. Fan, “Modulating lateral strain in GaN-based epitaxial layers by patterning sapphire substrates with aligned carbon nanotube films,” Nano Res. 5(9), 646–653 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Wei, K. Jiang, X. Feng, P. Liu, L. Liu, and S. Fan, “Comparative studies of multiwalled carbon nanotube sheets before and after shrinking,” Phys. Rev. B 76(4), 045423 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fan, Y.

Y. Fan and X. Wang, “High Light Extracting Efficiency of Gan-Based LED Based on Photonic Crystal,” Procedia Eng. 29, 2332–2336 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fan, Y. Y.

X. H. Huang, J. P. Liu, Y. Y. Fan, J. J. Kong, H. Yang, and H. B. Wang, “Effect of Patterned Sapphire Substrate Shape on Light Output Power of GaN-Based LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 944–946 (2011).
[Crossref]

Feng, X.

Y. Wei, K. Jiang, X. Feng, P. Liu, L. Liu, and S. Fan, “Comparative studies of multiwalled carbon nanotube sheets before and after shrinking,” Phys. Rev. B 76(4), 045423 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fini, P.

X. H. Wu, P. Fini, E. J. Tarsa, B. Heying, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Dislocation generation in GaN heteroepitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 189-190, 231–243 (1998).
[Crossref]

Firsov, A. A.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleury, B.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fujita, S.

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, T. Izumi, S. Sajou, K. Inoue, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in GaN-based semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi A 183(1), 41–50 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gao, H. Y.

H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
[Crossref]

Geim, A. K.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghedia, C. S.

M. A. Moram, C. S. Ghedia, D. V. S. Rao, J. S. Barnard, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “On the origin of threading dislocations in GaN films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073513 (2009).
[Crossref]

Grigorieva, I. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, J.-C.

L. Cui, G.-G. Wang, H.-Y. Zhang, and J.-C. Han, “Effect of exposure parameters and annealing on the structure and morphological properties of nanopatterned sapphire substrates prepared by solid state reaction,” Ceram. Int. 40(3), 4731–4737 (2014).
[Crossref]

Han, M.

Han, N.

Heinke, H.

H. Heinke, V. Kirchner, S. Einfeldt, and D. Hommel, “X-ray diffraction analysis of the defect structure in epitaxial GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(14), 2145–2147 (2000).
[Crossref]

Heying, B.

X. H. Wu, P. Fini, E. J. Tarsa, B. Heying, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Dislocation generation in GaN heteroepitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 189-190, 231–243 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ho, K. M.

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kim, D. J. Chae, J. W. Yang, J. I. Shim, J. M. Park, K. M. Ho, K. Constant, H. Y. Ryu, and T. G. Kim, “Effects of Nanometer-Scale Photonic Crystal Structures on the Light Extraction From GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 46(9), 1375–1380 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hommel, D.

H. Heinke, V. Kirchner, S. Einfeldt, and D. Hommel, “X-ray diffraction analysis of the defect structure in epitaxial GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(14), 2145–2147 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hong, C. H.

Horng, R.-H.

W.-Y. Lin, K.-C. Shen, R.-H. Horng, and D.-S. Wuu, “Enhancing Light Output Power of InGaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes with an Embedded Self-Textured Oxide Mask Structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(12), H1242 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hsu, C. K.

C. H. Jang, J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, M. L. Lee, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and C. K. Hsu, “Effect of Growth Pressure of Undoped GaN Layer on the ESD Characteristics of GaN-Based LEDs Grown on Patterned Sapphire,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 968–970 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hsu, S. C.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, Y. J. Cheng, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and C. M. Liu, “Defect selective passivation in GaN epitaxial growth and its application to light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(21), 211103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hu, E.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huang, F. W.

C. H. Jang, J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, M. L. Lee, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and C. K. Hsu, “Effect of Growth Pressure of Undoped GaN Layer on the ESD Characteristics of GaN-Based LEDs Grown on Patterned Sapphire,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 968–970 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, X. H.

X. H. Huang, J. P. Liu, Y. Y. Fan, J. J. Kong, H. Yang, and H. B. Wang, “Effect of Patterned Sapphire Substrate Shape on Light Output Power of GaN-Based LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 944–946 (2011).
[Crossref]

Humphreys, C. J.

M. A. Moram, C. S. Ghedia, D. V. S. Rao, J. S. Barnard, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “On the origin of threading dislocations in GaN films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073513 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hung, C. W.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, Y. J. Cheng, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and C. M. Liu, “Defect selective passivation in GaN epitaxial growth and its application to light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(21), 211103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Inoue, K.

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, T. Izumi, S. Sajou, K. Inoue, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in GaN-based semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi A 183(1), 41–50 (2001).
[Crossref]

Iza, M.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Izumi, T.

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, T. Izumi, S. Sajou, K. Inoue, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in GaN-based semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi A 183(1), 41–50 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jang, C. H.

C. H. Jang, J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, M. L. Lee, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and C. K. Hsu, “Effect of Growth Pressure of Undoped GaN Layer on the ESD Characteristics of GaN-Based LEDs Grown on Patterned Sapphire,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 968–970 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jeong, H.

Jeong, M. S.

Jia, C.

H. Long, Y. Wei, T. Yu, Z. Wang, C. Jia, Z. Yang, G. Zhang, and S. Fan, “Modulating lateral strain in GaN-based epitaxial layers by patterning sapphire substrates with aligned carbon nanotube films,” Nano Res. 5(9), 646–653 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jiang, D.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, K.

Y. Wei, K. Jiang, X. Feng, P. Liu, L. Liu, and S. Fan, “Comparative studies of multiwalled carbon nanotube sheets before and after shrinking,” Phys. Rev. B 76(4), 045423 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kaneta, A.

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, T. Izumi, S. Sajou, K. Inoue, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in GaN-based semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi A 183(1), 41–50 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kang, J. H.

Kao, C. C.

C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and J. J. Chen, “The aspect ratio effects on the performances of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanopatterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 023111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Su, J. J. Chen, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Pattern-size dependence of characteristics of nitride-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2973–2976 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kappers, M. J.

M. A. Moram, C. S. Ghedia, D. V. S. Rao, J. S. Barnard, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “On the origin of threading dislocations in GaN films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073513 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kawakami, Y.

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, T. Izumi, S. Sajou, K. Inoue, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in GaN-based semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi A 183(1), 41–50 (2001).
[Crossref]

Keller, S.

X. H. Wu, P. Fini, E. J. Tarsa, B. Heying, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Dislocation generation in GaN heteroepitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 189-190, 231–243 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. H.

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kim, D. J. Chae, J. W. Yang, J. I. Shim, J. M. Park, K. M. Ho, K. Constant, H. Y. Ryu, and T. G. Kim, “Effects of Nanometer-Scale Photonic Crystal Structures on the Light Extraction From GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 46(9), 1375–1380 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. K.

Kim, J. K.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-State Light Sources Getting Smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
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Kim, T. G.

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kim, D. J. Chae, J. W. Yang, J. I. Shim, J. M. Park, K. M. Ho, K. Constant, H. Y. Ryu, and T. G. Kim, “Effects of Nanometer-Scale Photonic Crystal Structures on the Light Extraction From GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 46(9), 1375–1380 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. T.

Kirchner, V.

H. Heinke, V. Kirchner, S. Einfeldt, and D. Hommel, “X-ray diffraction analysis of the defect structure in epitaxial GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(14), 2145–2147 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ko, K. B.

Kong, J. J.

X. H. Huang, J. P. Liu, Y. Y. Fan, J. J. Kong, H. Yang, and H. B. Wang, “Effect of Patterned Sapphire Substrate Shape on Light Output Power of GaN-Based LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 944–946 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kong, Q.

Kretchmer, J.

X. A. Cao, E. B. Stokes, P. M. Sandvik, S. F. LeBoeuf, J. Kretchmer, and D. Walker, “Diffusion and tunneling currents in GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23(9), 535–537 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kuo, C. T.

C. E. Lee, Y. C. Lee, H. C. Kuo, M. R. Tsai, B. S. Cheng, T. C. Lu, H. C. Wang, and C. T. Kuo, “Enhancement of flip-chip light-emitting diodes with omni-directional reflector and textured micropillar arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(16), 1200–1202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, Y. J. Cheng, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and C. M. Liu, “Defect selective passivation in GaN epitaxial growth and its application to light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(21), 211103 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. E. Lee, Y. C. Lee, H. C. Kuo, M. R. Tsai, B. S. Cheng, T. C. Lu, H. C. Wang, and C. T. Kuo, “Enhancement of flip-chip light-emitting diodes with omni-directional reflector and textured micropillar arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(16), 1200–1202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lan, D.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
[Crossref]

LeBoeuf, S. F.

X. A. Cao, E. B. Stokes, P. M. Sandvik, S. F. LeBoeuf, J. Kretchmer, and D. Walker, “Diffusion and tunneling currents in GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23(9), 535–537 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. E.

C. E. Lee, Y. C. Lee, H. C. Kuo, M. R. Tsai, B. S. Cheng, T. C. Lu, H. C. Wang, and C. T. Kuo, “Enhancement of flip-chip light-emitting diodes with omni-directional reflector and textured micropillar arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(16), 1200–1202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, M. L.

C. H. Jang, J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, M. L. Lee, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and C. K. Hsu, “Effect of Growth Pressure of Undoped GaN Layer on the ESD Characteristics of GaN-Based LEDs Grown on Patterned Sapphire,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 968–970 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. C.

C. E. Lee, Y. C. Lee, H. C. Kuo, M. R. Tsai, B. S. Cheng, T. C. Lu, H. C. Wang, and C. T. Kuo, “Enhancement of flip-chip light-emitting diodes with omni-directional reflector and textured micropillar arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(16), 1200–1202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Li, J. M.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, W. L.

Y. K. Su, J. J. Chen, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Pattern-size dependence of characteristics of nitride-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2973–2976 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liao, C.

Y. S. Wu, C. Liao, and W. C. Peng, “Effect of the silver mirror location on the luminance intensity of double-roughened GaN light-emitting diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(10), J126–J128 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liao, Y.

Lin, C. L.

C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and J. J. Chen, “The aspect ratio effects on the performances of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanopatterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 023111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Su, J. J. Chen, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Pattern-size dependence of characteristics of nitride-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2973–2976 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lin, W.-Y.

W.-Y. Lin, K.-C. Shen, R.-H. Horng, and D.-S. Wuu, “Enhancing Light Output Power of InGaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes with an Embedded Self-Textured Oxide Mask Structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(12), H1242 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, C. M.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, Y. J. Cheng, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and C. M. Liu, “Defect selective passivation in GaN epitaxial growth and its application to light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(21), 211103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. P.

X. H. Huang, J. P. Liu, Y. Y. Fan, J. J. Kong, H. Yang, and H. B. Wang, “Effect of Patterned Sapphire Substrate Shape on Light Output Power of GaN-Based LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 944–946 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

Y. Wei, K. Jiang, X. Feng, P. Liu, L. Liu, and S. Fan, “Comparative studies of multiwalled carbon nanotube sheets before and after shrinking,” Phys. Rev. B 76(4), 045423 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liu, P.

Y. Wei, K. Jiang, X. Feng, P. Liu, L. Liu, and S. Fan, “Comparative studies of multiwalled carbon nanotube sheets before and after shrinking,” Phys. Rev. B 76(4), 045423 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lo, M. H.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, Y. J. Cheng, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and C. M. Liu, “Defect selective passivation in GaN epitaxial growth and its application to light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(21), 211103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Long, H.

H. Long, Y. Wei, T. Yu, Z. Wang, C. Jia, Z. Yang, G. Zhang, and S. Fan, “Modulating lateral strain in GaN-based epitaxial layers by patterning sapphire substrates with aligned carbon nanotube films,” Nano Res. 5(9), 646–653 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lu, T. C.

C. E. Lee, Y. C. Lee, H. C. Kuo, M. R. Tsai, B. S. Cheng, T. C. Lu, H. C. Wang, and C. T. Kuo, “Enhancement of flip-chip light-emitting diodes with omni-directional reflector and textured micropillar arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(16), 1200–1202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Matioli, E.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010).
[Crossref]

McClintock, R.

C. Y. Cho, Y. J. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. B. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
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Mishra, U. K.

X. H. Wu, P. Fini, E. J. Tarsa, B. Heying, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Dislocation generation in GaN heteroepitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 189-190, 231–243 (1998).
[Crossref]

Moram, M. A.

M. A. Moram, C. S. Ghedia, D. V. S. Rao, J. S. Barnard, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “On the origin of threading dislocations in GaN films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073513 (2009).
[Crossref]

Morozov, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mukai, T.

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, T. Izumi, S. Sajou, K. Inoue, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in GaN-based semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi A 183(1), 41–50 (2001).
[Crossref]

Narukawa, Y.

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, T. Izumi, S. Sajou, K. Inoue, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in GaN-based semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi A 183(1), 41–50 (2001).
[Crossref]

Novoselov, K. S.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Okamoto, K.

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, T. Izumi, S. Sajou, K. Inoue, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in GaN-based semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi A 183(1), 41–50 (2001).
[Crossref]

Omae, K.

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, T. Izumi, S. Sajou, K. Inoue, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in GaN-based semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi A 183(1), 41–50 (2001).
[Crossref]

Park, J. M.

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kim, D. J. Chae, J. W. Yang, J. I. Shim, J. M. Park, K. M. Ho, K. Constant, H. Y. Ryu, and T. G. Kim, “Effects of Nanometer-Scale Photonic Crystal Structures on the Light Extraction From GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 46(9), 1375–1380 (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, Y. J.

Peng, W. C.

Y. S. Wu, C. Liao, and W. C. Peng, “Effect of the silver mirror location on the luminance intensity of double-roughened GaN light-emitting diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(10), J126–J128 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pfaff, N.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rahnema, B.

C. Y. Cho, Y. J. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. B. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rangel, E.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rao, D. V. S.

M. A. Moram, C. S. Ghedia, D. V. S. Rao, J. S. Barnard, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “On the origin of threading dislocations in GaN films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073513 (2009).
[Crossref]

Razeghi, M.

C. Y. Cho, Y. J. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. B. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ryu, B. D.

Ryu, H. Y.

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kim, D. J. Chae, J. W. Yang, J. I. Shim, J. M. Park, K. M. Ho, K. Constant, H. Y. Ryu, and T. G. Kim, “Effects of Nanometer-Scale Photonic Crystal Structures on the Light Extraction From GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 46(9), 1375–1380 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sajou, S.

Y. Kawakami, K. Omae, A. Kaneta, K. Okamoto, T. Izumi, S. Sajou, K. Inoue, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in GaN-based semiconductors,” Phys. Status Solidi A 183(1), 41–50 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sakai, A.

A. Sakai, H. Sunakawa, and A. Usui, “Defect structure in selectively grown GaN films with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(16), 2259 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sandvik, P. M.

X. A. Cao, E. B. Stokes, P. M. Sandvik, S. F. LeBoeuf, J. Kretchmer, and D. Walker, “Diffusion and tunneling currents in GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23(9), 535–537 (2002).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-State Light Sources Getting Smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, K.-C.

W.-Y. Lin, K.-C. Shen, R.-H. Horng, and D.-S. Wuu, “Enhancing Light Output Power of InGaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes with an Embedded Self-Textured Oxide Mask Structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(12), H1242 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sheu, J. K.

C. H. Jang, J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, M. L. Lee, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and C. K. Hsu, “Effect of Growth Pressure of Undoped GaN Layer on the ESD Characteristics of GaN-Based LEDs Grown on Patterned Sapphire,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 968–970 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shim, J. I.

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kim, D. J. Chae, J. W. Yang, J. I. Shim, J. M. Park, K. M. Ho, K. Constant, H. Y. Ryu, and T. G. Kim, “Effects of Nanometer-Scale Photonic Crystal Structures on the Light Extraction From GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 46(9), 1375–1380 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shin, Y. C.

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kim, D. J. Chae, J. W. Yang, J. I. Shim, J. M. Park, K. M. Ho, K. Constant, H. Y. Ryu, and T. G. Kim, “Effects of Nanometer-Scale Photonic Crystal Structures on the Light Extraction From GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 46(9), 1375–1380 (2010).
[Crossref]

Speck, J.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

X. H. Wu, P. Fini, E. J. Tarsa, B. Heying, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Dislocation generation in GaN heteroepitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 189-190, 231–243 (1998).
[Crossref]

V. Srikant, J. S. Speck, and D. R. Clarke, “Mosaic structure in epitaxial thin films having large lattice mismatch,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(9), 4286–4295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Srikant, V.

V. Srikant, J. S. Speck, and D. R. Clarke, “Mosaic structure in epitaxial thin films having large lattice mismatch,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(9), 4286–4295 (1997).
[Crossref]

Stokes, E. B.

X. A. Cao, E. B. Stokes, P. M. Sandvik, S. F. LeBoeuf, J. Kretchmer, and D. Walker, “Diffusion and tunneling currents in GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23(9), 535–537 (2002).
[Crossref]

Su, Y. K.

C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and J. J. Chen, “The aspect ratio effects on the performances of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanopatterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 023111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Su, J. J. Chen, C. L. Lin, S. M. Chen, W. L. Li, and C. C. Kao, “Pattern-size dependence of characteristics of nitride-based LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2973–2976 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sunakawa, H.

A. Sakai, H. Sunakawa, and A. Usui, “Defect structure in selectively grown GaN films with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(16), 2259 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tansu, N.

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. J. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tarsa, E. J.

X. H. Wu, P. Fini, E. J. Tarsa, B. Heying, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Dislocation generation in GaN heteroepitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 189-190, 231–243 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tsai, M. R.

C. E. Lee, Y. C. Lee, H. C. Kuo, M. R. Tsai, B. S. Cheng, T. C. Lu, H. C. Wang, and C. T. Kuo, “Enhancement of flip-chip light-emitting diodes with omni-directional reflector and textured micropillar arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(16), 1200–1202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tu, P. M.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, Y. J. Cheng, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and C. M. Liu, “Defect selective passivation in GaN epitaxial growth and its application to light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(21), 211103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tu, S. J.

C. H. Jang, J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, M. L. Lee, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and C. K. Hsu, “Effect of Growth Pressure of Undoped GaN Layer on the ESD Characteristics of GaN-Based LEDs Grown on Patterned Sapphire,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 968–970 (2011).
[Crossref]

Usui, A.

A. Sakai, H. Sunakawa, and A. Usui, “Defect structure in selectively grown GaN films with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(16), 2259 (1997).
[Crossref]

Vinci, R. P.

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. J. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[Crossref]

Walker, D.

X. A. Cao, E. B. Stokes, P. M. Sandvik, S. F. LeBoeuf, J. Kretchmer, and D. Walker, “Diffusion and tunneling currents in GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23(9), 535–537 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. H.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, Y. J. Cheng, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and C. M. Liu, “Defect selective passivation in GaN epitaxial growth and its application to light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(21), 211103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

Wang, G. H.

H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.-G.

L. Cui, G.-G. Wang, H.-Y. Zhang, and J.-C. Han, “Effect of exposure parameters and annealing on the structure and morphological properties of nanopatterned sapphire substrates prepared by solid state reaction,” Ceram. Int. 40(3), 4731–4737 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. B.

X. H. Huang, J. P. Liu, Y. Y. Fan, J. J. Kong, H. Yang, and H. B. Wang, “Effect of Patterned Sapphire Substrate Shape on Light Output Power of GaN-Based LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 944–946 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. C.

C. E. Lee, Y. C. Lee, H. C. Kuo, M. R. Tsai, B. S. Cheng, T. C. Lu, H. C. Wang, and C. T. Kuo, “Enhancement of flip-chip light-emitting diodes with omni-directional reflector and textured micropillar arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(16), 1200–1202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Wang, J. X.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. C.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, Y. J. Cheng, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and C. M. Liu, “Defect selective passivation in GaN epitaxial growth and its application to light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(21), 211103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Y. Fan and X. Wang, “High Light Extracting Efficiency of Gan-Based LED Based on Photonic Crystal,” Procedia Eng. 29, 2332–2336 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

H. Long, Y. Wei, T. Yu, Z. Wang, C. Jia, Z. Yang, G. Zhang, and S. Fan, “Modulating lateral strain in GaN-based epitaxial layers by patterning sapphire substrates with aligned carbon nanotube films,” Nano Res. 5(9), 646–653 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wei, T.

Wei, T. B.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wei, Y.

H. Long, Y. Wei, T. Yu, Z. Wang, C. Jia, Z. Yang, G. Zhang, and S. Fan, “Modulating lateral strain in GaN-based epitaxial layers by patterning sapphire substrates with aligned carbon nanotube films,” Nano Res. 5(9), 646–653 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Wei, K. Jiang, X. Feng, P. Liu, L. Liu, and S. Fan, “Comparative studies of multiwalled carbon nanotube sheets before and after shrinking,” Phys. Rev. B 76(4), 045423 (2007).
[Crossref]

Weisbuch, C.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wu, K.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, X. H.

X. H. Wu, P. Fini, E. J. Tarsa, B. Heying, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Dislocation generation in GaN heteroepitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 189-190, 231–243 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y. S.

Y. S. Wu, C. Liao, and W. C. Peng, “Effect of the silver mirror location on the luminance intensity of double-roughened GaN light-emitting diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(10), J126–J128 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wuu, D.-S.

W.-Y. Lin, K.-C. Shen, R.-H. Horng, and D.-S. Wuu, “Enhancing Light Output Power of InGaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes with an Embedded Self-Textured Oxide Mask Structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(12), H1242 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yan, F. W.

H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yan, Q. F.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. C.

C. H. Jang, J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, M. L. Lee, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and C. K. Hsu, “Effect of Growth Pressure of Undoped GaN Layer on the ESD Characteristics of GaN-Based LEDs Grown on Patterned Sapphire,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 968–970 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

X. H. Huang, J. P. Liu, Y. Y. Fan, J. J. Kong, H. Yang, and H. B. Wang, “Effect of Patterned Sapphire Substrate Shape on Light Output Power of GaN-Based LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 944–946 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. H.

Yang, J. W.

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kim, D. J. Chae, J. W. Yang, J. I. Shim, J. M. Park, K. M. Ho, K. Constant, H. Y. Ryu, and T. G. Kim, “Effects of Nanometer-Scale Photonic Crystal Structures on the Light Extraction From GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 46(9), 1375–1380 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

H. Long, Y. Wei, T. Yu, Z. Wang, C. Jia, Z. Yang, G. Zhang, and S. Fan, “Modulating lateral strain in GaN-based epitaxial layers by patterning sapphire substrates with aligned carbon nanotube films,” Nano Res. 5(9), 646–653 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yi, F.

Yu, T.

H. Long, Y. Wei, T. Yu, Z. Wang, C. Jia, Z. Yang, G. Zhang, and S. Fan, “Modulating lateral strain in GaN-based epitaxial layers by patterning sapphire substrates with aligned carbon nanotube films,” Nano Res. 5(9), 646–653 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zan, H. W.

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, Y. J. Cheng, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and C. M. Liu, “Defect selective passivation in GaN epitaxial growth and its application to light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(21), 211103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zeng, Y.

Zeng, Y. P.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

H. Long, Y. Wei, T. Yu, Z. Wang, C. Jia, Z. Yang, G. Zhang, and S. Fan, “Modulating lateral strain in GaN-based epitaxial layers by patterning sapphire substrates with aligned carbon nanotube films,” Nano Res. 5(9), 646–653 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.-Y.

L. Cui, G.-G. Wang, H.-Y. Zhang, and J.-C. Han, “Effect of exposure parameters and annealing on the structure and morphological properties of nanopatterned sapphire substrates prepared by solid state reaction,” Ceram. Int. 40(3), 4731–4737 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

M. A. Moram, C. S. Ghedia, D. V. S. Rao, J. S. Barnard, Y. Zhang, M. J. Kappers, and C. J. Humphreys, “On the origin of threading dislocations in GaN films,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073513 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014314 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. J.

C. Y. Cho, Y. J. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. B. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

A. Sakai, H. Sunakawa, and A. Usui, “Defect structure in selectively grown GaN films with low threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(16), 2259 (1997).
[Crossref]

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031108 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211111 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. H. Lo, P. M. Tu, C. H. Wang, Y. J. Cheng, C. W. Hung, S. C. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, H. W. Zan, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, and C. M. Liu, “Defect selective passivation in GaN epitaxial growth and its application to light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(21), 211103 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. C. Kao, Y. K. Su, C. L. Lin, and J. J. Chen, “The aspect ratio effects on the performances of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanopatterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 023111 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Heinke, V. Kirchner, S. Einfeldt, and D. Hommel, “X-ray diffraction analysis of the defect structure in epitaxial GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(14), 2145–2147 (2000).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Cho, Y. J. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. B. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ceram. Int. (1)

L. Cui, G.-G. Wang, H.-Y. Zhang, and J.-C. Han, “Effect of exposure parameters and annealing on the structure and morphological properties of nanopatterned sapphire substrates prepared by solid state reaction,” Ceram. Int. 40(3), 4731–4737 (2014).
[Crossref]

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. (1)

Y. S. Wu, C. Liao, and W. C. Peng, “Effect of the silver mirror location on the luminance intensity of double-roughened GaN light-emitting diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10(10), J126–J128 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

X. A. Cao, E. B. Stokes, P. M. Sandvik, S. F. LeBoeuf, J. Kretchmer, and D. Walker, “Diffusion and tunneling currents in GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23(9), 535–537 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

Y. C. Shin, D. H. Kim, D. J. Chae, J. W. Yang, J. I. Shim, J. M. Park, K. M. Ho, K. Constant, H. Y. Ryu, and T. G. Kim, “Effects of Nanometer-Scale Photonic Crystal Structures on the Light Extraction From GaN Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 46(9), 1375–1380 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. J. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

C. H. Jang, J. K. Sheu, S. J. Chang, M. L. Lee, C. C. Yang, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, and C. K. Hsu, “Effect of Growth Pressure of Undoped GaN Layer on the ESD Characteristics of GaN-Based LEDs Grown on Patterned Sapphire,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 968–970 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. E. Lee, Y. C. Lee, H. C. Kuo, M. R. Tsai, B. S. Cheng, T. C. Lu, H. C. Wang, and C. T. Kuo, “Enhancement of flip-chip light-emitting diodes with omni-directional reflector and textured micropillar arrays,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(16), 1200–1202 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. H. Huang, J. P. Liu, Y. Y. Fan, J. J. Kong, H. Yang, and H. B. Wang, “Effect of Patterned Sapphire Substrate Shape on Light Output Power of GaN-Based LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 944–946 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The surface morphologies of the substrates and the GaN films: (a) SEM images of CNPSS; (b) and (c) SEM images of GaN nucleation layers on CSS and CNPSS, respectively; (d) and (e) SEM images of GaN rough layers on CSS and CNPSS, respectively; (f) cross sectional SEM image of CNPSS-LED.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic diagrams of GaN grown on CNPSS (a) with rough layer and (b) without rough layer.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Forward and reverse I-V curves of CNPSS- LEDs and CSS-LEDs; (b) Light output power for LEDs on CNPSS and CSS in different growth process; (c)Far-field radiation patterns of CSS-LED and CNPSS-LEDs with different number of layers of CNTs at an injection current of 350 mA; (d)Simulated emission patterns of (a) CSS-LED and (b) CNPSS-LED.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The transmittance of CNPSS with different annealing time based on the baseline of transmittance of CSS. Inset shows the cross sectional SEM image of CNPSS-LED after 2h-ennealing. (b) Light output power for LEDs on CNPSS with different annealing time.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 FWHM values and dislocation density of samples

Equations (2)

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D s = β s 2 4.35 × | b s | 2 = β 002 2 4.35 × ( b s cos α ) 2
D e = β e 2 4.35 × | b e | 2 = β 102 2 β 002 2 4.35 × ( b e sin α ) 2

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