Abstract

We report the effect of geometrical factors governing the polarization profiles of near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) probes. The most important physical parameter controlling the selective electric or magnetic field sensitivity is found to be the width of the metal rim surrounding aperture. Probes with metal rim width w < λ/2 selectively senses the optical electric field, while those with w > λ/2 selectively senses the optical magnetic field. Intensity variation of optical Hertz standing wave formed upon reflection at oblique incidence shows a phase difference of π/2 between electric and magnetic probes: an analogue of the classical Wiener’s experiment. Our work paves way towards electromagnetic engineering of nanostructures.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. H. W. Kihm, J. Kim, S. Koo, J. Ahn, K. Ahn, K. Lee, N. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Optical magnetic field mapping using a subwavelength aperture,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5625–5633 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  4. D. Denkova, N. Verellen, A. V. Silhanek, V. K. Valev, P. Van Dorpe, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Mapping magnetic near-field distributions of plasmonic nanoantennas,” ACS Nano 7(4), 3168–3176 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. S. Karaveli and R. Zia, “Spectral tuning by selective enhancement of electric and magnetic dipole emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(19), 193004 (2011).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. N. Rotenberg and L. Kuipers, “Mapping nanoscale light fields,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 919–926 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  36. U. Schröter and A. Dereux, “Surface plasmon polaritons on metal cylinders with dielectric core,” Phys. Rev. B 64(12), 125420 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  37. E. Dereux, A. Dereux, E. Bourillot, J. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, J. Goudonnet, and C. Girard, “Local detection of the optical magnetic field in the near zone of dielectric samples,” Phys. Rev. B 62(15), 10504–10514 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  38. D. C. Kohlgraf-Owens, S. Sukhov, and A. Dogariu, “Discrimination of field components in optical probe microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3606–3608 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  42. H. W. Kihm, K. G. Lee, D. S. Kim, and K. J. Ahn, “Dual mode near-field scanning optical microscopy for near-field imaging of surface plasmon polariton,” Opt. Commun. 282(12), 2442–2445 (2009).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

M. Kasperczyk, S. Person, D. Ananias, L. D. Carlos, and L. Novotny, “Excitation of magnetic dipole transitions at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(16), 163903 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

H. U. Yang, R. L. Olmon, K. S. Deryckx, X. G. Xu, H. A. Bechte, Y. Xu, B. A. Lai, and M. B. Raschke, “Accessing the optical magnetic near-field through Babinet’s principle,” ACS Photonics 1(9), 894–899 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. L. Feber, N. Rotenberg, D. M. Beggs, and L. Kuipers, “Simultaneous measurement of nanoscale electric and magnetic optical fields,” Nat. Photonics 8, 43–46 (2014).

M. R. Shcherbakov, D. N. Neshev, B. Hopkins, A. S. Shorokhov, I. Staude, E. V. Melik-Gaykazyan, M. Decker, A. A. Ezhov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, I. Brener, A. A. Fedyanin, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Enhanced Third-Harmonic Generation in Silicon Nanoparticles Driven by Magnetic Response,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6488–6492 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Nazir, S. Panaro, R. Proietti Zaccaria, C. Liberale, F. De Angelis, and A. Toma, “Fano coil-type resonance for magnetic hot-spot generation,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3166–3171 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Rotenberg and L. Kuipers, “Mapping nanoscale light fields,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 919–926 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

S. Karaveli, A. J. Weinstein, and R. Zia, “Direct modulation of lanthanide emission at sub-lifetime scales,” Nano Lett. 13(5), 2264–2269 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. N. Sheikholeslami, H. Alaeian, A. L. Koh, and J. A. Dionne, “A metafluid exhibiting strong optical magnetism,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4137–4141 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. Decker, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, E. Gonzales, J. Dominguez, T. S. Luk, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. Kivshar, “Tailoring directional scattering through magnetic and electric resonances in subwavelength silicon nanodisks,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7824–7832 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Kihm, J. Kim, S. Koo, J. Ahn, K. Ahn, K. Lee, N. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Optical magnetic field mapping using a subwavelength aperture,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5625–5633 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Denkova, N. Verellen, A. V. Silhanek, V. K. Valev, P. Van Dorpe, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Mapping magnetic near-field distributions of plasmonic nanoantennas,” ACS Nano 7(4), 3168–3176 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (7)

T. H. Taminiau, S. Karaveli, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Zia, “Quantifying the magnetic nature of light emission,” Nat. Commun. 3, 979 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Asenjo-Garcia, A. Manjavacas, V. Myroshnychenko, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Magnetic polarization in the optical absorption of metallic nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28142–28152 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Lee, I. M. Lee, J. Park, S. Oh, W. Lee, K. Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Role of magnetic induction currents in nanoslit excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(21), 213907 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Taminiau, S. Karaveli, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Zia, “Quantifying the magnetic nature of light emission,” Nat. Commun. 3, 979 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, S. Mukherjee, K. Bao, L. V. Brown, J. Dorfmüller, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Magnetic Plasmon Formation and Propagation in Artificial Aromatic Molecules,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 364–369 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, S. Mukherjee, K. Bao, Y. Li, L. V. Brown, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Manipulating magnetic plasmon propagation in metallic nanocluster networks,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5482–5488 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Kohlgraf-Owens, S. Sukhov, and A. Dogariu, “Discrimination of field components in optical probe microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3606–3608 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

S. N. Sheikholeslami, A. García-Etxarri, and J. A. Dionne, “Controlling the interplay of electric and magnetic modes via Fano-like plasmon resonances,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3927–3934 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 451 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Grosjean, M. Mivelle, F. I. Baida, G. W. Burr, and U. C. Fischer, “Diabolo nanoantenna for enhancing and confining the magnetic optical field,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1009–1013 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Karaveli and R. Zia, “Spectral tuning by selective enhancement of electric and magnetic dipole emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(19), 193004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

M. Burresi, T. Kampfrath, D. van Oosten, J. C. Prangsma, B. S. Song, S. Noda, and L. Kuipers, “Magnetic light-matter interactions in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(12), 123901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: a near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(16), 167403 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, D. S. Wiersma, and M. Gurioli, “Magnetic imaging in photonic crystal microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(12), 123902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 157–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Koo, M. S. Kumar, J. Shin, D. Kim, and N. Park, “Extraordinary magnetic field enhancement with metallic nanowire: role of surface impedance in Babinet’s principle for sub-skin-depth regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(26), 263901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, and L. Kuipers, “Probing the magnetic field of light at optical frequencies,” Science 326(5952), 550–553 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Mirin and N. J. Halas, “Light-bending nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1255–1259 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Kang, D. S. Kim, and Q. H. Park, “Local capacitor model for plasmonic electric field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(9), 093906 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Kihm, K. G. Lee, D. S. Kim, and K. J. Ahn, “Dual mode near-field scanning optical microscopy for near-field imaging of surface plasmon polariton,” Opt. Commun. 282(12), 2442–2445 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

D. J. Park, S. B. Choi, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, Q. Park, M. S. Jeong, and D. K. Ko, “Experimental verification of surface plasmon amplification on a metallic transmission grating,” Phys. Rev. B 77(11), 115451 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

D. W. Brandl, N. A. Mirin, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmon modes of nanosphere trimers and quadrumers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(25), 12302–12310 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. I. Smolyaninov, C. C. Davis, V. N. Smolyaninova, D. Schaefer, J. Elliott, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmon-induced magnetization of metallic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 71(3), 035425 (2005).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

U. Schröter and A. Dereux, “Surface plasmon polaritons on metal cylinders with dielectric core,” Phys. Rev. B 64(12), 125420 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

E. Dereux, A. Dereux, E. Bourillot, J. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, J. Goudonnet, and C. Girard, “Local detection of the optical magnetic field in the near zone of dielectric samples,” Phys. Rev. B 62(15), 10504–10514 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1944 (1)

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
[Crossref]

1890 (1)

O. Wiener, “Stehende Lichtwellen und die Schwingungsrichtung polarisirten Lichtes,” Ann. Phys. Chem. 38(6), 203–243 (1890).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J.

Ahn, K.

Ahn, K. J.

H. W. Kihm, K. G. Lee, D. S. Kim, and K. J. Ahn, “Dual mode near-field scanning optical microscopy for near-field imaging of surface plasmon polariton,” Opt. Commun. 282(12), 2442–2445 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. J. Park, S. B. Choi, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, Q. Park, M. S. Jeong, and D. K. Ko, “Experimental verification of surface plasmon amplification on a metallic transmission grating,” Phys. Rev. B 77(11), 115451 (2008).
[Crossref]

Alaeian, H.

S. N. Sheikholeslami, H. Alaeian, A. L. Koh, and J. A. Dionne, “A metafluid exhibiting strong optical magnetism,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4137–4141 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ananias, D.

M. Kasperczyk, S. Person, D. Ananias, L. D. Carlos, and L. Novotny, “Excitation of magnetic dipole transitions at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(16), 163903 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asenjo-Garcia, A.

Baida, F. I.

T. Grosjean, M. Mivelle, F. I. Baida, G. W. Burr, and U. C. Fischer, “Diabolo nanoantenna for enhancing and confining the magnetic optical field,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1009–1013 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bak, W. S.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 451 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balet, L.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, D. S. Wiersma, and M. Gurioli, “Magnetic imaging in photonic crystal microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(12), 123902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, K.

N. Liu, S. Mukherjee, K. Bao, Y. Li, L. V. Brown, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Manipulating magnetic plasmon propagation in metallic nanocluster networks,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5482–5488 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, S. Mukherjee, K. Bao, L. V. Brown, J. Dorfmüller, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Magnetic Plasmon Formation and Propagation in Artificial Aromatic Molecules,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 364–369 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 451 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bechte, H. A.

H. U. Yang, R. L. Olmon, K. S. Deryckx, X. G. Xu, H. A. Bechte, Y. Xu, B. A. Lai, and M. B. Raschke, “Accessing the optical magnetic near-field through Babinet’s principle,” ACS Photonics 1(9), 894–899 (2014).
[Crossref]

Beggs, D. M.

B. L. Feber, N. Rotenberg, D. M. Beggs, and L. Kuipers, “Simultaneous measurement of nanoscale electric and magnetic optical fields,” Nat. Photonics 8, 43–46 (2014).

Bethe, H. A.

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
[Crossref]

Boreman, G. D.

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T. Grosjean, M. Mivelle, F. I. Baida, G. W. Burr, and U. C. Fischer, “Diabolo nanoantenna for enhancing and confining the magnetic optical field,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1009–1013 (2011).
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M. R. Shcherbakov, D. N. Neshev, B. Hopkins, A. S. Shorokhov, I. Staude, E. V. Melik-Gaykazyan, M. Decker, A. A. Ezhov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, I. Brener, A. A. Fedyanin, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Enhanced Third-Harmonic Generation in Silicon Nanoparticles Driven by Magnetic Response,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6488–6492 (2014).
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T. Grosjean, M. Mivelle, F. I. Baida, G. W. Burr, and U. C. Fischer, “Diabolo nanoantenna for enhancing and confining the magnetic optical field,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1009–1013 (2011).
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I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. Decker, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, E. Gonzales, J. Dominguez, T. S. Luk, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. Kivshar, “Tailoring directional scattering through magnetic and electric resonances in subwavelength silicon nanodisks,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7824–7832 (2013).
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S. N. Sheikholeslami, A. García-Etxarri, and J. A. Dionne, “Controlling the interplay of electric and magnetic modes via Fano-like plasmon resonances,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3927–3934 (2011).
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I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. Decker, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, E. Gonzales, J. Dominguez, T. S. Luk, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. Kivshar, “Tailoring directional scattering through magnetic and electric resonances in subwavelength silicon nanodisks,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7824–7832 (2013).
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E. Dereux, A. Dereux, E. Bourillot, J. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, J. Goudonnet, and C. Girard, “Local detection of the optical magnetic field in the near zone of dielectric samples,” Phys. Rev. B 62(15), 10504–10514 (2000).
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T. Grosjean, M. Mivelle, F. I. Baida, G. W. Burr, and U. C. Fischer, “Diabolo nanoantenna for enhancing and confining the magnetic optical field,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1009–1013 (2011).
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S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, D. S. Wiersma, and M. Gurioli, “Magnetic imaging in photonic crystal microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(12), 123902 (2010).
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N. Liu, S. Mukherjee, K. Bao, Y. Li, L. V. Brown, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Manipulating magnetic plasmon propagation in metallic nanocluster networks,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5482–5488 (2012).
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D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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J. H. Kang, D. S. Kim, and Q. H. Park, “Local capacitor model for plasmonic electric field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(9), 093906 (2009).
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D. J. Park, S. B. Choi, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, Q. Park, M. S. Jeong, and D. K. Ko, “Experimental verification of surface plasmon amplification on a metallic transmission grating,” Phys. Rev. B 77(11), 115451 (2008).
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H. W. Kihm, J. Kim, S. Koo, J. Ahn, K. Ahn, K. Lee, N. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Optical magnetic field mapping using a subwavelength aperture,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5625–5633 (2013).
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H. W. Kihm, K. G. Lee, D. S. Kim, and K. J. Ahn, “Dual mode near-field scanning optical microscopy for near-field imaging of surface plasmon polariton,” Opt. Commun. 282(12), 2442–2445 (2009).
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Kildishev, A. V.

Kim, D.

S. Koo, M. S. Kumar, J. Shin, D. Kim, and N. Park, “Extraordinary magnetic field enhancement with metallic nanowire: role of surface impedance in Babinet’s principle for sub-skin-depth regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(26), 263901 (2009).
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Kim, D. S.

H. W. Kihm, J. Kim, S. Koo, J. Ahn, K. Ahn, K. Lee, N. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Optical magnetic field mapping using a subwavelength aperture,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5625–5633 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 451 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

J. H. Kang, D. S. Kim, and Q. H. Park, “Local capacitor model for plasmonic electric field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(9), 093906 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 451 (2011).
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Kim, K. Y.

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I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. Decker, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, E. Gonzales, J. Dominguez, T. S. Luk, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. Kivshar, “Tailoring directional scattering through magnetic and electric resonances in subwavelength silicon nanodisks,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7824–7832 (2013).
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Kivshar, Y. S.

M. R. Shcherbakov, D. N. Neshev, B. Hopkins, A. S. Shorokhov, I. Staude, E. V. Melik-Gaykazyan, M. Decker, A. A. Ezhov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, I. Brener, A. A. Fedyanin, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Enhanced Third-Harmonic Generation in Silicon Nanoparticles Driven by Magnetic Response,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6488–6492 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, D. K.

D. J. Park, S. B. Choi, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, Q. Park, M. S. Jeong, and D. K. Ko, “Experimental verification of surface plasmon amplification on a metallic transmission grating,” Phys. Rev. B 77(11), 115451 (2008).
[Crossref]

Koh, A. L.

S. N. Sheikholeslami, H. Alaeian, A. L. Koh, and J. A. Dionne, “A metafluid exhibiting strong optical magnetism,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4137–4141 (2013).
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Kohlgraf-Owens, D. C.

Koo, S.

H. W. Kihm, J. Kim, S. Koo, J. Ahn, K. Ahn, K. Lee, N. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Optical magnetic field mapping using a subwavelength aperture,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5625–5633 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 451 (2011).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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B. L. Feber, N. Rotenberg, D. M. Beggs, and L. Kuipers, “Simultaneous measurement of nanoscale electric and magnetic optical fields,” Nat. Photonics 8, 43–46 (2014).

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N. Liu, S. Mukherjee, K. Bao, Y. Li, L. V. Brown, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Manipulating magnetic plasmon propagation in metallic nanocluster networks,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5482–5488 (2012).
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A. Nazir, S. Panaro, R. Proietti Zaccaria, C. Liberale, F. De Angelis, and A. Toma, “Fano coil-type resonance for magnetic hot-spot generation,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3166–3171 (2014).
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D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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van Hulst, N. F.

T. H. Taminiau, S. Karaveli, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Zia, “Quantifying the magnetic nature of light emission,” Nat. Commun. 3, 979 (2012).
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T. H. Taminiau, S. Karaveli, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Zia, “Quantifying the magnetic nature of light emission,” Nat. Commun. 3, 979 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Oosten, D.

M. Burresi, T. Kampfrath, D. van Oosten, J. C. Prangsma, B. S. Song, S. Noda, and L. Kuipers, “Magnetic light-matter interactions in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(12), 123901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, and L. Kuipers, “Probing the magnetic field of light at optical frequencies,” Science 326(5952), 550–553 (2009).
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Verellen, N.

D. Denkova, N. Verellen, A. V. Silhanek, V. K. Valev, P. Van Dorpe, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Mapping magnetic near-field distributions of plasmonic nanoantennas,” ACS Nano 7(4), 3168–3176 (2013).
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Vignolini, S.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, D. S. Wiersma, and M. Gurioli, “Magnetic imaging in photonic crystal microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(12), 123902 (2010).
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Weeber, J.

E. Dereux, A. Dereux, E. Bourillot, J. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, J. Goudonnet, and C. Girard, “Local detection of the optical magnetic field in the near zone of dielectric samples,” Phys. Rev. B 62(15), 10504–10514 (2000).
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Weinstein, A. J.

S. Karaveli, A. J. Weinstein, and R. Zia, “Direct modulation of lanthanide emission at sub-lifetime scales,” Nano Lett. 13(5), 2264–2269 (2013).
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O. Wiener, “Stehende Lichtwellen und die Schwingungsrichtung polarisirten Lichtes,” Ann. Phys. Chem. 38(6), 203–243 (1890).
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S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, D. S. Wiersma, and M. Gurioli, “Magnetic imaging in photonic crystal microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(12), 123902 (2010).
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H. U. Yang, R. L. Olmon, K. S. Deryckx, X. G. Xu, H. A. Bechte, Y. Xu, B. A. Lai, and M. B. Raschke, “Accessing the optical magnetic near-field through Babinet’s principle,” ACS Photonics 1(9), 894–899 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

H. U. Yang, R. L. Olmon, K. S. Deryckx, X. G. Xu, H. A. Bechte, Y. Xu, B. A. Lai, and M. B. Raschke, “Accessing the optical magnetic near-field through Babinet’s principle,” ACS Photonics 1(9), 894–899 (2014).
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Yang, H. U.

H. U. Yang, R. L. Olmon, K. S. Deryckx, X. G. Xu, H. A. Bechte, Y. Xu, B. A. Lai, and M. B. Raschke, “Accessing the optical magnetic near-field through Babinet’s principle,” ACS Photonics 1(9), 894–899 (2014).
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Yuan, H. K.

Zayats, A. V.

I. I. Smolyaninov, C. C. Davis, V. N. Smolyaninova, D. Schaefer, J. Elliott, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmon-induced magnetization of metallic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 71(3), 035425 (2005).
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N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 157–162 (2009).
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Zia, R.

S. Karaveli, A. J. Weinstein, and R. Zia, “Direct modulation of lanthanide emission at sub-lifetime scales,” Nano Lett. 13(5), 2264–2269 (2013).
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T. H. Taminiau, S. Karaveli, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Zia, “Quantifying the magnetic nature of light emission,” Nat. Commun. 3, 979 (2012).
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T. H. Taminiau, S. Karaveli, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Zia, “Quantifying the magnetic nature of light emission,” Nat. Commun. 3, 979 (2012).
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S. Karaveli and R. Zia, “Spectral tuning by selective enhancement of electric and magnetic dipole emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(19), 193004 (2011).
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ACS Nano (3)

D. Denkova, N. Verellen, A. V. Silhanek, V. K. Valev, P. Van Dorpe, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Mapping magnetic near-field distributions of plasmonic nanoantennas,” ACS Nano 7(4), 3168–3176 (2013).
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N. Liu, S. Mukherjee, K. Bao, Y. Li, L. V. Brown, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Manipulating magnetic plasmon propagation in metallic nanocluster networks,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5482–5488 (2012).
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I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. Decker, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, E. Gonzales, J. Dominguez, T. S. Luk, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. Kivshar, “Tailoring directional scattering through magnetic and electric resonances in subwavelength silicon nanodisks,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7824–7832 (2013).
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ACS Photonics (1)

H. U. Yang, R. L. Olmon, K. S. Deryckx, X. G. Xu, H. A. Bechte, Y. Xu, B. A. Lai, and M. B. Raschke, “Accessing the optical magnetic near-field through Babinet’s principle,” ACS Photonics 1(9), 894–899 (2014).
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Ann. Phys. Chem. (1)

O. Wiener, “Stehende Lichtwellen und die Schwingungsrichtung polarisirten Lichtes,” Ann. Phys. Chem. 38(6), 203–243 (1890).
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D. W. Brandl, N. A. Mirin, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmon modes of nanosphere trimers and quadrumers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(25), 12302–12310 (2006).
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S. N. Sheikholeslami, H. Alaeian, A. L. Koh, and J. A. Dionne, “A metafluid exhibiting strong optical magnetism,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4137–4141 (2013).
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S. Karaveli, A. J. Weinstein, and R. Zia, “Direct modulation of lanthanide emission at sub-lifetime scales,” Nano Lett. 13(5), 2264–2269 (2013).
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Nat. Commun. (3)

T. H. Taminiau, S. Karaveli, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Zia, “Quantifying the magnetic nature of light emission,” Nat. Commun. 3, 979 (2012).
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H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat. Commun. 2, 451 (2011).
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T. H. Taminiau, S. Karaveli, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Zia, “Quantifying the magnetic nature of light emission,” Nat. Commun. 3, 979 (2012).
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Nat. Photonics (3)

N. Rotenberg and L. Kuipers, “Mapping nanoscale light fields,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 919–926 (2014).
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N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 157–162 (2009).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

H. W. Kihm, K. G. Lee, D. S. Kim, and K. J. Ahn, “Dual mode near-field scanning optical microscopy for near-field imaging of surface plasmon polariton,” Opt. Commun. 282(12), 2442–2445 (2009).
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S. Koo, M. S. Kumar, J. Shin, D. Kim, and N. Park, “Extraordinary magnetic field enhancement with metallic nanowire: role of surface impedance in Babinet’s principle for sub-skin-depth regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(26), 263901 (2009).
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S. Karaveli and R. Zia, “Spectral tuning by selective enhancement of electric and magnetic dipole emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(19), 193004 (2011).
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M. Burresi, T. Kampfrath, D. van Oosten, J. C. Prangsma, B. S. Song, S. Noda, and L. Kuipers, “Magnetic light-matter interactions in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(12), 123901 (2010).
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Science (2)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, and L. Kuipers, “Probing the magnetic field of light at optical frequencies,” Science 326(5952), 550–553 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Shows layout of the experiment at oblique incidence (θ = 72°) and with arbitrary incident polarization (ϕ) for probe characterization. ϕ is varied using λ/2 wave plate and the state of the scattered polarization ( ψ sc ) is analyzed using linear polarizer. The polarization direction of the scattered light is indicated by maxima of the polar plot. (b) and (c) are the polar plots of variation of scattered intensity for varying incident polarization angle (ϕ) at two different incidence angles θ = 0° (normal) and at θ = 72° (oblique incidence) for Probe-I and Probe-II respectively. The solid arrow indicates direction of incident projected electric field ( E t ) , while the dashed arrow indicates the direction of projected incident magnetic field ( H t ) . For Probe-I, the maxima of collected radiation lobe follows E t ; while for Probe-II it follows H t .
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) and (b) show polar plots of variation of scattered polarization angle ( ψ sc ) with varying ϕ for Probe-I and Probe-II, respectively. Solid line represents theoretical fit to the experimental data. αn and βn are the estimated electric and magnetic field coupling coefficients normalized with condition α2 + β2 = 1 obtained from fitting experimental results of the variation of diffracted field polarization collected through NSOM probes with component of E diff =α E t +β( n × H t ) . (c) Schematic of the field components and parameters used for modelling. Symbols a and w denote the diameter of the dielectric aperture (in nm) and width of the metal coating (in nm). The incident field vectors are represented by E i (blue arrow) and H i (red arrow). The projected component of field vectors are shown by E t (blue arrow) and H t (red arrow). The amplitude and polarization direction of collected light is represented by E diff and ψ E diff .
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Variation of collected intensity ratio of TM and TE polarized incident light for various metal rim width (w) of NSOM probes: a parameter representing change in optical magnetic field sensitivity with metal rim width. (b) Shows change in the normalized electric (αn) and magnetic field coupling coefficient (βn) with varying metal rim width (w). For NSOM probes with width w > 400 nm, the collected intensity for TM polarization is larger than the TE polarization state. Fig (c) and (d) shows the calculated surface current intensity (shown by color contrast) and direction of current distributions (by white arrow) around a dielectric aperture of size 0.1 λ in metallic NSOM probe of rim width 0.1 λ and 0.5 λ respectively. The projected components of incident electric and magnetic field directions E t and H t inside the aperture are indicated by blue and red arrow respectively. The induced surface current, for NSOM probe with metallic rim width 0.1 λ is along the E t while, for NSOM probe with metallic rim width of 0.5 λ, it’s along the H t .
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Schematic of experiment to generate Hertz’s standing wave at optical frequency. FESEM images of probe-I is shown in fig (b). The collection and scattering measurement of the vertical standing wave using Probe-I: the Electric probe using dual mode NSOM setup is shown in fig (c). Fig. (d) shows FESEM image of probe-II: the magnetic probe and the collection and scattering measurement of the vertical standing wave by this probe using dual mode NSOM setup is shown in Fig. (e). Phase difference of π/2 between collected and scattered signals from magnetic probes affirms the selective field sensitivity of NSOM probes.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Variation of ITM / ITE intensity ratio with aperture diameter a (in nm). ITM / ITE intensity is largely insensitive to the aperture diameter.

Equations (1)

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ψ E diff = cos 1 ( α E t cos ψ E t +β H t cos ψ n× H t ( α E t cos ψ E t +β H t cos ψ n× H t ) 2 + ( α E t sin ψ E t +β H t sin ψ n× H t ) 2 )

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