Abstract

We report on laser operation in the orange and red spectral range in samarium (Sm3+)-doped fluoride and oxide crystals at 300 K. Sm3+-doped LiLuF4 (LLF) and SrAl12O19 (SRA) crystals were grown by the Czochralski-technique and utilized for spectroscopic investigations and laser experiments. The spin-forbidden transitions of Sm3+exhibit low cross sections the order of 10−21 cm2, but high radiative upper state lifetimes of several ms in both crystal systems. Under 2ω-OPSL-pumping at 480 nm, orange laser operation was achieved with Sm:LLF and Sm,Mg:SRA at lasing wavelengths of 606 nm and 593 nm, respectively. Furthermore laser oscillation was demonstrated at 648 nm in the red and 703 nm in the deep red spectral range with Sm:LLF and Sm,Mg:SRA, respectively. Output power levels of several 10 mW were obtained at slope efficiencies of up to 15 %. Most of the realized lasers were operating in a strongly modulated or even self-pulsing regime.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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  5. M. Yamaga, H. Uno, S.-I. Tsuda, J.-P. R. Wells, and T. P. J. Han, “Resonant energy transfer and cross relaxation between Sm3+ ions in LiYF4 crystals,” J. Lumin. 132, 1608 (2012).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  7. C. Gheorghe, A. Lupei, L. Gheorghe, and A. Achim, “Growth and spectroscopic preliminary investigations of Sm3+ doped strontium hexa-aluminates single crystals,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 5, 116 (2011).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  33. D.-T. Marzahl, F. Reichert, P. W. Metz, M. Fechner, N.-O. Hansen, and G. Huber, “Efficient laser operation of diode-pumped Pr3+,Mg2+:SrAl12O19,” Appl. Phys. B 116, 109 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  34. F. Cornacchia, A. Richter, E. Heumann, G. Huber, D. Parisi, and M. Tonelli, “Visible laser emission of solid state pumped LiLuF4:Pr3+,” Opt. Express 15, 992 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  36. G. Q Wang, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Y. J. Chen, J. H. Huang, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “Polarized spectral properties of Sm3+:LiLuF4 crystal for visible laser application,” Opt. Mater. 37, 229 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  37. S. Duffy, J.-P. R. Wells, H. G. Gallagher, and T. P. J. Han, “Bridgman growth and laser excitation of LiYF4:Sm3+,” J. Cryst. Growth 203, 405 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  38. C. Gheorge, L. Gheorge, A. Achim, S. Hau, R. D. Avram, and G. Stanciu, “Optical properties of Sm3+doped strontium hexa-aluminate single crystals,” J. Alloy Compd. 622, 296 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  39. G. H. Dieke and R. Sarup, “Fluorescence spectrum and energy levels of the Sm2+ ion,” J. Chem. Phys. 36, 371 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  40. G. Huber, W. W. Krühler, W. Bludau, and H. G. Danielmeyer, “Anisotropy in the laser performance of NdP5O14,” Appl. Phys. 46, 3580 (1975).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

C. Gheorge, L. Gheorge, A. Achim, S. Hau, R. D. Avram, and G. Stanciu, “Optical properties of Sm3+doped strontium hexa-aluminate single crystals,” J. Alloy Compd. 622, 296 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (8)

G. Q Wang, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Y. J. Chen, J. H. Huang, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “Polarized spectral properties of Sm3+:LiLuF4 crystal for visible laser application,” Opt. Mater. 37, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

D.-T. Marzahl, F. Reichert, P. W. Metz, M. Fechner, N.-O. Hansen, and G. Huber, “Efficient laser operation of diode-pumped Pr3+,Mg2+:SrAl12O19,” Appl. Phys. B 116, 109 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. W. Metz, F. Reichert, F. Moglia, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “High-power red, orange, and green Pr3+LiYF4 lasers,” Opt. Lett. 39, 3193 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Pugh-Thomas, “Spectroscopic properties and Judd-Ofelt analysis of BaY2F8:Sm3+,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31, 1777 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Bolognesi, D. Parisi, D. Calonico, G. A. Costanzo, F. Levi, P. W. Metz, C. Kränkel, G. Huber, and M. Tonelli, “Yellow laser performance of Dy3+ in co-doped Dy,Tb:LiLuF4,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6628 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Gaponenko, P. W. Metz, A. Härkönen, A. Heuer, T. Leinonen, M. Guina, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and C. Kränkel, “SESAM mode-locked red praseodymium laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6939 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Yu, Y. Guo, L. Wang, H. M. Noh, B. K. Moon, B. C. Choi, and J. H. Jeong, “Characterizations and optical properties of orange-red emitting Sm3+-doped Y6WO12 phosphors,” J. Lumin. 155, 317 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Min, M. Fang, Z. Huang, Y. Liu, C. Tang, H. Zhu, and X. Wu, “Preparation and luminescent properties of orange reddish emitting phosphor LaMgAl11O19:Sm3+,” Opt. Mater. 37, 110 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

A. Lupei, V. Lupei, and C. Gheorghe, “Electronic structure of Sm3+ ions in YAG and cubic sesquioxide ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 36, 419 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

M. Yamaga, H. Uno, S.-I. Tsuda, J.-P. R. Wells, and T. P. J. Han, “Resonant energy transfer and cross relaxation between Sm3+ ions in LiYF4 crystals,” J. Lumin. 132, 1608 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Reichert, D.-T. Marzahl, P. Metz, M. Fechner, N.-O. Hansen, and G. Huber, “Efficient laser operation of Pr3+,Mg2+:SrAl12O19,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4889 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, F. Reichert, M. Fechner, A.-G. Paschke, N.-O. Hansen, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystalline Pr:SrAl12O19 waveguide laser in the visible spectral region,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Gün, P. Metz, and G. Huber, “Efficient continuous wave deep ultraviolet Pr3+:LiYF4 laser at 261.3 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181103 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Gheorghe, A. Lupei, L. Gheorghe, and A. Achim, “Growth and spectroscopic preliminary investigations of Sm3+ doped strontium hexa-aluminates single crystals,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 5, 116 (2011).

2009 (1)

D. Maier, R. Bertram, D. Klimm, and R. Fornari, “Influence of the atmosphere on the growth of LiYF4 single crystal fibers by the micro-pulling-down method,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 44, 137 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

A. Sreenivasulu and S. Buddudu, “Optical and structural characterization of RE3+ (Eu3+, Sm3+, Dy3+ & Pr3+):BaTiO3 and LiNbO3 ceramic powders,” Trans. Ind. Ceram. Soc. 67, 129 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Cornachia, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, A. Richter, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Efficient visible laser emission of GaN laser diode pumped Pr-doped fluoride scheelite crystals,” Opt. Express 16, 15932 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2003 (3)

A. A. Kamninskii, “Modern developments in the physics of crystalline laser materials,” Phys. Status Solidi (A) 200, 215 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. P. Vink, P. Dorenbos, and C. W. E. van Eijk, “Observation of the photon cascade emission process under 4f15d1 and host excitation in several Pr3+-doped materials,” J. Solid-State Chem. 171, 308 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. A. Rodnyi, P. Dorenbos, G. B. Stryganyuk, A. S. Potapov, and C. W. E. van Eijk, “Emission of Pr3+in SrAl12O19 under vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron excitation,” Condens. Mat. Phys. 15, 719 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

E. van der Kolk, P. Dorenbos, and C. W. E. Eijk, “Vacuum ultraviolet excitation of 1S0 and 3P0 emission of Pr3+ in Sr0.7La0.3Al11.7Mg0.3O19 and SrB4O7,” Condens. Mat. Phys. 13, 5471 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

S. Duffy, J.-P. R. Wells, H. G. Gallagher, and T. P. J. Han, “Bridgman growth and laser excitation of LiYF4:Sm3+,” J. Cryst. Growth 203, 405 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

P. Nachimuthu, R. Jagannathan, V. Nirmal Kumar, and D. Narayana Rao, “Absorption and emission sprectral studies of Sm3+ and Dy3+ ions in PbO-PbF2 glasses,” J. Non-Crystal. Sol. 217, 215 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

L. D. Merkle, B. Zhandi, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Guyot, H. R. Verdun, and B. McIntosh, “Spectroscopy and laser operation of Pr,Mg:SrAl12O19,” Appl. Phys. B 116, 109 (1996).

1991 (1)

S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, M. D. Seltzer, M. E. Hills, and J. B. Gruber, “Emission measurements and crystal-field calculations for 4G5/2 to 6H7/2 transitions in Sm3+:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 948 (1991).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

M. C. Farries, P. R. Morkel, and J. E. Townsend, “Samarium3+-doped glass laser operating at 651 nm,” Electron. Lett. 24, 709 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

L. A. Thompson and C. A. Gerdner, “Experiments on laser guide stars at Mauna Kea Observatory or adaptive imaging in astronomy,” Nature 328, 229 (1987).
[Crossref]

1979 (2)

B. N. Kazakov, M. S. Orlov, M. V. Petrov, A. L. Stolov, and A. M. Tkachuk, “Induced emission of Sm3+ ion in the visible region of the spectrum,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 47, 676 (1979).

F. Gantis, T. Y. Chemkova, and Y. P. Udalov, “SrO-Al2O3 System,” Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 24, 260 (1979).

1975 (1)

G. Huber, W. W. Krühler, W. Bludau, and H. G. Danielmeyer, “Anisotropy in the laser performance of NdP5O14,” Appl. Phys. 46, 3580 (1975).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

R. E. Thoma, G. D. Brunton, R. A. Penneman, and T. K. Keenan, “Equilibrium relations and crystal structure of lithium fluorolanthanate phases,” Inorg. Chem. 9, 1096 (1970).
[Crossref]

1963 (1)

1962 (1)

G. H. Dieke and R. Sarup, “Fluorescence spectrum and energy levels of the Sm2+ ion,” J. Chem. Phys. 36, 371 (1962).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

R. E. Thoma, C. F. Weaver, H. A. Friedman, H. Insley, L. A. Harris, and H. A. Yakel, “Phase equilibria in the system LiF-YF3,” J. Phys. Chem. 65, 1096 (1961).
[Crossref]

Achim, A.

C. Gheorge, L. Gheorge, A. Achim, S. Hau, R. D. Avram, and G. Stanciu, “Optical properties of Sm3+doped strontium hexa-aluminate single crystals,” J. Alloy Compd. 622, 296 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Gheorghe, A. Lupei, L. Gheorghe, and A. Achim, “Growth and spectroscopic preliminary investigations of Sm3+ doped strontium hexa-aluminates single crystals,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 5, 116 (2011).

Avram, R. D.

C. Gheorge, L. Gheorge, A. Achim, S. Hau, R. D. Avram, and G. Stanciu, “Optical properties of Sm3+doped strontium hexa-aluminate single crystals,” J. Alloy Compd. 622, 296 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bertram, R.

D. Maier, R. Bertram, D. Klimm, and R. Fornari, “Influence of the atmosphere on the growth of LiYF4 single crystal fibers by the micro-pulling-down method,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 44, 137 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bludau, W.

G. Huber, W. W. Krühler, W. Bludau, and H. G. Danielmeyer, “Anisotropy in the laser performance of NdP5O14,” Appl. Phys. 46, 3580 (1975).
[Crossref]

Bolognesi, G.

Brunton, G. D.

R. E. Thoma, G. D. Brunton, R. A. Penneman, and T. K. Keenan, “Equilibrium relations and crystal structure of lithium fluorolanthanate phases,” Inorg. Chem. 9, 1096 (1970).
[Crossref]

Buddudu, S.

A. Sreenivasulu and S. Buddudu, “Optical and structural characterization of RE3+ (Eu3+, Sm3+, Dy3+ & Pr3+):BaTiO3 and LiNbO3 ceramic powders,” Trans. Ind. Ceram. Soc. 67, 129 (2008).
[Crossref]

Calmano, T.

Calonico, D.

Chemkova, T. Y.

F. Gantis, T. Y. Chemkova, and Y. P. Udalov, “SrO-Al2O3 System,” Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 24, 260 (1979).

Chen, Y. J.

G. Q Wang, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Y. J. Chen, J. H. Huang, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “Polarized spectral properties of Sm3+:LiLuF4 crystal for visible laser application,” Opt. Mater. 37, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choi, B. C.

R. Yu, Y. Guo, L. Wang, H. M. Noh, B. K. Moon, B. C. Choi, and J. H. Jeong, “Characterizations and optical properties of orange-red emitting Sm3+-doped Y6WO12 phosphors,” J. Lumin. 155, 317 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cornacchia, F.

Cornachia, F.

Costanzo, G. A.

Crosswhite, H. M.

Danielmeyer, H. G.

G. Huber, W. W. Krühler, W. Bludau, and H. G. Danielmeyer, “Anisotropy in the laser performance of NdP5O14,” Appl. Phys. 46, 3580 (1975).
[Crossref]

Di Lieto, A.

Dieke, G. H.

G. H. Dieke and H. M. Crosswhite, “The spectra of the doubly and triply ionized rare earths,” Appl. Opt. 2, 675 (1963).
[Crossref]

G. H. Dieke and R. Sarup, “Fluorescence spectrum and energy levels of the Sm2+ ion,” J. Chem. Phys. 36, 371 (1962).
[Crossref]

Dorenbos, P.

A. P. Vink, P. Dorenbos, and C. W. E. van Eijk, “Observation of the photon cascade emission process under 4f15d1 and host excitation in several Pr3+-doped materials,” J. Solid-State Chem. 171, 308 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. A. Rodnyi, P. Dorenbos, G. B. Stryganyuk, A. S. Potapov, and C. W. E. van Eijk, “Emission of Pr3+in SrAl12O19 under vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron excitation,” Condens. Mat. Phys. 15, 719 (2003).
[Crossref]

E. van der Kolk, P. Dorenbos, and C. W. E. Eijk, “Vacuum ultraviolet excitation of 1S0 and 3P0 emission of Pr3+ in Sr0.7La0.3Al11.7Mg0.3O19 and SrB4O7,” Condens. Mat. Phys. 13, 5471 (2001).
[Crossref]

Duffy, S.

S. Duffy, J.-P. R. Wells, H. G. Gallagher, and T. P. J. Han, “Bridgman growth and laser excitation of LiYF4:Sm3+,” J. Cryst. Growth 203, 405 (1999).
[Crossref]

Eijk, C. W. E.

E. van der Kolk, P. Dorenbos, and C. W. E. Eijk, “Vacuum ultraviolet excitation of 1S0 and 3P0 emission of Pr3+ in Sr0.7La0.3Al11.7Mg0.3O19 and SrB4O7,” Condens. Mat. Phys. 13, 5471 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fang, M.

X. Min, M. Fang, Z. Huang, Y. Liu, C. Tang, H. Zhu, and X. Wu, “Preparation and luminescent properties of orange reddish emitting phosphor LaMgAl11O19:Sm3+,” Opt. Mater. 37, 110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Farries, M. C.

M. C. Farries, P. R. Morkel, and J. E. Townsend, “Samarium3+-doped glass laser operating at 651 nm,” Electron. Lett. 24, 709 (1988).
[Crossref]

Fechner, M.

Fornari, R.

D. Maier, R. Bertram, D. Klimm, and R. Fornari, “Influence of the atmosphere on the growth of LiYF4 single crystal fibers by the micro-pulling-down method,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 44, 137 (2009).
[Crossref]

Friedman, H. A.

R. E. Thoma, C. F. Weaver, H. A. Friedman, H. Insley, L. A. Harris, and H. A. Yakel, “Phase equilibria in the system LiF-YF3,” J. Phys. Chem. 65, 1096 (1961).
[Crossref]

Gallagher, H. G.

S. Duffy, J.-P. R. Wells, H. G. Gallagher, and T. P. J. Han, “Bridgman growth and laser excitation of LiYF4:Sm3+,” J. Cryst. Growth 203, 405 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gantis, F.

F. Gantis, T. Y. Chemkova, and Y. P. Udalov, “SrO-Al2O3 System,” Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 24, 260 (1979).

Gaponenko, M.

Gerdner, C. A.

L. A. Thompson and C. A. Gerdner, “Experiments on laser guide stars at Mauna Kea Observatory or adaptive imaging in astronomy,” Nature 328, 229 (1987).
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Gheorge, C.

C. Gheorge, L. Gheorge, A. Achim, S. Hau, R. D. Avram, and G. Stanciu, “Optical properties of Sm3+doped strontium hexa-aluminate single crystals,” J. Alloy Compd. 622, 296 (2015).
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Gheorge, L.

C. Gheorge, L. Gheorge, A. Achim, S. Hau, R. D. Avram, and G. Stanciu, “Optical properties of Sm3+doped strontium hexa-aluminate single crystals,” J. Alloy Compd. 622, 296 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gheorghe, C.

A. Lupei, V. Lupei, and C. Gheorghe, “Electronic structure of Sm3+ ions in YAG and cubic sesquioxide ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 36, 419 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Gheorghe, A. Lupei, L. Gheorghe, and A. Achim, “Growth and spectroscopic preliminary investigations of Sm3+ doped strontium hexa-aluminates single crystals,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 5, 116 (2011).

Gheorghe, L.

C. Gheorghe, A. Lupei, L. Gheorghe, and A. Achim, “Growth and spectroscopic preliminary investigations of Sm3+ doped strontium hexa-aluminates single crystals,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 5, 116 (2011).

Gong, X. H.

G. Q Wang, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Y. J. Chen, J. H. Huang, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “Polarized spectral properties of Sm3+:LiLuF4 crystal for visible laser application,” Opt. Mater. 37, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gruber, J. B.

S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, M. D. Seltzer, M. E. Hills, and J. B. Gruber, “Emission measurements and crystal-field calculations for 4G5/2 to 6H7/2 transitions in Sm3+:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 948 (1991).
[Crossref]

Guina, M.

Gün, T.

T. Gün, P. Metz, and G. Huber, “Efficient continuous wave deep ultraviolet Pr3+:LiYF4 laser at 261.3 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Guo, Y.

R. Yu, Y. Guo, L. Wang, H. M. Noh, B. K. Moon, B. C. Choi, and J. H. Jeong, “Characterizations and optical properties of orange-red emitting Sm3+-doped Y6WO12 phosphors,” J. Lumin. 155, 317 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guyot, Y. Y.

L. D. Merkle, B. Zhandi, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Guyot, H. R. Verdun, and B. McIntosh, “Spectroscopy and laser operation of Pr,Mg:SrAl12O19,” Appl. Phys. B 116, 109 (1996).

Han, T. P. J.

M. Yamaga, H. Uno, S.-I. Tsuda, J.-P. R. Wells, and T. P. J. Han, “Resonant energy transfer and cross relaxation between Sm3+ ions in LiYF4 crystals,” J. Lumin. 132, 1608 (2012).
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S. Duffy, J.-P. R. Wells, H. G. Gallagher, and T. P. J. Han, “Bridgman growth and laser excitation of LiYF4:Sm3+,” J. Cryst. Growth 203, 405 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hansen, N.-O.

D.-T. Marzahl, F. Reichert, P. W. Metz, M. Fechner, N.-O. Hansen, and G. Huber, “Efficient laser operation of diode-pumped Pr3+,Mg2+:SrAl12O19,” Appl. Phys. B 116, 109 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Reichert, D.-T. Marzahl, P. Metz, M. Fechner, N.-O. Hansen, and G. Huber, “Efficient laser operation of Pr3+,Mg2+:SrAl12O19,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4889 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, F. Reichert, M. Fechner, A.-G. Paschke, N.-O. Hansen, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystalline Pr:SrAl12O19 waveguide laser in the visible spectral region,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. W. Metz, F. Moglia, F. Reichert, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, N.-O. Hansen, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Novel rare earth solid state lasers with emission wavelengths in the visible spectral range,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Europe) 2013, Munich, Germany, paper: CA-2.5 (2013).

Härkönen, A.

Harris, L. A.

R. E. Thoma, C. F. Weaver, H. A. Friedman, H. Insley, L. A. Harris, and H. A. Yakel, “Phase equilibria in the system LiF-YF3,” J. Phys. Chem. 65, 1096 (1961).
[Crossref]

Hau, S.

C. Gheorge, L. Gheorge, A. Achim, S. Hau, R. D. Avram, and G. Stanciu, “Optical properties of Sm3+doped strontium hexa-aluminate single crystals,” J. Alloy Compd. 622, 296 (2015).
[Crossref]

Heuer, A.

Heumann, E.

Hills, M. E.

S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, M. D. Seltzer, M. E. Hills, and J. B. Gruber, “Emission measurements and crystal-field calculations for 4G5/2 to 6H7/2 transitions in Sm3+:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 948 (1991).
[Crossref]

Huang, J. H.

G. Q Wang, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Y. J. Chen, J. H. Huang, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “Polarized spectral properties of Sm3+:LiLuF4 crystal for visible laser application,” Opt. Mater. 37, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y. D.

G. Q Wang, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Y. J. Chen, J. H. Huang, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “Polarized spectral properties of Sm3+:LiLuF4 crystal for visible laser application,” Opt. Mater. 37, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, Z.

X. Min, M. Fang, Z. Huang, Y. Liu, C. Tang, H. Zhu, and X. Wu, “Preparation and luminescent properties of orange reddish emitting phosphor LaMgAl11O19:Sm3+,” Opt. Mater. 37, 110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huber, G.

D.-T. Marzahl, F. Reichert, P. W. Metz, M. Fechner, N.-O. Hansen, and G. Huber, “Efficient laser operation of diode-pumped Pr3+,Mg2+:SrAl12O19,” Appl. Phys. B 116, 109 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Bolognesi, D. Parisi, D. Calonico, G. A. Costanzo, F. Levi, P. W. Metz, C. Kränkel, G. Huber, and M. Tonelli, “Yellow laser performance of Dy3+ in co-doped Dy,Tb:LiLuF4,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6628 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. W. Metz, F. Reichert, F. Moglia, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “High-power red, orange, and green Pr3+LiYF4 lasers,” Opt. Lett. 39, 3193 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Gaponenko, P. W. Metz, A. Härkönen, A. Heuer, T. Leinonen, M. Guina, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and C. Kränkel, “SESAM mode-locked red praseodymium laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6939 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Reichert, D.-T. Marzahl, P. Metz, M. Fechner, N.-O. Hansen, and G. Huber, “Efficient laser operation of Pr3+,Mg2+:SrAl12O19,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4889 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, F. Reichert, M. Fechner, A.-G. Paschke, N.-O. Hansen, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystalline Pr:SrAl12O19 waveguide laser in the visible spectral region,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Gün, P. Metz, and G. Huber, “Efficient continuous wave deep ultraviolet Pr3+:LiYF4 laser at 261.3 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181103 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Cornachia, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, A. Richter, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Efficient visible laser emission of GaN laser diode pumped Pr-doped fluoride scheelite crystals,” Opt. Express 16, 15932 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Cornacchia, A. Richter, E. Heumann, G. Huber, D. Parisi, and M. Tonelli, “Visible laser emission of solid state pumped LiLuF4:Pr3+,” Opt. Express 15, 992 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Huber, W. W. Krühler, W. Bludau, and H. G. Danielmeyer, “Anisotropy in the laser performance of NdP5O14,” Appl. Phys. 46, 3580 (1975).
[Crossref]

P. W. Metz, F. Moglia, F. Reichert, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, N.-O. Hansen, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Novel rare earth solid state lasers with emission wavelengths in the visible spectral range,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Europe) 2013, Munich, Germany, paper: CA-2.5 (2013).

D.-T. Marzahl, F. Reichert, B. Stumpf, P. W. Metz, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties and laser operation of Sm,Mg:SrAl12O19,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/US) 2014, San José (CA), USA, paper: SM3F2 (2014).

Insley, H.

R. E. Thoma, C. F. Weaver, H. A. Friedman, H. Insley, L. A. Harris, and H. A. Yakel, “Phase equilibria in the system LiF-YF3,” J. Phys. Chem. 65, 1096 (1961).
[Crossref]

Jagannathan, R.

P. Nachimuthu, R. Jagannathan, V. Nirmal Kumar, and D. Narayana Rao, “Absorption and emission sprectral studies of Sm3+ and Dy3+ ions in PbO-PbF2 glasses,” J. Non-Crystal. Sol. 217, 215 (1997).
[Crossref]

Jenssen, H. P.

H. P. Jenssen, “Visible (orange) laser emission from Sm doped LiTbF4,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Technical Digest, (Optical Society of America, 1995), paper ME273.

Jeong, J. H.

R. Yu, Y. Guo, L. Wang, H. M. Noh, B. K. Moon, B. C. Choi, and J. H. Jeong, “Characterizations and optical properties of orange-red emitting Sm3+-doped Y6WO12 phosphors,” J. Lumin. 155, 317 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kamninskii, A. A.

A. A. Kamninskii, “Modern developments in the physics of crystalline laser materials,” Phys. Status Solidi (A) 200, 215 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kazakov, B. N.

B. N. Kazakov, M. S. Orlov, M. V. Petrov, A. L. Stolov, and A. M. Tkachuk, “Induced emission of Sm3+ ion in the visible region of the spectrum,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 47, 676 (1979).

Keenan, T. K.

R. E. Thoma, G. D. Brunton, R. A. Penneman, and T. K. Keenan, “Equilibrium relations and crystal structure of lithium fluorolanthanate phases,” Inorg. Chem. 9, 1096 (1970).
[Crossref]

Klimm, D.

D. Maier, R. Bertram, D. Klimm, and R. Fornari, “Influence of the atmosphere on the growth of LiYF4 single crystal fibers by the micro-pulling-down method,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 44, 137 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kränkel, C.

P. W. Metz, F. Reichert, F. Moglia, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “High-power red, orange, and green Pr3+LiYF4 lasers,” Opt. Lett. 39, 3193 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Gaponenko, P. W. Metz, A. Härkönen, A. Heuer, T. Leinonen, M. Guina, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and C. Kränkel, “SESAM mode-locked red praseodymium laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6939 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bolognesi, D. Parisi, D. Calonico, G. A. Costanzo, F. Levi, P. W. Metz, C. Kränkel, G. Huber, and M. Tonelli, “Yellow laser performance of Dy3+ in co-doped Dy,Tb:LiLuF4,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6628 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kränkel, D.-T. Marzahl, and P. W. Metz, “Novel lasers in the visible spectral range,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Pacific Rim) 2015, Busan, Korea, paper: 28G1-1 (invited) (2015)

D.-T. Marzahl, F. Reichert, B. Stumpf, P. W. Metz, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties and laser operation of Sm,Mg:SrAl12O19,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/US) 2014, San José (CA), USA, paper: SM3F2 (2014).

P. W. Metz, F. Moglia, F. Reichert, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, N.-O. Hansen, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Novel rare earth solid state lasers with emission wavelengths in the visible spectral range,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Europe) 2013, Munich, Germany, paper: CA-2.5 (2013).

Krühler, W. W.

G. Huber, W. W. Krühler, W. Bludau, and H. G. Danielmeyer, “Anisotropy in the laser performance of NdP5O14,” Appl. Phys. 46, 3580 (1975).
[Crossref]

Leinonen, T.

Levi, F.

Lin, Y. F.

G. Q Wang, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Y. J. Chen, J. H. Huang, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “Polarized spectral properties of Sm3+:LiLuF4 crystal for visible laser application,” Opt. Mater. 37, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

X. Min, M. Fang, Z. Huang, Y. Liu, C. Tang, H. Zhu, and X. Wu, “Preparation and luminescent properties of orange reddish emitting phosphor LaMgAl11O19:Sm3+,” Opt. Mater. 37, 110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Luo, Z. D.

G. Q Wang, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Y. J. Chen, J. H. Huang, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “Polarized spectral properties of Sm3+:LiLuF4 crystal for visible laser application,” Opt. Mater. 37, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lupei, A.

A. Lupei, V. Lupei, and C. Gheorghe, “Electronic structure of Sm3+ ions in YAG and cubic sesquioxide ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 36, 419 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Gheorghe, A. Lupei, L. Gheorghe, and A. Achim, “Growth and spectroscopic preliminary investigations of Sm3+ doped strontium hexa-aluminates single crystals,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 5, 116 (2011).

Lupei, V.

A. Lupei, V. Lupei, and C. Gheorghe, “Electronic structure of Sm3+ ions in YAG and cubic sesquioxide ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 36, 419 (2013).
[Crossref]

Maier, D.

D. Maier, R. Bertram, D. Klimm, and R. Fornari, “Influence of the atmosphere on the growth of LiYF4 single crystal fibers by the micro-pulling-down method,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 44, 137 (2009).
[Crossref]

Marzahl, D.-T.

D.-T. Marzahl, F. Reichert, P. W. Metz, M. Fechner, N.-O. Hansen, and G. Huber, “Efficient laser operation of diode-pumped Pr3+,Mg2+:SrAl12O19,” Appl. Phys. B 116, 109 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. W. Metz, F. Reichert, F. Moglia, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “High-power red, orange, and green Pr3+LiYF4 lasers,” Opt. Lett. 39, 3193 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Reichert, D.-T. Marzahl, P. Metz, M. Fechner, N.-O. Hansen, and G. Huber, “Efficient laser operation of Pr3+,Mg2+:SrAl12O19,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4889 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kränkel, D.-T. Marzahl, and P. W. Metz, “Novel lasers in the visible spectral range,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Pacific Rim) 2015, Busan, Korea, paper: 28G1-1 (invited) (2015)

P. W. Metz, F. Moglia, F. Reichert, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, N.-O. Hansen, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Novel rare earth solid state lasers with emission wavelengths in the visible spectral range,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Europe) 2013, Munich, Germany, paper: CA-2.5 (2013).

D.-T. Marzahl, F. Reichert, B. Stumpf, P. W. Metz, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties and laser operation of Sm,Mg:SrAl12O19,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/US) 2014, San José (CA), USA, paper: SM3F2 (2014).

McIntosh, B.

L. D. Merkle, B. Zhandi, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Guyot, H. R. Verdun, and B. McIntosh, “Spectroscopy and laser operation of Pr,Mg:SrAl12O19,” Appl. Phys. B 116, 109 (1996).

Merkle, L. D.

L. D. Merkle, B. Zhandi, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Guyot, H. R. Verdun, and B. McIntosh, “Spectroscopy and laser operation of Pr,Mg:SrAl12O19,” Appl. Phys. B 116, 109 (1996).

Metz, P.

F. Reichert, D.-T. Marzahl, P. Metz, M. Fechner, N.-O. Hansen, and G. Huber, “Efficient laser operation of Pr3+,Mg2+:SrAl12O19,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4889 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Gün, P. Metz, and G. Huber, “Efficient continuous wave deep ultraviolet Pr3+:LiYF4 laser at 261.3 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Metz, P. W.

D.-T. Marzahl, F. Reichert, P. W. Metz, M. Fechner, N.-O. Hansen, and G. Huber, “Efficient laser operation of diode-pumped Pr3+,Mg2+:SrAl12O19,” Appl. Phys. B 116, 109 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Bolognesi, D. Parisi, D. Calonico, G. A. Costanzo, F. Levi, P. W. Metz, C. Kränkel, G. Huber, and M. Tonelli, “Yellow laser performance of Dy3+ in co-doped Dy,Tb:LiLuF4,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6628 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. W. Metz, F. Reichert, F. Moglia, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “High-power red, orange, and green Pr3+LiYF4 lasers,” Opt. Lett. 39, 3193 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Gaponenko, P. W. Metz, A. Härkönen, A. Heuer, T. Leinonen, M. Guina, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and C. Kränkel, “SESAM mode-locked red praseodymium laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6939 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kränkel, D.-T. Marzahl, and P. W. Metz, “Novel lasers in the visible spectral range,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Pacific Rim) 2015, Busan, Korea, paper: 28G1-1 (invited) (2015)

D.-T. Marzahl, F. Reichert, B. Stumpf, P. W. Metz, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties and laser operation of Sm,Mg:SrAl12O19,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/US) 2014, San José (CA), USA, paper: SM3F2 (2014).

P. W. Metz, F. Moglia, F. Reichert, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, N.-O. Hansen, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Novel rare earth solid state lasers with emission wavelengths in the visible spectral range,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Europe) 2013, Munich, Germany, paper: CA-2.5 (2013).

Min, X.

X. Min, M. Fang, Z. Huang, Y. Liu, C. Tang, H. Zhu, and X. Wu, “Preparation and luminescent properties of orange reddish emitting phosphor LaMgAl11O19:Sm3+,” Opt. Mater. 37, 110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Moglia, F.

P. W. Metz, F. Reichert, F. Moglia, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “High-power red, orange, and green Pr3+LiYF4 lasers,” Opt. Lett. 39, 3193 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. W. Metz, F. Moglia, F. Reichert, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, N.-O. Hansen, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Novel rare earth solid state lasers with emission wavelengths in the visible spectral range,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Europe) 2013, Munich, Germany, paper: CA-2.5 (2013).

Moncorge, R.

L. D. Merkle, B. Zhandi, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Guyot, H. R. Verdun, and B. McIntosh, “Spectroscopy and laser operation of Pr,Mg:SrAl12O19,” Appl. Phys. B 116, 109 (1996).

Moon, B. K.

R. Yu, Y. Guo, L. Wang, H. M. Noh, B. K. Moon, B. C. Choi, and J. H. Jeong, “Characterizations and optical properties of orange-red emitting Sm3+-doped Y6WO12 phosphors,” J. Lumin. 155, 317 (2014).
[Crossref]

Morkel, P. R.

M. C. Farries, P. R. Morkel, and J. E. Townsend, “Samarium3+-doped glass laser operating at 651 nm,” Electron. Lett. 24, 709 (1988).
[Crossref]

Morrison, C. A.

S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, M. D. Seltzer, M. E. Hills, and J. B. Gruber, “Emission measurements and crystal-field calculations for 4G5/2 to 6H7/2 transitions in Sm3+:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 948 (1991).
[Crossref]

Müller, S.

P. W. Metz, F. Reichert, F. Moglia, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “High-power red, orange, and green Pr3+LiYF4 lasers,” Opt. Lett. 39, 3193 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. W. Metz, F. Moglia, F. Reichert, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, N.-O. Hansen, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Novel rare earth solid state lasers with emission wavelengths in the visible spectral range,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Europe) 2013, Munich, Germany, paper: CA-2.5 (2013).

Nachimuthu, P.

P. Nachimuthu, R. Jagannathan, V. Nirmal Kumar, and D. Narayana Rao, “Absorption and emission sprectral studies of Sm3+ and Dy3+ ions in PbO-PbF2 glasses,” J. Non-Crystal. Sol. 217, 215 (1997).
[Crossref]

Narayana Rao, D.

P. Nachimuthu, R. Jagannathan, V. Nirmal Kumar, and D. Narayana Rao, “Absorption and emission sprectral studies of Sm3+ and Dy3+ ions in PbO-PbF2 glasses,” J. Non-Crystal. Sol. 217, 215 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nirmal Kumar, V.

P. Nachimuthu, R. Jagannathan, V. Nirmal Kumar, and D. Narayana Rao, “Absorption and emission sprectral studies of Sm3+ and Dy3+ ions in PbO-PbF2 glasses,” J. Non-Crystal. Sol. 217, 215 (1997).
[Crossref]

Noh, H. M.

R. Yu, Y. Guo, L. Wang, H. M. Noh, B. K. Moon, B. C. Choi, and J. H. Jeong, “Characterizations and optical properties of orange-red emitting Sm3+-doped Y6WO12 phosphors,” J. Lumin. 155, 317 (2014).
[Crossref]

Orlov, M. S.

B. N. Kazakov, M. S. Orlov, M. V. Petrov, A. L. Stolov, and A. M. Tkachuk, “Induced emission of Sm3+ ion in the visible region of the spectrum,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 47, 676 (1979).

Parisi, D.

Paschke, A.-G.

Penneman, R. A.

R. E. Thoma, G. D. Brunton, R. A. Penneman, and T. K. Keenan, “Equilibrium relations and crystal structure of lithium fluorolanthanate phases,” Inorg. Chem. 9, 1096 (1970).
[Crossref]

Petermann, K.

Petrov, M. V.

B. N. Kazakov, M. S. Orlov, M. V. Petrov, A. L. Stolov, and A. M. Tkachuk, “Induced emission of Sm3+ ion in the visible region of the spectrum,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 47, 676 (1979).

Potapov, A. S.

P. A. Rodnyi, P. Dorenbos, G. B. Stryganyuk, A. S. Potapov, and C. W. E. van Eijk, “Emission of Pr3+in SrAl12O19 under vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron excitation,” Condens. Mat. Phys. 15, 719 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pugh-Thomas, D.

Reichert, F.

P. W. Metz, F. Reichert, F. Moglia, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “High-power red, orange, and green Pr3+LiYF4 lasers,” Opt. Lett. 39, 3193 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D.-T. Marzahl, F. Reichert, P. W. Metz, M. Fechner, N.-O. Hansen, and G. Huber, “Efficient laser operation of diode-pumped Pr3+,Mg2+:SrAl12O19,” Appl. Phys. B 116, 109 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Reichert, D.-T. Marzahl, P. Metz, M. Fechner, N.-O. Hansen, and G. Huber, “Efficient laser operation of Pr3+,Mg2+:SrAl12O19,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4889 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, F. Reichert, M. Fechner, A.-G. Paschke, N.-O. Hansen, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystalline Pr:SrAl12O19 waveguide laser in the visible spectral region,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. W. Metz, F. Moglia, F. Reichert, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, N.-O. Hansen, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Novel rare earth solid state lasers with emission wavelengths in the visible spectral range,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Europe) 2013, Munich, Germany, paper: CA-2.5 (2013).

D.-T. Marzahl, F. Reichert, B. Stumpf, P. W. Metz, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties and laser operation of Sm,Mg:SrAl12O19,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/US) 2014, San José (CA), USA, paper: SM3F2 (2014).

Richter, A.

Rodnyi, P. A.

P. A. Rodnyi, P. Dorenbos, G. B. Stryganyuk, A. S. Potapov, and C. W. E. van Eijk, “Emission of Pr3+in SrAl12O19 under vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron excitation,” Condens. Mat. Phys. 15, 719 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sarup, R.

G. H. Dieke and R. Sarup, “Fluorescence spectrum and energy levels of the Sm2+ ion,” J. Chem. Phys. 36, 371 (1962).
[Crossref]

Seltzer, M. D.

S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, M. D. Seltzer, M. E. Hills, and J. B. Gruber, “Emission measurements and crystal-field calculations for 4G5/2 to 6H7/2 transitions in Sm3+:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 948 (1991).
[Crossref]

Siebenmorgen, J.

Sreenivasulu, A.

A. Sreenivasulu and S. Buddudu, “Optical and structural characterization of RE3+ (Eu3+, Sm3+, Dy3+ & Pr3+):BaTiO3 and LiNbO3 ceramic powders,” Trans. Ind. Ceram. Soc. 67, 129 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stanciu, G.

C. Gheorge, L. Gheorge, A. Achim, S. Hau, R. D. Avram, and G. Stanciu, “Optical properties of Sm3+doped strontium hexa-aluminate single crystals,” J. Alloy Compd. 622, 296 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stevens, S. B.

S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, M. D. Seltzer, M. E. Hills, and J. B. Gruber, “Emission measurements and crystal-field calculations for 4G5/2 to 6H7/2 transitions in Sm3+:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 948 (1991).
[Crossref]

Stolov, A. L.

B. N. Kazakov, M. S. Orlov, M. V. Petrov, A. L. Stolov, and A. M. Tkachuk, “Induced emission of Sm3+ ion in the visible region of the spectrum,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 47, 676 (1979).

Stryganyuk, G. B.

P. A. Rodnyi, P. Dorenbos, G. B. Stryganyuk, A. S. Potapov, and C. W. E. van Eijk, “Emission of Pr3+in SrAl12O19 under vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron excitation,” Condens. Mat. Phys. 15, 719 (2003).
[Crossref]

Stumpf, B.

D.-T. Marzahl, F. Reichert, B. Stumpf, P. W. Metz, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties and laser operation of Sm,Mg:SrAl12O19,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/US) 2014, San José (CA), USA, paper: SM3F2 (2014).

Südmeyer, T.

Tang, C.

X. Min, M. Fang, Z. Huang, Y. Liu, C. Tang, H. Zhu, and X. Wu, “Preparation and luminescent properties of orange reddish emitting phosphor LaMgAl11O19:Sm3+,” Opt. Mater. 37, 110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Thoma, R. E.

R. E. Thoma, G. D. Brunton, R. A. Penneman, and T. K. Keenan, “Equilibrium relations and crystal structure of lithium fluorolanthanate phases,” Inorg. Chem. 9, 1096 (1970).
[Crossref]

R. E. Thoma, C. F. Weaver, H. A. Friedman, H. Insley, L. A. Harris, and H. A. Yakel, “Phase equilibria in the system LiF-YF3,” J. Phys. Chem. 65, 1096 (1961).
[Crossref]

Thompson, L. A.

L. A. Thompson and C. A. Gerdner, “Experiments on laser guide stars at Mauna Kea Observatory or adaptive imaging in astronomy,” Nature 328, 229 (1987).
[Crossref]

Tkachuk, A. M.

B. N. Kazakov, M. S. Orlov, M. V. Petrov, A. L. Stolov, and A. M. Tkachuk, “Induced emission of Sm3+ ion in the visible region of the spectrum,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 47, 676 (1979).

Tonelli, M.

Townsend, J. E.

M. C. Farries, P. R. Morkel, and J. E. Townsend, “Samarium3+-doped glass laser operating at 651 nm,” Electron. Lett. 24, 709 (1988).
[Crossref]

Tsuda, S.-I.

M. Yamaga, H. Uno, S.-I. Tsuda, J.-P. R. Wells, and T. P. J. Han, “Resonant energy transfer and cross relaxation between Sm3+ ions in LiYF4 crystals,” J. Lumin. 132, 1608 (2012).
[Crossref]

Udalov, Y. P.

F. Gantis, T. Y. Chemkova, and Y. P. Udalov, “SrO-Al2O3 System,” Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 24, 260 (1979).

Uno, H.

M. Yamaga, H. Uno, S.-I. Tsuda, J.-P. R. Wells, and T. P. J. Han, “Resonant energy transfer and cross relaxation between Sm3+ ions in LiYF4 crystals,” J. Lumin. 132, 1608 (2012).
[Crossref]

van der Kolk, E.

E. van der Kolk, P. Dorenbos, and C. W. E. Eijk, “Vacuum ultraviolet excitation of 1S0 and 3P0 emission of Pr3+ in Sr0.7La0.3Al11.7Mg0.3O19 and SrB4O7,” Condens. Mat. Phys. 13, 5471 (2001).
[Crossref]

van Eijk, C. W. E.

P. A. Rodnyi, P. Dorenbos, G. B. Stryganyuk, A. S. Potapov, and C. W. E. van Eijk, “Emission of Pr3+in SrAl12O19 under vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron excitation,” Condens. Mat. Phys. 15, 719 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. P. Vink, P. Dorenbos, and C. W. E. van Eijk, “Observation of the photon cascade emission process under 4f15d1 and host excitation in several Pr3+-doped materials,” J. Solid-State Chem. 171, 308 (2003).
[Crossref]

Verdun, H. R.

L. D. Merkle, B. Zhandi, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Guyot, H. R. Verdun, and B. McIntosh, “Spectroscopy and laser operation of Pr,Mg:SrAl12O19,” Appl. Phys. B 116, 109 (1996).

Vink, A. P.

A. P. Vink, P. Dorenbos, and C. W. E. van Eijk, “Observation of the photon cascade emission process under 4f15d1 and host excitation in several Pr3+-doped materials,” J. Solid-State Chem. 171, 308 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, G. Q

G. Q Wang, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Y. J. Chen, J. H. Huang, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “Polarized spectral properties of Sm3+:LiLuF4 crystal for visible laser application,” Opt. Mater. 37, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

R. Yu, Y. Guo, L. Wang, H. M. Noh, B. K. Moon, B. C. Choi, and J. H. Jeong, “Characterizations and optical properties of orange-red emitting Sm3+-doped Y6WO12 phosphors,” J. Lumin. 155, 317 (2014).
[Crossref]

Weaver, C. F.

R. E. Thoma, C. F. Weaver, H. A. Friedman, H. Insley, L. A. Harris, and H. A. Yakel, “Phase equilibria in the system LiF-YF3,” J. Phys. Chem. 65, 1096 (1961).
[Crossref]

Wells, J.-P. R.

M. Yamaga, H. Uno, S.-I. Tsuda, J.-P. R. Wells, and T. P. J. Han, “Resonant energy transfer and cross relaxation between Sm3+ ions in LiYF4 crystals,” J. Lumin. 132, 1608 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Duffy, J.-P. R. Wells, H. G. Gallagher, and T. P. J. Han, “Bridgman growth and laser excitation of LiYF4:Sm3+,” J. Cryst. Growth 203, 405 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

X. Min, M. Fang, Z. Huang, Y. Liu, C. Tang, H. Zhu, and X. Wu, “Preparation and luminescent properties of orange reddish emitting phosphor LaMgAl11O19:Sm3+,” Opt. Mater. 37, 110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yakel, H. A.

R. E. Thoma, C. F. Weaver, H. A. Friedman, H. Insley, L. A. Harris, and H. A. Yakel, “Phase equilibria in the system LiF-YF3,” J. Phys. Chem. 65, 1096 (1961).
[Crossref]

Yamaga, M.

M. Yamaga, H. Uno, S.-I. Tsuda, J.-P. R. Wells, and T. P. J. Han, “Resonant energy transfer and cross relaxation between Sm3+ ions in LiYF4 crystals,” J. Lumin. 132, 1608 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yu, R.

R. Yu, Y. Guo, L. Wang, H. M. Noh, B. K. Moon, B. C. Choi, and J. H. Jeong, “Characterizations and optical properties of orange-red emitting Sm3+-doped Y6WO12 phosphors,” J. Lumin. 155, 317 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhandi, B.

L. D. Merkle, B. Zhandi, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Guyot, H. R. Verdun, and B. McIntosh, “Spectroscopy and laser operation of Pr,Mg:SrAl12O19,” Appl. Phys. B 116, 109 (1996).

Zhu, H.

X. Min, M. Fang, Z. Huang, Y. Liu, C. Tang, H. Zhu, and X. Wu, “Preparation and luminescent properties of orange reddish emitting phosphor LaMgAl11O19:Sm3+,” Opt. Mater. 37, 110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Huber, W. W. Krühler, W. Bludau, and H. G. Danielmeyer, “Anisotropy in the laser performance of NdP5O14,” Appl. Phys. 46, 3580 (1975).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

D.-T. Marzahl, F. Reichert, P. W. Metz, M. Fechner, N.-O. Hansen, and G. Huber, “Efficient laser operation of diode-pumped Pr3+,Mg2+:SrAl12O19,” Appl. Phys. B 116, 109 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. D. Merkle, B. Zhandi, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Guyot, H. R. Verdun, and B. McIntosh, “Spectroscopy and laser operation of Pr,Mg:SrAl12O19,” Appl. Phys. B 116, 109 (1996).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Gün, P. Metz, and G. Huber, “Efficient continuous wave deep ultraviolet Pr3+:LiYF4 laser at 261.3 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Condens. Mat. Phys. (2)

P. A. Rodnyi, P. Dorenbos, G. B. Stryganyuk, A. S. Potapov, and C. W. E. van Eijk, “Emission of Pr3+in SrAl12O19 under vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron excitation,” Condens. Mat. Phys. 15, 719 (2003).
[Crossref]

E. van der Kolk, P. Dorenbos, and C. W. E. Eijk, “Vacuum ultraviolet excitation of 1S0 and 3P0 emission of Pr3+ in Sr0.7La0.3Al11.7Mg0.3O19 and SrB4O7,” Condens. Mat. Phys. 13, 5471 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cryst. Res. Technol. (1)

D. Maier, R. Bertram, D. Klimm, and R. Fornari, “Influence of the atmosphere on the growth of LiYF4 single crystal fibers by the micro-pulling-down method,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 44, 137 (2009).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. C. Farries, P. R. Morkel, and J. E. Townsend, “Samarium3+-doped glass laser operating at 651 nm,” Electron. Lett. 24, 709 (1988).
[Crossref]

Inorg. Chem. (1)

R. E. Thoma, G. D. Brunton, R. A. Penneman, and T. K. Keenan, “Equilibrium relations and crystal structure of lithium fluorolanthanate phases,” Inorg. Chem. 9, 1096 (1970).
[Crossref]

J. Alloy Compd. (1)

C. Gheorge, L. Gheorge, A. Achim, S. Hau, R. D. Avram, and G. Stanciu, “Optical properties of Sm3+doped strontium hexa-aluminate single crystals,” J. Alloy Compd. 622, 296 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, M. D. Seltzer, M. E. Hills, and J. B. Gruber, “Emission measurements and crystal-field calculations for 4G5/2 to 6H7/2 transitions in Sm3+:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 948 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

G. H. Dieke and R. Sarup, “Fluorescence spectrum and energy levels of the Sm2+ ion,” J. Chem. Phys. 36, 371 (1962).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

S. Duffy, J.-P. R. Wells, H. G. Gallagher, and T. P. J. Han, “Bridgman growth and laser excitation of LiYF4:Sm3+,” J. Cryst. Growth 203, 405 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (2)

M. Yamaga, H. Uno, S.-I. Tsuda, J.-P. R. Wells, and T. P. J. Han, “Resonant energy transfer and cross relaxation between Sm3+ ions in LiYF4 crystals,” J. Lumin. 132, 1608 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Yu, Y. Guo, L. Wang, H. M. Noh, B. K. Moon, B. C. Choi, and J. H. Jeong, “Characterizations and optical properties of orange-red emitting Sm3+-doped Y6WO12 phosphors,” J. Lumin. 155, 317 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Crystal. Sol. (1)

P. Nachimuthu, R. Jagannathan, V. Nirmal Kumar, and D. Narayana Rao, “Absorption and emission sprectral studies of Sm3+ and Dy3+ ions in PbO-PbF2 glasses,” J. Non-Crystal. Sol. 217, 215 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. (1)

C. Gheorghe, A. Lupei, L. Gheorghe, and A. Achim, “Growth and spectroscopic preliminary investigations of Sm3+ doped strontium hexa-aluminates single crystals,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 5, 116 (2011).

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

R. E. Thoma, C. F. Weaver, H. A. Friedman, H. Insley, L. A. Harris, and H. A. Yakel, “Phase equilibria in the system LiF-YF3,” J. Phys. Chem. 65, 1096 (1961).
[Crossref]

J. Solid-State Chem. (1)

A. P. Vink, P. Dorenbos, and C. W. E. van Eijk, “Observation of the photon cascade emission process under 4f15d1 and host excitation in several Pr3+-doped materials,” J. Solid-State Chem. 171, 308 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

L. A. Thompson and C. A. Gerdner, “Experiments on laser guide stars at Mauna Kea Observatory or adaptive imaging in astronomy,” Nature 328, 229 (1987).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Mater. (3)

G. Q Wang, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Y. J. Chen, J. H. Huang, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “Polarized spectral properties of Sm3+:LiLuF4 crystal for visible laser application,” Opt. Mater. 37, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Lupei, V. Lupei, and C. Gheorghe, “Electronic structure of Sm3+ ions in YAG and cubic sesquioxide ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 36, 419 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Min, M. Fang, Z. Huang, Y. Liu, C. Tang, H. Zhu, and X. Wu, “Preparation and luminescent properties of orange reddish emitting phosphor LaMgAl11O19:Sm3+,” Opt. Mater. 37, 110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) (1)

B. N. Kazakov, M. S. Orlov, M. V. Petrov, A. L. Stolov, and A. M. Tkachuk, “Induced emission of Sm3+ ion in the visible region of the spectrum,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 47, 676 (1979).

Phys. Status Solidi (A) (1)

A. A. Kamninskii, “Modern developments in the physics of crystalline laser materials,” Phys. Status Solidi (A) 200, 215 (2003).
[Crossref]

Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. (1)

F. Gantis, T. Y. Chemkova, and Y. P. Udalov, “SrO-Al2O3 System,” Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 24, 260 (1979).

Trans. Ind. Ceram. Soc. (1)

A. Sreenivasulu and S. Buddudu, “Optical and structural characterization of RE3+ (Eu3+, Sm3+, Dy3+ & Pr3+):BaTiO3 and LiNbO3 ceramic powders,” Trans. Ind. Ceram. Soc. 67, 129 (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

P. W. Metz, F. Moglia, F. Reichert, S. Müller, D.-T. Marzahl, N.-O. Hansen, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Novel rare earth solid state lasers with emission wavelengths in the visible spectral range,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Europe) 2013, Munich, Germany, paper: CA-2.5 (2013).

D.-T. Marzahl, F. Reichert, B. Stumpf, P. W. Metz, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties and laser operation of Sm,Mg:SrAl12O19,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/US) 2014, San José (CA), USA, paper: SM3F2 (2014).

H. P. Jenssen, “Visible (orange) laser emission from Sm doped LiTbF4,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, OSA Technical Digest, (Optical Society of America, 1995), paper ME273.

C. Kränkel, D.-T. Marzahl, and P. W. Metz, “Novel lasers in the visible spectral range,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Pacific Rim) 2015, Busan, Korea, paper: 28G1-1 (invited) (2015)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Energy level scheme of Sm3+(after [1]). Colored upwards arrows indicate absorption, colored downward arrows indicate emission, and black arrows indicate cross relaxation processes.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Polarization dependent ground state absorption cross sections of Sm(1.2 at.%):LiLuF4 (left) and Sm,Mg(6.7 at.%):SrAl12O19 (right). (Please note the different scales. For presentation the cross sections of Sm,Mg:SRA are divided by a factor of 10 for λ ≤ 450 nm.)
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Polarization dependent emission cross sections of Sm:LiLuF4 (Sm:LLF, left) and Sm,Mg:SrAl12O19 (Sm,Mg:SRA, right).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Laser characteristics of Sm(1.2 at.%):LiLuF4 (Sm(1.2 at.%):LLF, left) in the orange and red at 606 nm and 648 nm, respectively, and Sm,Mg(6.8 at.%):SrAl12O19 (Sm,Mg(6.8 at.%):SRA, right) in the orange and deep red at 593 nm and 703 nm, respectively. To obtain laser operation at 593 nm, the pump beam was modulated with a mechanical chopper (dashed lines). Due to a strong self-modulation of the laser output power in most cases, the average output powers are stated.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Exemplary laser output traces of Sm(1.2 at.%):LiLuF4 (top) and Sm,Mg(6.8 at.%):SrAl12O19 (bottom). The output traces of Sm:LLF are shown for λlas = 606 nm and different output coupling ratios TOC at maximum output power. The output traces of Sm,Mg:SRA are shown for different laser wavelengths λlas at their respective maximum average output powers.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Crystal growth parameters for Sm:LiLuF4 (Sm:LLF) and Sm,Mg:SrAl12O19 (Sm,Mg:SRA).

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