Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a microfiber-graphene device. Owing to the interaction between the graphene film and the evanescent field leaked from the microfiber, the hybrid photoconductive device exhibits a high photoresponse. A maximum photocurrent responsivity of ~2.81 mA/W is achieved in the telecommunication band. A nearly flat photoresponse spectrum within broad operational band ranging from 1500 nm to 1600 nm is also obtained as a consequence of the dispersionless and flat absorption of graphene. These results show that the proposed photocurrent generation device could provide an effective solution for broadband photodetection.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  2. Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. H. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  3. F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-Layer Graphene Optical Modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. S. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 720 (2012).
  8. Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  10. Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. Mueller, F. N. A. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 297–301 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  12. X. M. Wang, Z. Z. Cheng, K. Xu, H. K. Tsang, and J. B. Xu, “High-responsivity graphene/silicon-heterostructure waveguide photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 888–891 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Freitag, T. Low, F. N. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Photoconductivity of biased graphene,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 53–59 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. X. T. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. D. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and T. Mueller, “Microcavity-Integrated Graphene Photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2773–2777 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. A. Pospischil, M. Humer, M. M. Furchi, D. Bachmann, R. Guider, T. Fromherz, and T. Mueller, “CMOS-compatible graphene photodetector covering all optical communication bands,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 892–896 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  18. A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. P. Avouris, “Graphene: Electronic and Photonic Properties and Devices,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4285–4294 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. J. C. W. Song, M. S. Rudner, C. M. Marcus, and L. S. Levitov, “Hot Carrier Transport and Photocurrent Response in Graphene,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4688–4692 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. K. J. Tielrooij, J. C. W. Song, S. A. Jensen, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, A. Zurutuza Elorza, M. Bonn, L. S. Levitov, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Photoexcitation cascade and multiple hot-carrier generation in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 9(4), 248–252 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  23. T. Wang, X. Li, F. Liu, W. Long, Z. Zhang, L. Tong, and Y. Su, “Enhanced fast light in microfiber ring resonator with a Sagnac loop reflector,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16156–16161 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. C. Qiu, W. Gao, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Efficient Modulation of 1.55 μm Radiation with Gated Graphene on a Silicon Microring Resonator,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6811–6815 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. H. Lee, K. Heo, J. Park, Y. Park, S. Noh, K. S. Kim, C. Lee, B. H. Hong, J. Jian, and S. Hong, “Graphene-nanowire hybrid structures for high-performance photoconductive devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(17), 8372–8376 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  27. C. G. Kang, S. K. Lee, S. Choe, Y. G. Lee, C. L. Lee, and B. H. Lee, “Intrinsic photocurrent characteristics of graphene photodetectors passivated with Al₂O₃,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23391–23400 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. C. G. Kang, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yoo, W. Park, U. Jung, J. Ahn, and B. H. Lee, “Highly sensitive wide bandwidth photodetectors using chemical vapor deposited graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161902 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  29. G. Konstantatos, J. Clifford, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Sensitive solution-processed visible-wavelength photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 531–534 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  30. C. T. Phare, Y.-H. D. Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

C. T. Phare, Y.-H. D. Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

C. Qiu, W. Gao, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Efficient Modulation of 1.55 μm Radiation with Gated Graphene on a Silicon Microring Resonator,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6811–6815 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Kang, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yoo, W. Park, U. Jung, J. Ahn, and B. H. Lee, “Highly sensitive wide bandwidth photodetectors using chemical vapor deposited graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161902 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

C. G. Kang, S. K. Lee, S. Choe, Y. G. Lee, C. L. Lee, and B. H. Lee, “Intrinsic photocurrent characteristics of graphene photodetectors passivated with Al₂O₃,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23391–23400 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Tielrooij, J. C. W. Song, S. A. Jensen, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, A. Zurutuza Elorza, M. Bonn, L. S. Levitov, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Photoexcitation cascade and multiple hot-carrier generation in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 9(4), 248–252 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. M. Wang, Z. Z. Cheng, K. Xu, H. K. Tsang, and J. B. Xu, “High-responsivity graphene/silicon-heterostructure waveguide photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 888–891 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Freitag, T. Low, F. N. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Photoconductivity of biased graphene,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 53–59 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. T. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. D. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Pospischil, M. Humer, M. M. Furchi, D. Bachmann, R. Guider, T. Fromherz, and T. Mueller, “CMOS-compatible graphene photodetector covering all optical communication bands,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 892–896 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and T. Mueller, “Microcavity-Integrated Graphene Photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2773–2777 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-Layer Graphene Optical Modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. S. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 720 (2012).

H. Lee, K. Heo, J. Park, Y. Park, S. Noh, K. S. Kim, C. Lee, B. H. Hong, J. Jian, and S. Hong, “Graphene-nanowire hybrid structures for high-performance photoconductive devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(17), 8372–8376 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

J. C. W. Song, M. S. Rudner, C. M. Marcus, and L. S. Levitov, “Hot Carrier Transport and Photocurrent Response in Graphene,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4688–4692 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. H. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (7)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Mueller, F. N. A. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 297–301 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Avouris, “Graphene: Electronic and Photonic Properties and Devices,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4285–4294 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wang, X. Li, F. Liu, W. Long, Z. Zhang, L. Tong, and Y. Su, “Enhanced fast light in microfiber ring resonator with a Sagnac loop reflector,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16156–16161 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Konstantatos, J. Clifford, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Sensitive solution-processed visible-wavelength photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 531–534 (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, J.

C. G. Kang, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yoo, W. Park, U. Jung, J. Ahn, and B. H. Lee, “Highly sensitive wide bandwidth photodetectors using chemical vapor deposited graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ajayan, P. M.

C. Qiu, W. Gao, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Efficient Modulation of 1.55 μm Radiation with Gated Graphene on a Silicon Microring Resonator,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6811–6815 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andrews, A. M.

M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and T. Mueller, “Microcavity-Integrated Graphene Photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2773–2777 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashcom, J. B.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Assefa, S.

X. T. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. D. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

Avouris, P.

M. Freitag, T. Low, F. N. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Photoconductivity of biased graphene,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 53–59 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Mueller, F. N. A. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 297–301 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Avouris, “Graphene: Electronic and Photonic Properties and Devices,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4285–4294 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bachmann, D.

A. Pospischil, M. Humer, M. M. Furchi, D. Bachmann, R. Guider, T. Fromherz, and T. Mueller, “CMOS-compatible graphene photodetector covering all optical communication bands,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 892–896 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bae, M. K.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q. L.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. H. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

Blake, P.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonn, M.

K. J. Tielrooij, J. C. W. Song, S. A. Jensen, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, A. Zurutuza Elorza, M. Bonn, L. S. Levitov, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Photoexcitation cascade and multiple hot-carrier generation in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 9(4), 248–252 (2013).
[Crossref]

Booth, T. J.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cardenas, J.

C. T. Phare, Y.-H. D. Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
[Crossref]

Centeno, A.

K. J. Tielrooij, J. C. W. Song, S. A. Jensen, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, A. Zurutuza Elorza, M. Bonn, L. S. Levitov, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Photoexcitation cascade and multiple hot-carrier generation in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 9(4), 248–252 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Z. Z.

X. M. Wang, Z. Z. Cheng, K. Xu, H. K. Tsang, and J. B. Xu, “High-responsivity graphene/silicon-heterostructure waveguide photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 888–891 (2013).
[Crossref]

Choe, S.

Clifford, J.

G. Konstantatos, J. Clifford, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Sensitive solution-processed visible-wavelength photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 531–534 (2007).
[Crossref]

Crommie, M.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Detz, H.

M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and T. Mueller, “Microcavity-Integrated Graphene Photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2773–2777 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Englund, D.

X. T. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. D. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fang, T.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. S. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 720 (2012).

Ferrari, A. C.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Freitag, M.

M. Freitag, T. Low, F. N. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Photoconductivity of biased graphene,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 53–59 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fromherz, T.

A. Pospischil, M. Humer, M. M. Furchi, D. Bachmann, R. Guider, T. Fromherz, and T. Mueller, “CMOS-compatible graphene photodetector covering all optical communication bands,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 892–896 (2013).
[Crossref]

Furchi, M.

M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and T. Mueller, “Microcavity-Integrated Graphene Photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2773–2777 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Furchi, M. M.

A. Pospischil, M. Humer, M. M. Furchi, D. Bachmann, R. Guider, T. Fromherz, and T. Mueller, “CMOS-compatible graphene photodetector covering all optical communication bands,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 892–896 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gan, X. T.

X. T. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. D. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gao, W.

C. Qiu, W. Gao, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Efficient Modulation of 1.55 μm Radiation with Gated Graphene on a Silicon Microring Resonator,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6811–6815 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, Y. D.

X. T. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. D. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gattass, R. R.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geim, A. K.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geng, B.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Girit, C.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grigorenko, A. N.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guider, R.

A. Pospischil, M. Humer, M. M. Furchi, D. Bachmann, R. Guider, T. Fromherz, and T. Mueller, “CMOS-compatible graphene photodetector covering all optical communication bands,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 892–896 (2013).
[Crossref]

Han, W. S.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hao, Z.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
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F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, S.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heinz, T. F.

X. T. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. D. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

Henriksen, E. A.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

Heo, K.

H. Lee, K. Heo, J. Park, Y. Park, S. Noh, K. S. Kim, C. Lee, B. H. Hong, J. Jian, and S. Hong, “Graphene-nanowire hybrid structures for high-performance photoconductive devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(17), 8372–8376 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hone, J.

X. T. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. D. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hong, B. H.

H. Lee, K. Heo, J. Park, Y. Park, S. Noh, K. S. Kim, C. Lee, B. H. Hong, J. Jian, and S. Hong, “Graphene-nanowire hybrid structures for high-performance photoconductive devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(17), 8372–8376 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hong, S.

H. Lee, K. Heo, J. Park, Y. Park, S. Noh, K. S. Kim, C. Lee, B. H. Hong, J. Jian, and S. Hong, “Graphene-nanowire hybrid structures for high-performance photoconductive devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(17), 8372–8376 (2012).
[Crossref]

Humer, M.

A. Pospischil, M. Humer, M. M. Furchi, D. Bachmann, R. Guider, T. Fromherz, and T. Mueller, “CMOS-compatible graphene photodetector covering all optical communication bands,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 892–896 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hwang, W. S.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. S. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 720 (2012).

Jang, S. Y.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jena, D.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. S. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 720 (2012).

Jensen, S. A.

K. J. Tielrooij, J. C. W. Song, S. A. Jensen, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, A. Zurutuza Elorza, M. Bonn, L. S. Levitov, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Photoexcitation cascade and multiple hot-carrier generation in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 9(4), 248–252 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jian, J.

H. Lee, K. Heo, J. Park, Y. Park, S. Noh, K. S. Kim, C. Lee, B. H. Hong, J. Jian, and S. Hong, “Graphene-nanowire hybrid structures for high-performance photoconductive devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(17), 8372–8376 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Z.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ju, L.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, U.

C. G. Kang, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yoo, W. Park, U. Jung, J. Ahn, and B. H. Lee, “Highly sensitive wide bandwidth photodetectors using chemical vapor deposited graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kang, C. G.

C. G. Kang, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yoo, W. Park, U. Jung, J. Ahn, and B. H. Lee, “Highly sensitive wide bandwidth photodetectors using chemical vapor deposited graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161902 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. G. Kang, S. K. Lee, S. Choe, Y. G. Lee, C. L. Lee, and B. H. Lee, “Intrinsic photocurrent characteristics of graphene photodetectors passivated with Al₂O₃,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23391–23400 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelly, M. M.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. S. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 720 (2012).

Kim, K. S.

H. Lee, K. Heo, J. Park, Y. Park, S. Noh, K. S. Kim, C. Lee, B. H. Hong, J. Jian, and S. Hong, “Graphene-nanowire hybrid structures for high-performance photoconductive devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(17), 8372–8376 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, P.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

Klang, P.

M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and T. Mueller, “Microcavity-Integrated Graphene Photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2773–2777 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kono, J.

C. Qiu, W. Gao, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Efficient Modulation of 1.55 μm Radiation with Gated Graphene on a Silicon Microring Resonator,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6811–6815 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Konstantatos, G.

G. Konstantatos, J. Clifford, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Sensitive solution-processed visible-wavelength photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 531–534 (2007).
[Crossref]

Koppens, F. H. L.

K. J. Tielrooij, J. C. W. Song, S. A. Jensen, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, A. Zurutuza Elorza, M. Bonn, L. S. Levitov, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Photoexcitation cascade and multiple hot-carrier generation in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 9(4), 248–252 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, B. H.

C. G. Kang, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yoo, W. Park, U. Jung, J. Ahn, and B. H. Lee, “Highly sensitive wide bandwidth photodetectors using chemical vapor deposited graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161902 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. G. Kang, S. K. Lee, S. Choe, Y. G. Lee, C. L. Lee, and B. H. Lee, “Intrinsic photocurrent characteristics of graphene photodetectors passivated with Al₂O₃,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23391–23400 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, C.

H. Lee, K. Heo, J. Park, Y. Park, S. Noh, K. S. Kim, C. Lee, B. H. Hong, J. Jian, and S. Hong, “Graphene-nanowire hybrid structures for high-performance photoconductive devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(17), 8372–8376 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. L.

Lee, H.

H. Lee, K. Heo, J. Park, Y. Park, S. Noh, K. S. Kim, C. Lee, B. H. Hong, J. Jian, and S. Hong, “Graphene-nanowire hybrid structures for high-performance photoconductive devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(17), 8372–8376 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. K.

C. G. Kang, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yoo, W. Park, U. Jung, J. Ahn, and B. H. Lee, “Highly sensitive wide bandwidth photodetectors using chemical vapor deposited graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161902 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. G. Kang, S. K. Lee, S. Choe, Y. G. Lee, C. L. Lee, and B. H. Lee, “Intrinsic photocurrent characteristics of graphene photodetectors passivated with Al₂O₃,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23391–23400 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. G.

Lee, Y.-H. D.

C. T. Phare, Y.-H. D. Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
[Crossref]

Levina, L.

G. Konstantatos, J. Clifford, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Sensitive solution-processed visible-wavelength photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 531–534 (2007).
[Crossref]

Levitov, L. S.

K. J. Tielrooij, J. C. W. Song, S. A. Jensen, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, A. Zurutuza Elorza, M. Bonn, L. S. Levitov, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Photoexcitation cascade and multiple hot-carrier generation in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 9(4), 248–252 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. C. W. Song, M. S. Rudner, C. M. Marcus, and L. S. Levitov, “Hot Carrier Transport and Photocurrent Response in Graphene,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4688–4692 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Li, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lilley, G.

M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and T. Mueller, “Microcavity-Integrated Graphene Photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2773–2777 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, C. H. Y. X.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. H. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y. M.

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

C. T. Phare, Y.-H. D. Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, F.

Liu, L.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. S. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 720 (2012).

Liu, M.

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-Layer Graphene Optical Modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loh, K. P.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. H. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Long, W.

Lou, J.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Low, T.

M. Freitag, T. Low, F. N. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Photoconductivity of biased graphene,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 53–59 (2013).
[Crossref]

Marcus, C. M.

J. C. W. Song, M. S. Rudner, C. M. Marcus, and L. S. Levitov, “Hot Carrier Transport and Photocurrent Response in Graphene,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4688–4692 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, M. C.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

Maxwell, I.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meric, I.

X. T. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. D. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mueller, T.

A. Pospischil, M. Humer, M. M. Furchi, D. Bachmann, R. Guider, T. Fromherz, and T. Mueller, “CMOS-compatible graphene photodetector covering all optical communication bands,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 892–896 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and T. Mueller, “Microcavity-Integrated Graphene Photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2773–2777 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Mueller, F. N. A. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 297–301 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nair, R. R.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ni, Z. H.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. H. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Noh, S.

H. Lee, K. Heo, J. Park, Y. Park, S. Noh, K. S. Kim, C. Lee, B. H. Hong, J. Jian, and S. Hong, “Graphene-nanowire hybrid structures for high-performance photoconductive devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(17), 8372–8376 (2012).
[Crossref]

Novoselov, K. S.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J.

H. Lee, K. Heo, J. Park, Y. Park, S. Noh, K. S. Kim, C. Lee, B. H. Hong, J. Jian, and S. Hong, “Graphene-nanowire hybrid structures for high-performance photoconductive devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(17), 8372–8376 (2012).
[Crossref]

Park, W.

C. G. Kang, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yoo, W. Park, U. Jung, J. Ahn, and B. H. Lee, “Highly sensitive wide bandwidth photodetectors using chemical vapor deposited graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.

H. Lee, K. Heo, J. Park, Y. Park, S. Noh, K. S. Kim, C. Lee, B. H. Hong, J. Jian, and S. Hong, “Graphene-nanowire hybrid structures for high-performance photoconductive devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(17), 8372–8376 (2012).
[Crossref]

Peres, N. M. R.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pesquera, A.

K. J. Tielrooij, J. C. W. Song, S. A. Jensen, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, A. Zurutuza Elorza, M. Bonn, L. S. Levitov, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Photoexcitation cascade and multiple hot-carrier generation in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 9(4), 248–252 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phare, C. T.

C. T. Phare, Y.-H. D. Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
[Crossref]

Popa, D.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pospischil, A.

A. Pospischil, M. Humer, M. M. Furchi, D. Bachmann, R. Guider, T. Fromherz, and T. Mueller, “CMOS-compatible graphene photodetector covering all optical communication bands,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 892–896 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and T. Mueller, “Microcavity-Integrated Graphene Photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2773–2777 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Privitera, G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, C.

C. Qiu, W. Gao, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Efficient Modulation of 1.55 μm Radiation with Gated Graphene on a Silicon Microring Resonator,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6811–6815 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rudner, M. S.

J. C. W. Song, M. S. Rudner, C. M. Marcus, and L. S. Levitov, “Hot Carrier Transport and Photocurrent Response in Graphene,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4688–4692 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sargent, E. H.

G. Konstantatos, J. Clifford, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Sensitive solution-processed visible-wavelength photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 531–534 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schrenk, W.

M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and T. Mueller, “Microcavity-Integrated Graphene Photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2773–2777 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sensale-Rodriguez, B.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. S. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 720 (2012).

Shen, M.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. R.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shepard, K.

X. T. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. D. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shiue, R. J.

X. T. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. D. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

Song, J. C. W.

K. J. Tielrooij, J. C. W. Song, S. A. Jensen, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, A. Zurutuza Elorza, M. Bonn, L. S. Levitov, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Photoexcitation cascade and multiple hot-carrier generation in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 9(4), 248–252 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. C. W. Song, M. S. Rudner, C. M. Marcus, and L. S. Levitov, “Hot Carrier Transport and Photocurrent Response in Graphene,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4688–4692 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, Y. W.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stauber, T.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stormer, H. L.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

Strasser, G.

M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and T. Mueller, “Microcavity-Integrated Graphene Photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2773–2777 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, Y.

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tahy, K.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. S. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 720 (2012).

Tang, D. Y.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. H. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tian, C.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tielrooij, K. J.

K. J. Tielrooij, J. C. W. Song, S. A. Jensen, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, A. Zurutuza Elorza, M. Bonn, L. S. Levitov, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Photoexcitation cascade and multiple hot-carrier generation in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 9(4), 248–252 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tong, L.

T. Wang, X. Li, F. Liu, W. Long, Z. Zhang, L. Tong, and Y. Su, “Enhanced fast light in microfiber ring resonator with a Sagnac loop reflector,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16156–16161 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torrisi, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tsang, H. K.

X. M. Wang, Z. Z. Cheng, K. Xu, H. K. Tsang, and J. B. Xu, “High-responsivity graphene/silicon-heterostructure waveguide photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 888–891 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ulin-Avila, E.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Unterrainer, K.

M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and T. Mueller, “Microcavity-Integrated Graphene Photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2773–2777 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urich, A.

M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and T. Mueller, “Microcavity-Integrated Graphene Photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2773–2777 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vajtai, R.

C. Qiu, W. Gao, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Efficient Modulation of 1.55 μm Radiation with Gated Graphene on a Silicon Microring Resonator,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6811–6815 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valdes-Garcia, A.

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. H. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, T.

Wang, X. M.

X. M. Wang, Z. Z. Cheng, K. Xu, H. K. Tsang, and J. B. Xu, “High-responsivity graphene/silicon-heterostructure waveguide photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 888–891 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. H. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xia, F.

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xia, F. N.

M. Freitag, T. Low, F. N. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Photoconductivity of biased graphene,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 53–59 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xia, F. N. A.

T. Mueller, F. N. A. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 297–301 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xing, H. G.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. S. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 720 (2012).

Xu, J. B.

X. M. Wang, Z. Z. Cheng, K. Xu, H. K. Tsang, and J. B. Xu, “High-responsivity graphene/silicon-heterostructure waveguide photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 888–891 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, K.

X. M. Wang, Z. Z. Cheng, K. Xu, H. K. Tsang, and J. B. Xu, “High-responsivity graphene/silicon-heterostructure waveguide photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 888–891 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

C. Qiu, W. Gao, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Efficient Modulation of 1.55 μm Radiation with Gated Graphene on a Silicon Microring Resonator,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6811–6815 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, R. S.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. S. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 720 (2012).

Yin, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-Layer Graphene Optical Modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoo, T. J.

C. G. Kang, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yoo, W. Park, U. Jung, J. Ahn, and B. H. Lee, “Highly sensitive wide bandwidth photodetectors using chemical vapor deposited graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zentgraf, T.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zettl, A.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. H. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-Layer Graphene Optical Modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

Zurutuza Elorza, A.

K. J. Tielrooij, J. C. W. Song, S. A. Jensen, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, A. Zurutuza Elorza, M. Bonn, L. S. Levitov, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Photoexcitation cascade and multiple hot-carrier generation in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 9(4), 248–252 (2013).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. G. Kang, S. K. Lee, T. J. Yoo, W. Park, U. Jung, J. Ahn, and B. H. Lee, “Highly sensitive wide bandwidth photodetectors using chemical vapor deposited graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161902 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

H. Lee, K. Heo, J. Park, Y. Park, S. Noh, K. S. Kim, C. Lee, B. H. Hong, J. Jian, and S. Hong, “Graphene-nanowire hybrid structures for high-performance photoconductive devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(17), 8372–8376 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (5)

J. C. W. Song, M. S. Rudner, C. M. Marcus, and L. S. Levitov, “Hot Carrier Transport and Photocurrent Response in Graphene,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4688–4692 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Qiu, W. Gao, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Efficient Modulation of 1.55 μm Radiation with Gated Graphene on a Silicon Microring Resonator,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6811–6815 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-Layer Graphene Optical Modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and T. Mueller, “Microcavity-Integrated Graphene Photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2773–2777 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Avouris, “Graphene: Electronic and Photonic Properties and Devices,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4285–4294 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. S. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 720 (2012).

Nat. Mater. (1)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (9)

X. T. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. D. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Pospischil, M. Humer, M. M. Furchi, D. Bachmann, R. Guider, T. Fromherz, and T. Mueller, “CMOS-compatible graphene photodetector covering all optical communication bands,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 892–896 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Mueller, F. N. A. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 297–301 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. M. Wang, Z. Z. Cheng, K. Xu, H. K. Tsang, and J. B. Xu, “High-responsivity graphene/silicon-heterostructure waveguide photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 888–891 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Freitag, T. Low, F. N. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Photoconductivity of biased graphene,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 53–59 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. H. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Konstantatos, J. Clifford, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Sensitive solution-processed visible-wavelength photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 531–534 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. T. Phare, Y.-H. D. Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (2)

K. J. Tielrooij, J. C. W. Song, S. A. Jensen, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, A. Zurutuza Elorza, M. Bonn, L. S. Levitov, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Photoexcitation cascade and multiple hot-carrier generation in graphene,” Nat. Phys. 9(4), 248–252 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Science (2)

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic illustration of the proposed microfiber-graphene photocurrent generation device. (b) Equivalent circuit of the proposed structure in (a). (c) 514 nm Raman spectrum of the transferred graphene film. (d) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the fabricated microfiber. (e) Micrograph of the fabricated device with microfiber attaching onto the graphene film between two Ag electrodes.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Electric filed distribution across microfiber-graphene structure at 1550 nm. The diameter of the micro-fiber is 2.21 μm. n eff at E f = 0.4 eV is 1.383 + 6.71e−4i; (b) Dependence of the percentage of optical power in the graphene layer on the wavelength of input light.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) I-V curves of the microfiber-graphene photocurrent generation device under dark and light radiation conditions. (b) Photocurrents (Ilight_on - Ilight_off ) as a function of applied bias voltage for different incident light powers.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Photocurrents as a function of the incident light power at a bias voltage of 1 V. (b) Photocurrent responsivity versus incident light power. The proposed configuration exhibits a maximum responsivity of ~2.81 mA/W at low input power.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Experimentally measured photocurrents and (b) photocurrent responsivities at different bias voltages within a wide wavelength range from 1500 nm to 1600 nm. The incident light power was fixed at 14 dBm.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ε g ' ( E f ) = 1 + e 2 8 π E p ε 0 d ln ( E p + 2 | E f | ) 2 + Γ 2 ( E p 2 | E f | ) 2 + Γ 2 e 2 π ε 0 d | E f | E p 2 + ( 1 / τ ) 2 ,
ε g " ( E f ) = e 2 4 E p ε 0 d [ 1 + 1 π ( tan 1 E p 2 | E f | Γ tan 1 E p + 2 | E f | Γ ) + e 2 π τ E p ε 0 d | E f | E p 2 + ( 1 / τ ) 2 ,
Δ I A P α ,
r = Δ I P i n = I l i g t h _ o n I l i g h t _ o f f P i n .
r = ( V R g Δ R V R g ) / P = V × Δ R R g × ( R g Δ R ) × P

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