Abstract

Radial junction (RJ) architecture has proven beneficial in boosting light harvesting and fast carrier separation in thin film solar cells. While a comprehensive understanding of the detailed absorption distribution and light incoupling mechanism within such a 3D RJ configuration remains largely unexplored. Taking hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si:H) RJ solar cells as an example, we here address in both experimental and theoretical manners the impacts of tilting and spacing configuration on the light absorption and external quantum efficiency (EQE) responses. A nice agreement between the calculated and experimental EQE responses indicates that the light harvesting realized within RJ thin film solar cells is quite robust against geometric variations and shadowing effects. Following the concepts of optical fiber injection, we have been able to single out the contribution arising solely from a resonant-mode-incoupling into the RJ cavities against a sidewall scattering incidence scenario. These results provide insightful viewpoints as well as practical guides in developing a new generation of high performance RJ thin film solar cells.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  6. Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  8. L. Yu, F. Fortuna, B. O’Donnell, T. Jeon, M. Foldyna, G. Picardi, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “Bismuth-catalyzed and doped silicon nanowires for one-pump-down fabrication of radial junction solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4153–4158 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, and A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. S. Misra, L. Yu, M. Foldyna, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “New approaches to improve the performance of thin-film radial junction solar cells built over silicon nanowire arrays,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5(1), 40–45 (2015).
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  14. G. Cao, X. Li, Y. Zhan, S. Wu, A. Shang, C. Zhang, Z. Yang, and X. Zhai, “Design of μc-Si:H/a-Si:H coaxial tandem single-nanowire solar cells considering photocurrent matching,” Opt. Express 22(S7), A1761–A1767 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  17. E. C. Garnett and P. Yang, “Silicon nanowire radial p-n junction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(29), 9224–9225 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. L. Cao, B. Garipcan, E. M. Gallo, S. S. Nonnenmann, B. Nabet, and J. E. Spanier, “Excitation of local field enhancement on silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 601–605 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. L. Cao, J. S. White, J.-S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. M. Heiss and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Fundamental limits in the external quantum efficiency of single nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 263102 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  21. P. Krogstrup, H. I. Jorgensen, M. Heiss, O. Demichel, J. V. Holm, M. Aagesen, J. Nygard, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 306–310 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

S. Misra, L. Yu, M. Foldyna, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “New approaches to improve the performance of thin-film radial junction solar cells built over silicon nanowire arrays,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5(1), 40–45 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

L. Yu, S. Misra, J. Wang, S. Qian, M. Foldyna, J. Xu, Y. Shi, E. Johnson, and P. R. Cabarrocas, “Understanding light harvesting in radial junction amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4357 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Cao, X. Li, Y. Zhan, S. Wu, A. Shang, C. Zhang, Z. Yang, and X. Zhai, “Design of μc-Si:H/a-Si:H coaxial tandem single-nanowire solar cells considering photocurrent matching,” Opt. Express 22(S7), A1761–A1767 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

P. Krogstrup, H. I. Jorgensen, M. Heiss, O. Demichel, J. V. Holm, M. Aagesen, J. Nygard, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 306–310 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Misra, L. Yu, M. Foldyna, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “High efficiency and stable hydrogenated amorphous silicon radial junction solar cells built on VLS-grown silicon nanowires,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 118, 90–95 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

L. Yu, F. Fortuna, B. O’Donnell, T. Jeon, M. Foldyna, G. Picardi, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “Bismuth-catalyzed and doped silicon nanowires for one-pump-down fabrication of radial junction solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4153–4158 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Yu, B. O’Donnell, M. Foldyna, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “Radial junction amorphous silicon solar cells on PECVD-grown silicon nanowires,” Nanotechnology 23(19), 194011 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

K. Q. Peng and S. T. Lee, “Silicon nanowires for photovoltaic solar energy conversion,” Adv. Mater. 23(2), 198–215 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. C. Garnett, M. L. Brongersma, Y. Cui, and M. D. McGehee, “Nanowire solar cells,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 41(1), 269–295 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Heiss and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Fundamental limits in the external quantum efficiency of single nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 263102 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, and A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Adachi, M. P. Anantram, and K. S. Karim, “Optical properties of crystalline-amorphous core-shell silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4093–4098 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (2)

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cao, J. S. White, J.-S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

E. C. Garnett and P. Yang, “Silicon nanowire radial p-n junction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(29), 9224–9225 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cao, B. Garipcan, E. M. Gallo, S. S. Nonnenmann, B. Nabet, and J. E. Spanier, “Excitation of local field enhancement on silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 601–605 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[Crossref]

Aagesen, M.

P. Krogstrup, H. I. Jorgensen, M. Heiss, O. Demichel, J. V. Holm, M. Aagesen, J. Nygard, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 306–310 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adachi, M. M.

M. M. Adachi, M. P. Anantram, and K. S. Karim, “Optical properties of crystalline-amorphous core-shell silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4093–4098 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ager, J. W.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anantram, M. P.

M. M. Adachi, M. P. Anantram, and K. S. Karim, “Optical properties of crystalline-amorphous core-shell silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4093–4098 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[Crossref]

Boettcher, S. W.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Briggs, R. M.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

E. C. Garnett, M. L. Brongersma, Y. Cui, and M. D. McGehee, “Nanowire solar cells,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 41(1), 269–295 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Cao, J. S. White, J.-S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cabarrocas, P. R.

L. Yu, S. Misra, J. Wang, S. Qian, M. Foldyna, J. Xu, Y. Shi, E. Johnson, and P. R. Cabarrocas, “Understanding light harvesting in radial junction amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4357 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, G.

Cao, L.

L. Cao, J. S. White, J.-S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cao, B. Garipcan, E. M. Gallo, S. S. Nonnenmann, B. Nabet, and J. E. Spanier, “Excitation of local field enhancement on silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 601–605 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, Y.-H.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chattopadhyay, S.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, K.-H.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L.-C.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chueh, Y.-L.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, and A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clemens, B. M.

L. Cao, J. S. White, J.-S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, Y.

E. C. Garnett, M. L. Brongersma, Y. Cui, and M. D. McGehee, “Nanowire solar cells,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 41(1), 269–295 (2011).
[Crossref]

Demichel, O.

P. Krogstrup, H. I. Jorgensen, M. Heiss, O. Demichel, J. V. Holm, M. Aagesen, J. Nygard, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 306–310 (2013).
[Crossref]

Do, J. W.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ergen, O.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, Z.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, and A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foldyna, M.

S. Misra, L. Yu, M. Foldyna, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “New approaches to improve the performance of thin-film radial junction solar cells built over silicon nanowire arrays,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5(1), 40–45 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Yu, S. Misra, J. Wang, S. Qian, M. Foldyna, J. Xu, Y. Shi, E. Johnson, and P. R. Cabarrocas, “Understanding light harvesting in radial junction amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4357 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Misra, L. Yu, M. Foldyna, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “High efficiency and stable hydrogenated amorphous silicon radial junction solar cells built on VLS-grown silicon nanowires,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 118, 90–95 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Yu, F. Fortuna, B. O’Donnell, T. Jeon, M. Foldyna, G. Picardi, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “Bismuth-catalyzed and doped silicon nanowires for one-pump-down fabrication of radial junction solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4153–4158 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Yu, B. O’Donnell, M. Foldyna, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “Radial junction amorphous silicon solar cells on PECVD-grown silicon nanowires,” Nanotechnology 23(19), 194011 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fontcuberta i Morral, A.

P. Krogstrup, H. I. Jorgensen, M. Heiss, O. Demichel, J. V. Holm, M. Aagesen, J. Nygard, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 306–310 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Heiss and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Fundamental limits in the external quantum efficiency of single nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 263102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fortuna, F.

L. Yu, F. Fortuna, B. O’Donnell, T. Jeon, M. Foldyna, G. Picardi, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “Bismuth-catalyzed and doped silicon nanowires for one-pump-down fabrication of radial junction solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4153–4158 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gallo, E. M.

L. Cao, B. Garipcan, E. M. Gallo, S. S. Nonnenmann, B. Nabet, and J. E. Spanier, “Excitation of local field enhancement on silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 601–605 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garipcan, B.

L. Cao, B. Garipcan, E. M. Gallo, S. S. Nonnenmann, B. Nabet, and J. E. Spanier, “Excitation of local field enhancement on silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 601–605 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garnett, E.

E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garnett, E. C.

E. C. Garnett, M. L. Brongersma, Y. Cui, and M. D. McGehee, “Nanowire solar cells,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 41(1), 269–295 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. C. Garnett and P. Yang, “Silicon nanowire radial p-n junction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(29), 9224–9225 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heiss, M.

P. Krogstrup, H. I. Jorgensen, M. Heiss, O. Demichel, J. V. Holm, M. Aagesen, J. Nygard, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 306–310 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Heiss and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Fundamental limits in the external quantum efficiency of single nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 263102 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
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Holm, J. V.

P. Krogstrup, H. I. Jorgensen, M. Heiss, O. Demichel, J. V. Holm, M. Aagesen, J. Nygard, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 306–310 (2013).
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Hsu, C.-H.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
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Hsu, Y.-K.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
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Hu, L.

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
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Huang, Y.-F.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
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Jamshidi, A.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, and A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
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Javey, A.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, and A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
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Jen, Y.-J.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeon, T.

L. Yu, F. Fortuna, B. O’Donnell, T. Jeon, M. Foldyna, G. Picardi, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “Bismuth-catalyzed and doped silicon nanowires for one-pump-down fabrication of radial junction solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4153–4158 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, E.

L. Yu, S. Misra, J. Wang, S. Qian, M. Foldyna, J. Xu, Y. Shi, E. Johnson, and P. R. Cabarrocas, “Understanding light harvesting in radial junction amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4357 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jorgensen, H. I.

P. Krogstrup, H. I. Jorgensen, M. Heiss, O. Demichel, J. V. Holm, M. Aagesen, J. Nygard, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 306–310 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kapadia, R.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, and A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
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Karim, K. S.

M. M. Adachi, M. P. Anantram, and K. S. Karim, “Optical properties of crystalline-amorphous core-shell silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4093–4098 (2010).
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Kayes, B. M.

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kelzenberg, M. D.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Krogstrup, P.

P. Krogstrup, H. I. Jorgensen, M. Heiss, O. Demichel, J. V. Holm, M. Aagesen, J. Nygard, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 306–310 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.-S.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. T.

K. Q. Peng and S. T. Lee, “Silicon nanowires for photovoltaic solar energy conversion,” Adv. Mater. 23(2), 198–215 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leu, P. W.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, and A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lewis, N. S.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Liu, T.-A.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lo, H.-C.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McGehee, M. D.

E. C. Garnett, M. L. Brongersma, Y. Cui, and M. D. McGehee, “Nanowire solar cells,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 41(1), 269–295 (2011).
[Crossref]

Misra, S.

S. Misra, L. Yu, M. Foldyna, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “New approaches to improve the performance of thin-film radial junction solar cells built over silicon nanowire arrays,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5(1), 40–45 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Yu, S. Misra, J. Wang, S. Qian, M. Foldyna, J. Xu, Y. Shi, E. Johnson, and P. R. Cabarrocas, “Understanding light harvesting in radial junction amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4357 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Misra, L. Yu, M. Foldyna, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “High efficiency and stable hydrogenated amorphous silicon radial junction solar cells built on VLS-grown silicon nanowires,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 118, 90–95 (2013).
[Crossref]

Moriwaki, A.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nabet, B.

L. Cao, B. Garipcan, E. M. Gallo, S. S. Nonnenmann, B. Nabet, and J. E. Spanier, “Excitation of local field enhancement on silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 601–605 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neale, S.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nonnenmann, S. S.

L. Cao, B. Garipcan, E. M. Gallo, S. S. Nonnenmann, B. Nabet, and J. E. Spanier, “Excitation of local field enhancement on silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 601–605 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nygard, J.

P. Krogstrup, H. I. Jorgensen, M. Heiss, O. Demichel, J. V. Holm, M. Aagesen, J. Nygard, and A. Fontcuberta i Morral, “Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 306–310 (2013).
[Crossref]

O’Donnell, B.

L. Yu, B. O’Donnell, M. Foldyna, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “Radial junction amorphous silicon solar cells on PECVD-grown silicon nanowires,” Nanotechnology 23(19), 194011 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Yu, F. Fortuna, B. O’Donnell, T. Jeon, M. Foldyna, G. Picardi, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “Bismuth-catalyzed and doped silicon nanowires for one-pump-down fabrication of radial junction solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4153–4158 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, C.-L.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J.-S.

L. Cao, J. S. White, J.-S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, C.-Y.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, K. Q.

K. Q. Peng and S. T. Lee, “Silicon nanowires for photovoltaic solar energy conversion,” Adv. Mater. 23(2), 198–215 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petykiewicz, J. A.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Picardi, G.

L. Yu, F. Fortuna, B. O’Donnell, T. Jeon, M. Foldyna, G. Picardi, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “Bismuth-catalyzed and doped silicon nanowires for one-pump-down fabrication of radial junction solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4153–4158 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Putnam, M. C.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Qian, S.

L. Yu, S. Misra, J. Wang, S. Qian, M. Foldyna, J. Xu, Y. Shi, E. Johnson, and P. R. Cabarrocas, “Understanding light harvesting in radial junction amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4357 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rathore, A. A.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, and A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Razavi, H.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reichertz, L. A.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roca i Cabarrocas, P.

S. Misra, L. Yu, M. Foldyna, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “New approaches to improve the performance of thin-film radial junction solar cells built over silicon nanowire arrays,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5(1), 40–45 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Misra, L. Yu, M. Foldyna, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “High efficiency and stable hydrogenated amorphous silicon radial junction solar cells built on VLS-grown silicon nanowires,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 118, 90–95 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Yu, F. Fortuna, B. O’Donnell, T. Jeon, M. Foldyna, G. Picardi, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “Bismuth-catalyzed and doped silicon nanowires for one-pump-down fabrication of radial junction solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4153–4158 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Yu, B. O’Donnell, M. Foldyna, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “Radial junction amorphous silicon solar cells on PECVD-grown silicon nanowires,” Nanotechnology 23(19), 194011 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruebusch, D. J.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, and A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuller, J. A.

L. Cao, J. S. White, J.-S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shang, A.

Shi, Y.

L. Yu, S. Misra, J. Wang, S. Qian, M. Foldyna, J. Xu, Y. Shi, E. Johnson, and P. R. Cabarrocas, “Understanding light harvesting in radial junction amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4357 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spanier, J. E.

L. Cao, B. Garipcan, E. M. Gallo, S. S. Nonnenmann, B. Nabet, and J. E. Spanier, “Excitation of local field enhancement on silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 601–605 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spurgeon, J. M.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Takahashi, T.

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takei, K.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, and A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turner-Evans, D. B.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Wang, J.

L. Yu, S. Misra, J. Wang, S. Qian, M. Foldyna, J. Xu, Y. Shi, E. Johnson, and P. R. Cabarrocas, “Understanding light harvesting in radial junction amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4357 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Warren, E. L.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

White, J. S.

L. Cao, J. S. White, J.-S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, M.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, and A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, S.

Xu, J.

L. Yu, S. Misra, J. Wang, S. Qian, M. Foldyna, J. Xu, Y. Shi, E. Johnson, and P. R. Cabarrocas, “Understanding light harvesting in radial junction amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4357 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, P.

E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. C. Garnett and P. Yang, “Silicon nanowire radial p-n junction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(29), 9224–9225 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Z.

Yu, K.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, and A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fan, H. Razavi, J. W. Do, A. Moriwaki, O. Ergen, Y.-L. Chueh, P. W. Leu, J. C. Ho, T. Takahashi, L. A. Reichertz, S. Neale, K. Yu, M. Wu, J. W. Ager, and A. Javey, “Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 648–653 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, L.

S. Misra, L. Yu, M. Foldyna, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “New approaches to improve the performance of thin-film radial junction solar cells built over silicon nanowire arrays,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5(1), 40–45 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Yu, S. Misra, J. Wang, S. Qian, M. Foldyna, J. Xu, Y. Shi, E. Johnson, and P. R. Cabarrocas, “Understanding light harvesting in radial junction amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4357 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Misra, L. Yu, M. Foldyna, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “High efficiency and stable hydrogenated amorphous silicon radial junction solar cells built on VLS-grown silicon nanowires,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 118, 90–95 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Yu, F. Fortuna, B. O’Donnell, T. Jeon, M. Foldyna, G. Picardi, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “Bismuth-catalyzed and doped silicon nanowires for one-pump-down fabrication of radial junction solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4153–4158 (2012).
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L. Yu, B. O’Donnell, M. Foldyna, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “Radial junction amorphous silicon solar cells on PECVD-grown silicon nanowires,” Nanotechnology 23(19), 194011 (2012).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

K. Q. Peng and S. T. Lee, “Silicon nanowires for photovoltaic solar energy conversion,” Adv. Mater. 23(2), 198–215 (2011).
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Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (1)

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S. Misra, L. Yu, M. Foldyna, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “New approaches to improve the performance of thin-film radial junction solar cells built over silicon nanowire arrays,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 5(1), 40–45 (2015).
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L. Yu, S. Misra, J. Wang, S. Qian, M. Foldyna, J. Xu, Y. Shi, E. Johnson, and P. R. Cabarrocas, “Understanding light harvesting in radial junction amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4357 (2014).
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S. Misra, L. Yu, M. Foldyna, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, “High efficiency and stable hydrogenated amorphous silicon radial junction solar cells built on VLS-grown silicon nanowires,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 118, 90–95 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) SEM image of the radial p-i-n junction (RJ) a-Si:H thin film solar cells constructed over randomly oriented VLS-grown SiNWs, with a schematic illustration of the multilayer structure with an ITO top contact presented in (c); (b) A comparison of the experimental EQE response (black) of the RJ cells, as seen in (a), to the simulated EQE response of a periodic up-right standing RJ arrays (red) and that of a planar reference with the same i-layer thickness (blue); (c) shows the definition of the incident polarization situation as a TE mode or a TM mode with the E field component being aligned with the x-axis or the y-axis, respectively; (d) displays the different geometric configurations of an upright standing RJ matrix and that of an aperiodic random one.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The incident light field distributions and their corresponding absorption profiles realized within a tilted (30 Degree) array of RJ units at different incident wavelengths under TE mode polarized incidence are presented in (a)-(c) and (d)-(f), respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The incident light field distributions and their corresponding absorption profiles realized within a tilted (30 Degree) array of RJ units at different incident wavelengths under TM mode polarized incidence are presented in (a)-(c) and (d)-(f), respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) and (b) present the distribution of absorption intensity realized within the face-up front-half and the face-down back-half of the tilted RJ cells, along the length measured from the bottom, under TE mode TM mode incidence, respectively ; (c) and (d) show the normalized EQE responses (with 50%-50% TE and TM mode weighted) with a tilting angle = 0°,15°,30°, with an inter-cell spacing of W = 0.4L, and W = 0.8L, respectively, where L stands for the length of the RJ cell.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) presents the total absorption response (red), the absorption realized in a scattering scenario (black) and the absorption realized in a resonant mode incoupling into the RJ units (green), as schematically illustrated in (d), in an up-right standing RJ array; (b) shows the absorption breakdown for the situation with 30 Degree tilted RJ array; The influence of the tilting angle on the percentage of the absorption contributions from different light incoupling scenarios are summarized in (c).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

  P a b s = c I i n 4 π k / λ ,
W i = i l a y e r P a b s d v / P i n c i d e n t , where P i n c i d e n t = t o p p l a n e 1 2 c ε E 2 d s .

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