Abstract

We demonstrate a low-voltage high-speed modulator based on a silicon racetrack resonator with a tunable Mach-Zehnder interferometer coupler. Both static measurement and dynamic modulation experiment are carried out. The 3-dB electro-optic bandwidth is measured to be >30 GHz beyond the limit by the cavity photon lifetime. A 32 Gb/s on-off keying (OOK) modulation is realized under a peak-to-peak drive voltage as low as 0.4 V, and a 28 Gb/s binary phase-shift-keying (BPSK) modulation is realized with a drive voltage of 3 V. The low drive voltages results in low energy consumptions of ~13.3 fJ/bit and ~1.2 pJ/bit for OOK and BPSK modulations, respectively.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Low-voltage, high speed, compact silicon modulator for BPSK modulation

Tiantian Li, Junlong Zhang, Huaxiang Yi, Wei Tan, Qifeng Long, Zhiping Zhou, Xingjun Wang, and Hequan Wu
Opt. Express 21(20) 23410-23415 (2013)

High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators

Po Dong, Long Chen, and Young-kai Chen
Opt. Express 20(6) 6163-6169 (2012)

Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator

Tom Baehr-Jones, Ran Ding, Yang Liu, Ali Ayazi, Thierry Pinguet, Nicholas C. Harris, Matt Streshinsky, Poshen Lee, Yi Zhang, Andy Eu-Jin Lim, Tsung-Yang Liow, Selin Hwee-Gee Teo, Guo-Qiang Lo, and Michael Hochberg
Opt. Express 20(11) 12014-12020 (2012)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators with doping optimization,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4116–4125 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. H. Xu, X. Li, X. Xiao, P. Zhou, Z. Li, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “High-speed silicon modulator with band equalization,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4839–4842 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. Z. Xuan, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, R. Ding, Y. Li, N. Ophir, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon microring modulator for 40 Gb/s NRZ-OOK metro networks in O-band,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28284–28291 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, “Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 115–130 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. K. Tajima, “All-optical switch with switch-off time unrestricted by carrier lifetime,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(Part 2, No. 12A), L1746–L1749 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  7. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. W. D. Sacher and J. K. Poon, “Characteristics of microring resonators with waveguide-resonator coupling modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(17), 3800–3811 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  10. W. D. Sacher, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, H. Pan, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. K. S. Poon, “Coupling modulation of microrings at rates beyond the linewidth limit,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9722–9733 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. W. D. Sacher, W. M. J. Green, D. M. Gill, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. K. S. Poon, “Binary phase-shift keying by coupling modulation of microrings,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20252–20259 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36(4), 321–322 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  13. A. Yariv, “Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(4), 483–485 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  14. W. Green, R. Lee, G. Derose, A. Scherer, and A. Yariv, “Hybrid InGaAsP-InP Mach-Zehnder Racetrack Resonator for Thermooptic Switching and Coupling Control,” Opt. Express 13(5), 1651–1659 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. W. D. Sacher and J. K. Poon, “Dynamics of microring resonator modulators,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15741–15753 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. R. Yang, L. Zhou, and J. Chen, “28 Gb/s BPSK Modulation in a Coupling-tuned Silicon Microring Resonator,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (Optical Society of America, 2015), SW1N. 5.
    [Crossref]
  17. S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, F. Gan, G.-R. Zhou, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “High-speed silicon electro-optical modulator that can be operated in carrier depletion or carrier injection mode,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (Optical Society of America, 2008), CFH4.
    [Crossref]
  18. X. Luo, X. Tu, J. Song, L. Ding, Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Slope efficiency and spurious-free dynamic range of silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator upon carrier depletion and injection effects,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16570–16577 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. Y. Zhou, L. Zhou, X. Sun, and J. Chen, “Design of Traveling Wave Electrode for High-speed Silicon Modulators,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), AS3B.2.
  20. H. Zhu, L. Zhou, L. Liu, T. Wang, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, Q. Wu, A. Xie, R. Yang, Z. Li, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator for OOK and BPSK modulation,” in Optical Fibre Technology, 2014 OptoElectronics and Communication Conference and Australian Conference on, 2014), 174–175.
  21. J. Wang, C. Qiu, H. Li, W. Ling, L. Li, A. Pang, Z. Sheng, A. M. Wu, X. Wang, S. C. Zou, and F. W. Gan, “Optimization and Demonstration of a Large-bandwidth Carrier-depletion Silicon Optical Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(24), 4119–4125 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  22. P. Dong, L. Chen, C. Xie, L. L. Buhl, and Y.-K. Chen, “50-Gb/s silicon quadrature phase-shift keying modulator,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21181–21186 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  24. G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. M. Streshinsky, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Novack, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, X. Tu, E. K. S. Chee, A. E.-J. Lim, P. G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Low power 50 Gb/s silicon traveling wave Mach-Zehnder modulator near 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30350–30357 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. J. Ding, R. Ji, L. Zhang, and L. Yang, “Electro-optical response analysis of a 40 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(14), 2434–2440 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  27. G. Kim, J. W. Park, I. G. Kim, S. Kim, K.-S. Jang, S. A. Kim, J. H. Oh, J. Joo, and S. Kim, “Compact-sized high-modulation-efficiency silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on a vertically dipped depletion junction phase shifter for chip-level integration,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2310–2313 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. K. Goi, K. Oda, H. Kusaka, Y. Terada, K. Ogawa, T.-Y. Liow, X. Tu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “11-Gb/s 80-km transmission performance of zero-chirp silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 20(26), B350–B356 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. T. Li, J. Zhang, H. Yi, W. Tan, Q. Long, Z. Zhou, X. Wang, and H. Wu, “Low-voltage, high speed, compact silicon modulator for BPSK modulation,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23410–23415 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. J. Wang, L. Zhou, H. Zhu, R. Yang, Y. Zhou, L. Liu, T. Wang, and J. Chen, “Silicon high-speed binary phase-shift keying modulator with a single-drive push–pull high-speed traveling wave electrode,” Photon. Res. 3(3), 58–62 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  31. Q. Li, R. Ding, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “High-Speed BPSK Modulation in Silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1329–1332 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  32. P. Dong, C. Xie, L. L. Buhl, and Y.-K. Chen, “Silicon Microring Modulators for Advanced Modulation Formats,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), OW4J.2.
    [Crossref]
  33. L. Qi, L. Yang, K. Padmaraju, D. Ran, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “A 10-Gb/s Silicon Microring Resonator-Based BPSK Link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(18), 1805–1808 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  34. S. Karimelahi and A. Sheikholeslami, “PAM-N Signaling by Coupling Modulation in a Ring Resonator,” Opt. Lett. 40(3), 332–335 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

2014 (7)

L. Qi, L. Yang, K. Padmaraju, D. Ran, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “A 10-Gb/s Silicon Microring Resonator-Based BPSK Link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(18), 1805–1808 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Kim, J. W. Park, I. G. Kim, S. Kim, K.-S. Jang, S. A. Kim, J. H. Oh, J. Joo, and S. Kim, “Compact-sized high-modulation-efficiency silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on a vertically dipped depletion junction phase shifter for chip-level integration,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2310–2313 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xu, X. Li, X. Xiao, P. Zhou, Z. Li, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “High-speed silicon modulator with band equalization,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4839–4842 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Xuan, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, R. Ding, Y. Li, N. Ophir, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon microring modulator for 40 Gb/s NRZ-OOK metro networks in O-band,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28284–28291 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Sacher, W. M. J. Green, D. M. Gill, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. K. S. Poon, “Binary phase-shift keying by coupling modulation of microrings,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20252–20259 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (7)

W. D. Sacher, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, H. Pan, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. K. S. Poon, “Coupling modulation of microrings at rates beyond the linewidth limit,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9722–9733 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Luo, X. Tu, J. Song, L. Ding, Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Slope efficiency and spurious-free dynamic range of silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator upon carrier depletion and injection effects,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16570–16577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, C. Qiu, H. Li, W. Ling, L. Li, A. Pang, Z. Sheng, A. M. Wu, X. Wang, S. C. Zou, and F. W. Gan, “Optimization and Demonstration of a Large-bandwidth Carrier-depletion Silicon Optical Modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(24), 4119–4125 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators with doping optimization,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4116–4125 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Streshinsky, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Novack, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, X. Tu, E. K. S. Chee, A. E.-J. Lim, P. G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Low power 50 Gb/s silicon traveling wave Mach-Zehnder modulator near 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30350–30357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ding, R. Ji, L. Zhang, and L. Yang, “Electro-optical response analysis of a 40 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(14), 2434–2440 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Li, J. Zhang, H. Yi, W. Tan, Q. Long, Z. Zhou, X. Wang, and H. Wu, “Low-voltage, high speed, compact silicon modulator for BPSK modulation,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23410–23415 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

K. Goi, K. Oda, H. Kusaka, Y. Terada, K. Ogawa, T.-Y. Liow, X. Tu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “11-Gb/s 80-km transmission performance of zero-chirp silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 20(26), B350–B356 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dong, L. Chen, C. Xie, L. L. Buhl, and Y.-K. Chen, “50-Gb/s silicon quadrature phase-shift keying modulator,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21181–21186 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2005 (3)

2002 (1)

A. Yariv, “Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(4), 483–485 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36(4), 321–322 (2000).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

K. Tajima, “All-optical switch with switch-off time unrestricted by carrier lifetime,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(Part 2, No. 12A), L1746–L1749 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ackert, J. J.

L. Qi, L. Yang, K. Padmaraju, D. Ran, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “A 10-Gb/s Silicon Microring Resonator-Based BPSK Link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(18), 1805–1808 (2014).
[Crossref]

Assefa, S.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Q. Li, R. Ding, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “High-Speed BPSK Modulation in Silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1329–1332 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Qi, L. Yang, K. Padmaraju, D. Ran, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “A 10-Gb/s Silicon Microring Resonator-Based BPSK Link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(18), 1805–1808 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Xuan, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, R. Ding, Y. Li, N. Ophir, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon microring modulator for 40 Gb/s NRZ-OOK metro networks in O-band,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28284–28291 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Streshinsky, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Novack, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, X. Tu, E. K. S. Chee, A. E.-J. Lim, P. G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Low power 50 Gb/s silicon traveling wave Mach-Zehnder modulator near 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30350–30357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barwicz, T.

Becker, J.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bergman, K.

Q. Li, R. Ding, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “High-Speed BPSK Modulation in Silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1329–1332 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Qi, L. Yang, K. Padmaraju, D. Ran, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “A 10-Gb/s Silicon Microring Resonator-Based BPSK Link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(18), 1805–1808 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Xuan, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, R. Ding, Y. Li, N. Ophir, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon microring modulator for 40 Gb/s NRZ-OOK metro networks in O-band,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28284–28291 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biberman, A.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buhl, L. L.

Chee, E. K. S.

Chen, J.

J. Wang, L. Zhou, H. Zhu, R. Yang, Y. Zhou, L. Liu, T. Wang, and J. Chen, “Silicon high-speed binary phase-shift keying modulator with a single-drive push–pull high-speed traveling wave electrode,” Photon. Res. 3(3), 58–62 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Yang, L. Zhou, and J. Chen, “28 Gb/s BPSK Modulation in a Coupling-tuned Silicon Microring Resonator,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (Optical Society of America, 2015), SW1N. 5.
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Chen, Y.-K.

Chu, T.

Cunningham, J. E.

Derose, G.

Ding, J.

Ding, L.

Ding, R.

Q. Li, R. Ding, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “High-Speed BPSK Modulation in Silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1329–1332 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Xuan, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, R. Ding, Y. Li, N. Ophir, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon microring modulator for 40 Gb/s NRZ-OOK metro networks in O-band,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28284–28291 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Streshinsky, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Novack, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, X. Tu, E. K. S. Chee, A. E.-J. Lim, P. G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Low power 50 Gb/s silicon traveling wave Mach-Zehnder modulator near 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30350–30357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, P.

Dreschmann, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fang, Q.

Freude, W.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gan, F.

S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, F. Gan, G.-R. Zhou, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “High-speed silicon electro-optical modulator that can be operated in carrier depletion or carrier injection mode,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (Optical Society of America, 2008), CFH4.
[Crossref]

Gan, F. W.

Geis, M. W.

S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, F. Gan, G.-R. Zhou, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “High-speed silicon electro-optical modulator that can be operated in carrier depletion or carrier injection mode,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (Optical Society of America, 2008), CFH4.
[Crossref]

Gill, D. M.

Gnauck, A. H.

Goi, K.

Green, W.

Green, W. M. J.

Grein, M. E.

S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, F. Gan, G.-R. Zhou, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “High-speed silicon electro-optical modulator that can be operated in carrier depletion or carrier injection mode,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (Optical Society of America, 2008), CFH4.
[Crossref]

Hillerkuss, D.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hochberg, M.

Q. Li, R. Ding, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “High-Speed BPSK Modulation in Silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1329–1332 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Qi, L. Yang, K. Padmaraju, D. Ran, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “A 10-Gb/s Silicon Microring Resonator-Based BPSK Link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(18), 1805–1808 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Xuan, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, R. Ding, Y. Li, N. Ophir, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon microring modulator for 40 Gb/s NRZ-OOK metro networks in O-band,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28284–28291 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Streshinsky, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Novack, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, X. Tu, E. K. S. Chee, A. E.-J. Lim, P. G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Low power 50 Gb/s silicon traveling wave Mach-Zehnder modulator near 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30350–30357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huebner, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jang, K.-S.

Ji, R.

Joo, J.

Josten, A.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kaertner, F. X.

S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, F. Gan, G.-R. Zhou, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “High-speed silicon electro-optical modulator that can be operated in carrier depletion or carrier injection mode,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (Optical Society of America, 2008), CFH4.
[Crossref]

Karimelahi, S.

Khater, M.

Kiewra, E.

Kim, G.

Kim, I. G.

Kim, S.

Kim, S. A.

Knights, A. P.

L. Qi, L. Yang, K. Padmaraju, D. Ran, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “A 10-Gb/s Silicon Microring Resonator-Based BPSK Link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(18), 1805–1808 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koenig, S.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Koos, C.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kusaka, H.

Kwong, D.-L.

Lee, R.

Lennon, D. M.

S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, F. Gan, G.-R. Zhou, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “High-speed silicon electro-optical modulator that can be operated in carrier depletion or carrier injection mode,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (Optical Society of America, 2008), CFH4.
[Crossref]

Leuthold, J.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

Li, H.

Li, L.

Li, Q.

Q. Li, R. Ding, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “High-Speed BPSK Modulation in Silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1329–1332 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, T.

Li, X.

Li, Y.

Li, Z.

Lim, A. E.-J.

Ling, W.

Liow, T.-Y.

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

Liu, Y.

Q. Li, R. Ding, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “High-Speed BPSK Modulation in Silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1329–1332 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Xuan, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, R. Ding, Y. Li, N. Ophir, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon microring modulator for 40 Gb/s NRZ-OOK metro networks in O-band,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28284–28291 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Streshinsky, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Novack, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, X. Tu, E. K. S. Chee, A. E.-J. Lim, P. G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Low power 50 Gb/s silicon traveling wave Mach-Zehnder modulator near 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30350–30357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lo, G.-Q.

Lo, P. G.-Q.

Logan, D. F.

L. Qi, L. Yang, K. Padmaraju, D. Ran, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “A 10-Gb/s Silicon Microring Resonator-Based BPSK Link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(18), 1805–1808 (2014).
[Crossref]

Long, Q.

Luo, X.

Luo, Y.

Lyszczarz, T. M.

S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, F. Gan, G.-R. Zhou, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “High-speed silicon electro-optical modulator that can be operated in carrier depletion or carrier injection mode,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (Optical Society of America, 2008), CFH4.
[Crossref]

Ma, Y.

Magill, P.

Meyer, J.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nebendahl, B.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Novack, A.

Oda, K.

Ogawa, K.

Oh, J. H.

Ophir, N.

Padmaraju, K.

L. Qi, L. Yang, K. Padmaraju, D. Ran, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “A 10-Gb/s Silicon Microring Resonator-Based BPSK Link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(18), 1805–1808 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pan, H.

Pang, A.

Park, J. W.

Poon, J. K.

Poon, J. K. S.

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, L.

L. Qi, L. Yang, K. Padmaraju, D. Ran, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “A 10-Gb/s Silicon Microring Resonator-Based BPSK Link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(18), 1805–1808 (2014).
[Crossref]

Qiu, C.

Raj, K.

Ran, D.

L. Qi, L. Yang, K. Padmaraju, D. Ran, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “A 10-Gb/s Silicon Microring Resonator-Based BPSK Link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(18), 1805–1808 (2014).
[Crossref]

Reinholm, C.

Sacher, W. D.

Scherer, A.

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmogrow, R.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schulein, R. T.

S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, F. Gan, G.-R. Zhou, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “High-speed silicon electro-optical modulator that can be operated in carrier depletion or carrier injection mode,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (Optical Society of America, 2008), CFH4.
[Crossref]

Shah Hosseini, E.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shank, S. M.

Sheikholeslami, A.

Sheng, Z.

Shubin, I.

Song, J.

Sorace-Agaskar, C. M.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spector, S. J.

S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, F. Gan, G.-R. Zhou, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “High-speed silicon electro-optical modulator that can be operated in carrier depletion or carrier injection mode,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (Optical Society of America, 2008), CFH4.
[Crossref]

Streshinsky, M.

Sun, J.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tajima, K.

K. Tajima, “All-optical switch with switch-off time unrestricted by carrier lifetime,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(Part 2, No. 12A), L1746–L1749 (1993).
[Crossref]

Tan, W.

Terada, Y.

Thacker, H.

Timurdogan, E.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tu, X.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wang, J.

Wang, T.

Wang, X.

Watts, M. R.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winter, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Winzer, P. J.

Wu, A. M.

Wu, H.

Xiao, X.

Xie, C.

Xu, H.

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xuan, Z.

Yang, L.

L. Qi, L. Yang, K. Padmaraju, D. Ran, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “A 10-Gb/s Silicon Microring Resonator-Based BPSK Link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(18), 1805–1808 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Ding, R. Ji, L. Zhang, and L. Yang, “Electro-optical response analysis of a 40 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(14), 2434–2440 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, R.

J. Wang, L. Zhou, H. Zhu, R. Yang, Y. Zhou, L. Liu, T. Wang, and J. Chen, “Silicon high-speed binary phase-shift keying modulator with a single-drive push–pull high-speed traveling wave electrode,” Photon. Res. 3(3), 58–62 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Yang, L. Zhou, and J. Chen, “28 Gb/s BPSK Modulation in a Coupling-tuned Silicon Microring Resonator,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (Optical Society of America, 2015), SW1N. 5.
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Streshinsky, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Novack, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, X. Tu, E. K. S. Chee, A. E.-J. Lim, P. G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Low power 50 Gb/s silicon traveling wave Mach-Zehnder modulator near 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30350–30357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

Yariv, A.

W. Green, R. Lee, G. Derose, A. Scherer, and A. Yariv, “Hybrid InGaAsP-InP Mach-Zehnder Racetrack Resonator for Thermooptic Switching and Coupling Control,” Opt. Express 13(5), 1651–1659 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Yariv, “Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(4), 483–485 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36(4), 321–322 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yi, H.

Yoon, J. U.

S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, F. Gan, G.-R. Zhou, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “High-speed silicon electro-optical modulator that can be operated in carrier depletion or carrier injection mode,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (Optical Society of America, 2008), CFH4.
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

Yu, M.

Yu, Y.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, L.

Zheng, X.

Zhou, G.-R.

S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, F. Gan, G.-R. Zhou, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “High-speed silicon electro-optical modulator that can be operated in carrier depletion or carrier injection mode,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (Optical Society of America, 2008), CFH4.
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

J. Wang, L. Zhou, H. Zhu, R. Yang, Y. Zhou, L. Liu, T. Wang, and J. Chen, “Silicon high-speed binary phase-shift keying modulator with a single-drive push–pull high-speed traveling wave electrode,” Photon. Res. 3(3), 58–62 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Yang, L. Zhou, and J. Chen, “28 Gb/s BPSK Modulation in a Coupling-tuned Silicon Microring Resonator,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (Optical Society of America, 2015), SW1N. 5.
[Crossref]

Zhou, P.

Zhou, Y.

Zhou, Z.

Zhu, H.

Zou, S. C.

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36(4), 321–322 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (4)

A. Yariv, “Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(4), 483–485 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, R. Ding, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “High-Speed BPSK Modulation in Silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1329–1332 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Qi, L. Yang, K. Padmaraju, D. Ran, D. F. Logan, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “A 10-Gb/s Silicon Microring Resonator-Based BPSK Link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(18), 1805–1808 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Tajima, “All-optical switch with switch-off time unrestricted by carrier lifetime,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(Part 2, No. 12A), L1746–L1749 (1993).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4008 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Ding, Y. Liu, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, K. Padmaraju, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design and characterization of a 30-GHz bandwidth low-power silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Commun. 321, 124–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (12)

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators with doping optimization,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4116–4125 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Xuan, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, R. Ding, Y. Li, N. Ophir, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon microring modulator for 40 Gb/s NRZ-OOK metro networks in O-band,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28284–28291 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Sacher, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, H. Pan, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. K. S. Poon, “Coupling modulation of microrings at rates beyond the linewidth limit,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9722–9733 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Sacher, W. M. J. Green, D. M. Gill, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, M. Khater, E. Kiewra, C. Reinholm, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. K. S. Poon, “Binary phase-shift keying by coupling modulation of microrings,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20252–20259 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Luo, X. Tu, J. Song, L. Ding, Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Slope efficiency and spurious-free dynamic range of silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator upon carrier depletion and injection effects,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16570–16577 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Green, R. Lee, G. Derose, A. Scherer, and A. Yariv, “Hybrid InGaAsP-InP Mach-Zehnder Racetrack Resonator for Thermooptic Switching and Coupling Control,” Opt. Express 13(5), 1651–1659 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Sacher and J. K. Poon, “Dynamics of microring resonator modulators,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15741–15753 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Goi, K. Oda, H. Kusaka, Y. Terada, K. Ogawa, T.-Y. Liow, X. Tu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “11-Gb/s 80-km transmission performance of zero-chirp silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 20(26), B350–B356 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Li, J. Zhang, H. Yi, W. Tan, Q. Long, Z. Zhou, X. Wang, and H. Wu, “Low-voltage, high speed, compact silicon modulator for BPSK modulation,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23410–23415 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dong, L. Chen, C. Xie, L. L. Buhl, and Y.-K. Chen, “50-Gb/s silicon quadrature phase-shift keying modulator,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21181–21186 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Streshinsky, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Novack, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, X. Tu, E. K. S. Chee, A. E.-J. Lim, P. G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Low power 50 Gb/s silicon traveling wave Mach-Zehnder modulator near 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30350–30357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Photon. Res. (1)

Other (5)

P. Dong, C. Xie, L. L. Buhl, and Y.-K. Chen, “Silicon Microring Modulators for Advanced Modulation Formats,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), OW4J.2.
[Crossref]

R. Yang, L. Zhou, and J. Chen, “28 Gb/s BPSK Modulation in a Coupling-tuned Silicon Microring Resonator,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (Optical Society of America, 2015), SW1N. 5.
[Crossref]

S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, F. Gan, G.-R. Zhou, F. X. Kaertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “High-speed silicon electro-optical modulator that can be operated in carrier depletion or carrier injection mode,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (Optical Society of America, 2008), CFH4.
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, L. Zhou, X. Sun, and J. Chen, “Design of Traveling Wave Electrode for High-speed Silicon Modulators,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), AS3B.2.

H. Zhu, L. Zhou, L. Liu, T. Wang, Y. Zhou, J. Wang, Q. Wu, A. Xie, R. Yang, Z. Li, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator for OOK and BPSK modulation,” in Optical Fibre Technology, 2014 OptoElectronics and Communication Conference and Australian Conference on, 2014), 174–175.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Optical microscope image of the fabricated device. The total length of the device including the metal pads is 1.35 mm. The waveguide and the racetrack resonator are emphasized by green lines for guidance. Inset: cross-sectional view of the MZI modulation arms.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental configuration for measurements of optical transmission spectra and OOK and BPSK modulations. The red lines represent optical links, and the blue lines represent electrical links. The receiver part for BPSK modulation is shown in the black dashed box.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Transmission spectrum under V1 = 1.5 V and V2 = −2 V. (b) Comparison of transmission spectrum when V2 is changed from −2 V to −1 V. (c) Critical-coupling wavelength shifts as a function of V2. The red line is a linear fitting line. (d) Magnified resonance notch profiles with various V2 values. (e) ER of the resonance in (d) changes as a function of V2 . Voltage swing ranges for OOK and BPSK modulations are depicted.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 EO responses at two bias conditions. The 3-dB EO bandwidth exceeds 30 GHz.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Eye diagrams for the 32 Gb/s OOK modulation with three different RF drive voltages of (a) Vin = 0.4 V, (b) Vin = 1 V and (c) Vin = 3 V. The DC bias voltages are V1 = 4 V and V2 = 0 V.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 28 Gb/s BPSK modulation result: (a) eye diagram, (b) constellation diagram, and (c) demodulated eye diagram. The RF drive voltage is Vin = 3 V, and the DC biases are V1 = 1.5 V and V2 = −4 V.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) PRBS input power. The dashed lines are the measured results and the solid lines are the calculated results using the drive voltages. (b) Energy consumption of the modulator. (c) RF reflectivity of the modulator.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) S11 response and (b) smith chart measured under the two bias conditions for OOK and BPSK modulations.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Performance comparison of recent silicon OOK modulators

Tables Icon

Table 2 Performance comparison of recent BPSK modulators

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V mod = V i n + V r e f = ( 1 + S 11 ) V i n
S 11 = Z mod Z 0 Z mod + Z 0
P mod = Re ( V mod 2 × I mod * 2 ) = 1 4 | V mod | 2 Re ( 1 Z mod )
P mod = 1 4 | V i n | 2 | 2 Z mod Z mod + Z 0 | 2 Re ( 1 Z mod )

Metrics