Abstract

We study the ellipticity of near-threshold harmonics (NTH) from aligned molecules with large internuclear distances numerically and analytically. The calculated harmonic spectra show a broad plateau for NTH which is several orders of magnitude higher than that for high-order harmonics. In particular, the NTH plateau shows high ellipticity at small and intermediate orientation angles. Our analyses reveal that the main contributions to the NTH plateau come from the transition of the electron from continuum states to these two lowest bound states of the system, which are strongly coupled together by the laser field. Besides continuum states, higher excited states also play a role in the NTH plateau, resulting in a large phase difference between parallel and perpendicular harmonics and accordingly high ellipticity of the NTH plateau. The NTH plateau with high intensity and large ellipticity provides a promising manner for generating strong elliptically-polarized extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) pulses.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  22. J. A. Hostetter, J. L. Tate, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Semiclassical approaches to below-threshold harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023401 (2010).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 233003 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. F. L. Dong, Y. Q. Tian, S. J. Yu, S. Wang, S. P. Yang, and Y. J. Chen, “Polarization properties of below-threshold harmonics from aligned molecules H2+ in linearly polarized laser fields,” Opt. Express 23, 18106–18116 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. X. Zhou, R. Lock, N. Wagner, W. Li, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Elliptically polarized high-order harmonic emission from molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Attosecond circular dichroism spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063601 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. A. Etches, C. B. Madsen, and L. B. Madsen, “Inducing elliptically polarized high-order harmonics from aligned molecules with linearly polarized femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013409 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  30. S. Ramakrishna, P. A. J. Sherratt, A. D. Dutoi, and T. Seideman, “Origin and implication of ellipticity in high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 021802(R) (2010).
    [Crossref]
  31. P. A. J. Sherratt, S. Ramakrishna, and T. Seideman, “Signatures of the molecular potential in the ellipticity of high-order harmonics from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053425 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  32. S. K. Son, D. A. Telnov, and S. I. Chu, “Probing the origin of elliptical high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043829 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  33. V. V. Strelkov, A. A. Gonoskov, I. A. Gonoskov, and M. Yu. Ryabikin, “Origin for ellipticity of high-order harmonics generated in atomic gases and the sublaser-cycle evolution of harmonic polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043902 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. S. J. Yu, B. Zhang, Y. P. Li, S. P. Yang, and Y. J. Chen, “Ellipticity of odd-even harmonics from oriented asymmetric molecules in strong linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 053844 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  35. A. D. Bandrauk and J. Ruel, “Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of molecular ions in intense laser pulses: Geometric and orientation effects,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2153–2162 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  36. T. Zuo, S. Chelkowski, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Harmonic generation by the H2+ molecular ion in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 3837–3844 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. C. Yu, H. X. He, Y. H. Wang, Q. Shi, Y. D. Zhang, and R. F. Lu, “Intense attosecond pulse generated from a molecular harmonic plateau of H2+ in mid-infrared laser fields,” J. Phys. B 47, 055601 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  38. M. Yu. Ivanov and P. B. Corkum, “Generation of high-order harmonics from inertially confined molecular ions,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 580–590 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. T. Zuo and A. D. Bandrauk, “Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of diatomic molecular ions by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R2511–R2514 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. Y. J. Chen, J. Chen, and J. Liu, “Charge-resonance effect on harmonic generation by symmetric diatomic molecular ions in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063405 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  41. J. Chen and S. G. Chen, “Gauge problem in molecular high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 041402(R) (2007).
    [Crossref]
  42. Y. J. Chen and B. Zhang, “Strong-field approximations for the orientation dependence of the total ionization of homonuclear diatomic molecules with different internuclear distances,” J. Phys. B 45, 215601 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  43. M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412–433 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  44. P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “The physics of attosecond light pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 67, 813–855 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  45. S. Sukiasyan, C. McDonald, C. Destefani, M. Y. Ivanov, and T. Brabec, “Multielectron correlation in high-harmonic generation: A 2D model analysis,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 223002 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  46. M. Yu. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, and P. Dietrich, “Coherent control and collapse of symmetry in a two-level system in an intense laser field,” Laser Phys. 3, 375–380 (1993).
  47. X. M. Tong and S. I. Chu, “Probing the spectral and temporal structures of high-order harmonic generation in intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 021802(R) (2000).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (3)

S. J. Yu, B. Zhang, Y. P. Li, S. P. Yang, and Y. J. Chen, “Ellipticity of odd-even harmonics from oriented asymmetric molecules in strong linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 053844 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. H. Xiong, J. W. Geng, J. Y. Tang, L. Y. Peng, and Q. H. Gong, “Mechanisms of below-threshold harmonic generation in atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 233001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Yu, H. X. He, Y. H. Wang, Q. Shi, Y. D. Zhang, and R. F. Lu, “Intense attosecond pulse generated from a molecular harmonic plateau of H2+ in mid-infrared laser fields,” J. Phys. B 47, 055601 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

J. Henkel, T. Witting, D. Fabris, M. Lein, P. L. Knight, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Prediction of attosecond light pulses in the VUV range in a high-order-harmonic-generation regime,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043818 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

Y. J. Chen and B. Zhang, “Strong-field approximations for the orientation dependence of the total ionization of homonuclear diatomic molecules with different internuclear distances,” J. Phys. B 45, 215601 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

V. V. Strelkov, A. A. Gonoskov, I. A. Gonoskov, and M. Yu. Ryabikin, “Origin for ellipticity of high-order harmonics generated in atomic gases and the sublaser-cycle evolution of harmonic polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043902 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Liu, M. C. Kohler, C. H. Keitel, and K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, “Coherent x-ray generation from below-threshold harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063817 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. A. J. Sherratt, S. Ramakrishna, and T. Seideman, “Signatures of the molecular potential in the ellipticity of high-order harmonics from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053425 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (6)

S. K. Son, D. A. Telnov, and S. I. Chu, “Probing the origin of elliptical high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043829 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Etches, C. B. Madsen, and L. B. Madsen, “Inducing elliptically polarized high-order harmonics from aligned molecules with linearly polarized femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013409 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Ramakrishna, P. A. J. Sherratt, A. D. Dutoi, and T. Seideman, “Origin and implication of ellipticity in high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 021802(R) (2010).
[Crossref]

E. P. Power, A. M. March, F. Catoire, E. Sistrunk, K. Krushelnick, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “XFROG phase measurement of threshold harmonics in a Keldysh-scaled system,” Nat. Photonics 4, 352–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Soifer, P. Botheron, D. Shafir, A. Diner, O. Raz, B. D. Bruner, Y. Mairesse, B. Pons, and N. Dudovich, “Nearthreshold high-order harmonic spectroscopy with aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143904 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. A. Hostetter, J. L. Tate, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Semiclassical approaches to below-threshold harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023401 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (6)

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, “Vacuum-ultraviolet frequency combs from below-threshold harmonics,” Nat. Phys. 5, 815–820 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Zhou, R. Lock, N. Wagner, W. Li, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Elliptically polarized high-order harmonic emission from molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Attosecond circular dichroism spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Carrera and S. I. Chu, “Ab initio time-dependent density-functional-theory study of the frequency comb structure, coherence, and dephasing of multielectron systems in the vuv-xuv regimes via high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063410 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Sukiasyan, C. McDonald, C. Destefani, M. Y. Ivanov, and T. Brabec, “Multielectron correlation in high-harmonic generation: A 2D model analysis,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 223002 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

J. J. Carrera, S. K. Son, and S. I. Chu, “Ab initio theoretical investigation of the frequency comb structure and coherence in the vuv-xuv regimes via high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 031401 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3, 381–387 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Chen and S. G. Chen, “Gauge problem in molecular high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 041402(R) (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

Y. J. Chen, J. Chen, and J. Liu, “Charge-resonance effect on harmonic generation by symmetric diatomic molecular ions in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063405 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature (London) 436, 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “The physics of attosecond light pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 67, 813–855 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 233003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Role of the intramolecular phase in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 183903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. Velotta, N. Hay, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation in aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183901 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

X. M. Tong and S. I. Chu, “Probing the spectral and temporal structures of high-order harmonic generation in intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 021802(R) (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

A. D. Bandrauk and J. Ruel, “Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of molecular ions in intense laser pulses: Geometric and orientation effects,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2153–2162 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. Kakehata, H. Takada, H. Yumoto, and K. Miyazaki, “Anomalous ellipticity dependence of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 55, R861–R864 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

M. Y. Ivanov, T. Brabec, and N. Burnett, “Coulomb corrections and polarization effects in high-intensity high-harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 742–745 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Antoine, A. L. Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Attosecond pulse trains using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1234–1237 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, and P. B. Corkum, “Ellipticity and polarization effects in harmonic generation in ionizing neon,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R3418–R3421 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Miyazaki and H. Takada, “High-order harmonic generation in the tunneling regime,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3007–3021 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Zuo and A. D. Bandrauk, “Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of diatomic molecular ions by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R2511–R2514 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (4)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Zuo, S. Chelkowski, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Harmonic generation by the H2+ molecular ion in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 3837–3844 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yu. Ivanov and P. B. Corkum, “Generation of high-order harmonics from inertially confined molecular ions,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 580–590 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yu. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, and P. Dietrich, “Coherent control and collapse of symmetry in a two-level system in an intense laser field,” Laser Phys. 3, 375–380 (1993).

1991 (1)

A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Theoretical aspects of intense field harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 24, 3315–3341 (1991).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

1982 (1)

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412–433 (1982).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

E. P. Power, A. M. March, F. Catoire, E. Sistrunk, K. Krushelnick, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “XFROG phase measurement of threshold harmonics in a Keldysh-scaled system,” Nat. Photonics 4, 352–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “The physics of attosecond light pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 67, 813–855 (2004).
[Crossref]

Antoine, P.

P. Antoine, A. L. Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Attosecond pulse trains using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1234–1237 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balcou, Ph.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bandrauk, A. D.

A. D. Bandrauk and J. Ruel, “Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of molecular ions in intense laser pulses: Geometric and orientation effects,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2153–2162 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Zuo and A. D. Bandrauk, “Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of diatomic molecular ions by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R2511–R2514 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Zuo, S. Chelkowski, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Harmonic generation by the H2+ molecular ion in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 3837–3844 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Botheron, P.

H. Soifer, P. Botheron, D. Shafir, A. Diner, O. Raz, B. D. Bruner, Y. Mairesse, B. Pons, and N. Dudovich, “Nearthreshold high-order harmonic spectroscopy with aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boyer, K.

Brabec, T.

S. Sukiasyan, C. McDonald, C. Destefani, M. Y. Ivanov, and T. Brabec, “Multielectron correlation in high-harmonic generation: A 2D model analysis,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 223002 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Y. Ivanov, T. Brabec, and N. Burnett, “Coulomb corrections and polarization effects in high-intensity high-harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 742–745 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruner, B. D.

H. Soifer, P. Botheron, D. Shafir, A. Diner, O. Raz, B. D. Bruner, Y. Mairesse, B. Pons, and N. Dudovich, “Nearthreshold high-order harmonic spectroscopy with aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Burnett, N.

M. Y. Ivanov, T. Brabec, and N. Burnett, “Coulomb corrections and polarization effects in high-intensity high-harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 742–745 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burnett, N. H.

N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, and P. B. Corkum, “Ellipticity and polarization effects in harmonic generation in ionizing neon,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R3418–R3421 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carrera, J. J.

J. J. Carrera and S. I. Chu, “Ab initio time-dependent density-functional-theory study of the frequency comb structure, coherence, and dephasing of multielectron systems in the vuv-xuv regimes via high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063410 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. J. Carrera, S. K. Son, and S. I. Chu, “Ab initio theoretical investigation of the frequency comb structure and coherence in the vuv-xuv regimes via high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 031401 (2008).
[Crossref]

Castillejo, M.

R. Velotta, N. Hay, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation in aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183901 (2001).
[Crossref]

Catoire, F.

E. P. Power, A. M. March, F. Catoire, E. Sistrunk, K. Krushelnick, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “XFROG phase measurement of threshold harmonics in a Keldysh-scaled system,” Nat. Photonics 4, 352–356 (2010).
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J. Chen and S. G. Chen, “Gauge problem in molecular high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 041402(R) (2007).
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Chen, Y. J.

F. L. Dong, Y. Q. Tian, S. J. Yu, S. Wang, S. P. Yang, and Y. J. Chen, “Polarization properties of below-threshold harmonics from aligned molecules H2+ in linearly polarized laser fields,” Opt. Express 23, 18106–18116 (2015).
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S. K. Son, D. A. Telnov, and S. I. Chu, “Probing the origin of elliptical high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043829 (2010).
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O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Attosecond circular dichroism spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063601 (2009).
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I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 233003 (2003).
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N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, and P. B. Corkum, “Ellipticity and polarization effects in harmonic generation in ionizing neon,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R3418–R3421 (1995).
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M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
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P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
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M. Yu. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, and P. Dietrich, “Coherent control and collapse of symmetry in a two-level system in an intense laser field,” Laser Phys. 3, 375–380 (1993).

M. Yu. Ivanov and P. B. Corkum, “Generation of high-order harmonics from inertially confined molecular ions,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 580–590 (1993).
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S. Sukiasyan, C. McDonald, C. Destefani, M. Y. Ivanov, and T. Brabec, “Multielectron correlation in high-harmonic generation: A 2D model analysis,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 223002 (2009).
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M. Yu. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, and P. Dietrich, “Coherent control and collapse of symmetry in a two-level system in an intense laser field,” Laser Phys. 3, 375–380 (1993).

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E. P. Power, A. M. March, F. Catoire, E. Sistrunk, K. Krushelnick, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “XFROG phase measurement of threshold harmonics in a Keldysh-scaled system,” Nat. Photonics 4, 352–356 (2010).
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H. Soifer, P. Botheron, D. Shafir, A. Diner, O. Raz, B. D. Bruner, Y. Mairesse, B. Pons, and N. Dudovich, “Nearthreshold high-order harmonic spectroscopy with aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143904 (2010).
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Dong, F. L.

Dooley, P. W.

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 233003 (2003).
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Dudovich, N.

H. Soifer, P. Botheron, D. Shafir, A. Diner, O. Raz, B. D. Bruner, Y. Mairesse, B. Pons, and N. Dudovich, “Nearthreshold high-order harmonic spectroscopy with aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143904 (2010).
[Crossref]

O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Attosecond circular dichroism spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063601 (2009).
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S. Ramakrishna, P. A. J. Sherratt, A. D. Dutoi, and T. Seideman, “Origin and implication of ellipticity in high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 021802(R) (2010).
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A. Etches, C. B. Madsen, and L. B. Madsen, “Inducing elliptically polarized high-order harmonics from aligned molecules with linearly polarized femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013409 (2010).
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Fabris, D.

J. Henkel, T. Witting, D. Fabris, M. Lein, P. L. Knight, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Prediction of attosecond light pulses in the VUV range in a high-order-harmonic-generation regime,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043818 (2013).
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M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412–433 (1982).
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J. A. Hostetter, J. L. Tate, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Semiclassical approaches to below-threshold harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023401 (2010).
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D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, “Vacuum-ultraviolet frequency combs from below-threshold harmonics,” Nat. Phys. 5, 815–820 (2009).
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Geng, J. W.

W. H. Xiong, J. W. Geng, J. Y. Tang, L. Y. Peng, and Q. H. Gong, “Mechanisms of below-threshold harmonic generation in atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 233001 (2014).
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Gibson, G.

Gohle, C.

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature (London) 436, 234–237 (2005).
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Gong, Q. H.

W. H. Xiong, J. W. Geng, J. Y. Tang, L. Y. Peng, and Q. H. Gong, “Mechanisms of below-threshold harmonic generation in atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 233001 (2014).
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V. V. Strelkov, A. A. Gonoskov, I. A. Gonoskov, and M. Yu. Ryabikin, “Origin for ellipticity of high-order harmonics generated in atomic gases and the sublaser-cycle evolution of harmonic polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043902 (2011).
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V. V. Strelkov, A. A. Gonoskov, I. A. Gonoskov, and M. Yu. Ryabikin, “Origin for ellipticity of high-order harmonics generated in atomic gases and the sublaser-cycle evolution of harmonic polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043902 (2011).
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Hansch, T. W.

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature (London) 436, 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hatsagortsyan, K. Z.

J. C. Liu, M. C. Kohler, C. H. Keitel, and K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, “Coherent x-ray generation from below-threshold harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063817 (2011).
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Hay, N.

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Role of the intramolecular phase in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 183903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Velotta, N. Hay, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation in aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183901 (2001).
[Crossref]

He, H. X.

C. Yu, H. X. He, Y. H. Wang, Q. Shi, Y. D. Zhang, and R. F. Lu, “Intense attosecond pulse generated from a molecular harmonic plateau of H2+ in mid-infrared laser fields,” J. Phys. B 47, 055601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Henkel, J.

J. Henkel, T. Witting, D. Fabris, M. Lein, P. L. Knight, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Prediction of attosecond light pulses in the VUV range in a high-order-harmonic-generation regime,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043818 (2013).
[Crossref]

Herrmann, M.

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature (London) 436, 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref]

Holzwarth, R.

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature (London) 436, 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hostetter, J.

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, “Vacuum-ultraviolet frequency combs from below-threshold harmonics,” Nat. Phys. 5, 815–820 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hostetter, J. A.

J. A. Hostetter, J. L. Tate, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Semiclassical approaches to below-threshold harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023401 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huillier, A. L.

P. Antoine, A. L. Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Attosecond pulse trains using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1234–1237 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, M. Y.

S. Sukiasyan, C. McDonald, C. Destefani, M. Y. Ivanov, and T. Brabec, “Multielectron correlation in high-harmonic generation: A 2D model analysis,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 223002 (2009).
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M. Y. Ivanov, T. Brabec, and N. Burnett, “Coulomb corrections and polarization effects in high-intensity high-harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 742–745 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M. Yu.

O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Attosecond circular dichroism spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yu. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, and P. Dietrich, “Coherent control and collapse of symmetry in a two-level system in an intense laser field,” Laser Phys. 3, 375–380 (1993).

M. Yu. Ivanov and P. B. Corkum, “Generation of high-order harmonics from inertially confined molecular ions,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 580–590 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jara, H.

Johann, U.

Jones, R. J.

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kakehata, M.

M. Kakehata, H. Takada, H. Yumoto, and K. Miyazaki, “Anomalous ellipticity dependence of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 55, R861–R864 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kan, C.

N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, and P. B. Corkum, “Ellipticity and polarization effects in harmonic generation in ionizing neon,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R3418–R3421 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

X. Zhou, R. Lock, N. Wagner, W. Li, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Elliptically polarized high-order harmonic emission from molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keitel, C. H.

J. C. Liu, M. C. Kohler, C. H. Keitel, and K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, “Coherent x-ray generation from below-threshold harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063817 (2011).
[Crossref]

Knight, P. L.

J. Henkel, T. Witting, D. Fabris, M. Lein, P. L. Knight, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Prediction of attosecond light pulses in the VUV range in a high-order-harmonic-generation regime,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043818 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Role of the intramolecular phase in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 183903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kohler, M. C.

J. C. Liu, M. C. Kohler, C. H. Keitel, and K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, “Coherent x-ray generation from below-threshold harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063817 (2011).
[Crossref]

Krausz, F.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3, 381–387 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature (London) 436, 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref]

Krushelnick, K.

E. P. Power, A. M. March, F. Catoire, E. Sistrunk, K. Krushelnick, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “XFROG phase measurement of threshold harmonics in a Keldysh-scaled system,” Nat. Photonics 4, 352–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kulander, K. C.

A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Theoretical aspects of intense field harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 24, 3315–3341 (1991).
[Crossref]

L’Huillier, A.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Theoretical aspects of intense field harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 24, 3315–3341 (1991).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. F.

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 233003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lein, M.

J. Henkel, T. Witting, D. Fabris, M. Lein, P. L. Knight, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Prediction of attosecond light pulses in the VUV range in a high-order-harmonic-generation regime,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043818 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Role of the intramolecular phase in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 183903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lewenstein, M.

P. Antoine, A. L. Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Attosecond pulse trains using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1234–1237 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, W.

X. Zhou, R. Lock, N. Wagner, W. Li, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Elliptically polarized high-order harmonic emission from molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y. P.

S. J. Yu, B. Zhang, Y. P. Li, S. P. Yang, and Y. J. Chen, “Ellipticity of odd-even harmonics from oriented asymmetric molecules in strong linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 053844 (2014).
[Crossref]

Litvinyuk, I. V.

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 233003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

Y. J. Chen, J. Chen, and J. Liu, “Charge-resonance effect on harmonic generation by symmetric diatomic molecular ions in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063405 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. C.

J. C. Liu, M. C. Kohler, C. H. Keitel, and K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, “Coherent x-ray generation from below-threshold harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063817 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lock, R.

X. Zhou, R. Lock, N. Wagner, W. Li, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Elliptically polarized high-order harmonic emission from molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, R. F.

C. Yu, H. X. He, Y. H. Wang, Q. Shi, Y. D. Zhang, and R. F. Lu, “Intense attosecond pulse generated from a molecular harmonic plateau of H2+ in mid-infrared laser fields,” J. Phys. B 47, 055601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Luk, T. S.

Madsen, C. B.

A. Etches, C. B. Madsen, and L. B. Madsen, “Inducing elliptically polarized high-order harmonics from aligned molecules with linearly polarized femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013409 (2010).
[Crossref]

Madsen, L. B.

A. Etches, C. B. Madsen, and L. B. Madsen, “Inducing elliptically polarized high-order harmonics from aligned molecules with linearly polarized femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013409 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mairesse, Y.

H. Soifer, P. Botheron, D. Shafir, A. Diner, O. Raz, B. D. Bruner, Y. Mairesse, B. Pons, and N. Dudovich, “Nearthreshold high-order harmonic spectroscopy with aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143904 (2010).
[Crossref]

O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Attosecond circular dichroism spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marangos, J. P.

J. Henkel, T. Witting, D. Fabris, M. Lein, P. L. Knight, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Prediction of attosecond light pulses in the VUV range in a high-order-harmonic-generation regime,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043818 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Role of the intramolecular phase in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 183903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Velotta, N. Hay, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation in aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183901 (2001).
[Crossref]

March, A. M.

E. P. Power, A. M. March, F. Catoire, E. Sistrunk, K. Krushelnick, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “XFROG phase measurement of threshold harmonics in a Keldysh-scaled system,” Nat. Photonics 4, 352–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mason, M. B.

R. Velotta, N. Hay, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation in aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183901 (2001).
[Crossref]

McDonald, C.

S. Sukiasyan, C. McDonald, C. Destefani, M. Y. Ivanov, and T. Brabec, “Multielectron correlation in high-harmonic generation: A 2D model analysis,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 223002 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McIntyre, I. A.

McPherson, A.

Miyazaki, K.

M. Kakehata, H. Takada, H. Yumoto, and K. Miyazaki, “Anomalous ellipticity dependence of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 55, R861–R864 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. Miyazaki and H. Takada, “High-order harmonic generation in the tunneling regime,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3007–3021 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moll, K. D.

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

X. Zhou, R. Lock, N. Wagner, W. Li, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Elliptically polarized high-order harmonic emission from molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patchkovskii, S.

O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Attosecond circular dichroism spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, L. Y.

W. H. Xiong, J. W. Geng, J. Y. Tang, L. Y. Peng, and Q. H. Gong, “Mechanisms of below-threshold harmonic generation in atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 233001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pons, B.

H. Soifer, P. Botheron, D. Shafir, A. Diner, O. Raz, B. D. Bruner, Y. Mairesse, B. Pons, and N. Dudovich, “Nearthreshold high-order harmonic spectroscopy with aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Power, E. P.

E. P. Power, A. M. March, F. Catoire, E. Sistrunk, K. Krushelnick, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “XFROG phase measurement of threshold harmonics in a Keldysh-scaled system,” Nat. Photonics 4, 352–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ramakrishna, S.

P. A. J. Sherratt, S. Ramakrishna, and T. Seideman, “Signatures of the molecular potential in the ellipticity of high-order harmonics from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053425 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Ramakrishna, P. A. J. Sherratt, A. D. Dutoi, and T. Seideman, “Origin and implication of ellipticity in high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 021802(R) (2010).
[Crossref]

Rauschenberger, J.

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature (London) 436, 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rayner, D. M.

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 233003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raz, O.

H. Soifer, P. Botheron, D. Shafir, A. Diner, O. Raz, B. D. Bruner, Y. Mairesse, B. Pons, and N. Dudovich, “Nearthreshold high-order harmonic spectroscopy with aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rhodes, C. K.

Ruel, J.

A. D. Bandrauk and J. Ruel, “Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of molecular ions in intense laser pulses: Geometric and orientation effects,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2153–2162 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ryabikin, M. Yu.

V. V. Strelkov, A. A. Gonoskov, I. A. Gonoskov, and M. Yu. Ryabikin, “Origin for ellipticity of high-order harmonics generated in atomic gases and the sublaser-cycle evolution of harmonic polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043902 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schafer, K. J.

J. A. Hostetter, J. L. Tate, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Semiclassical approaches to below-threshold harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023401 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, “Vacuum-ultraviolet frequency combs from below-threshold harmonics,” Nat. Phys. 5, 815–820 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Theoretical aspects of intense field harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 24, 3315–3341 (1991).
[Crossref]

Schibli, T. R.

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, “Vacuum-ultraviolet frequency combs from below-threshold harmonics,” Nat. Phys. 5, 815–820 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schuessler, H. A.

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature (London) 436, 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref]

Seideman, T.

P. A. J. Sherratt, S. Ramakrishna, and T. Seideman, “Signatures of the molecular potential in the ellipticity of high-order harmonics from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053425 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Ramakrishna, P. A. J. Sherratt, A. D. Dutoi, and T. Seideman, “Origin and implication of ellipticity in high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 021802(R) (2010).
[Crossref]

Shafir, D.

H. Soifer, P. Botheron, D. Shafir, A. Diner, O. Raz, B. D. Bruner, Y. Mairesse, B. Pons, and N. Dudovich, “Nearthreshold high-order harmonic spectroscopy with aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sherratt, P. A. J.

P. A. J. Sherratt, S. Ramakrishna, and T. Seideman, “Signatures of the molecular potential in the ellipticity of high-order harmonics from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053425 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Ramakrishna, P. A. J. Sherratt, A. D. Dutoi, and T. Seideman, “Origin and implication of ellipticity in high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 021802(R) (2010).
[Crossref]

Shi, Q.

C. Yu, H. X. He, Y. H. Wang, Q. Shi, Y. D. Zhang, and R. F. Lu, “Intense attosecond pulse generated from a molecular harmonic plateau of H2+ in mid-infrared laser fields,” J. Phys. B 47, 055601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sistrunk, E.

E. P. Power, A. M. March, F. Catoire, E. Sistrunk, K. Krushelnick, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “XFROG phase measurement of threshold harmonics in a Keldysh-scaled system,” Nat. Photonics 4, 352–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

Smirnova, O.

O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Attosecond circular dichroism spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soifer, H.

H. Soifer, P. Botheron, D. Shafir, A. Diner, O. Raz, B. D. Bruner, Y. Mairesse, B. Pons, and N. Dudovich, “Nearthreshold high-order harmonic spectroscopy with aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Son, S. K.

S. K. Son, D. A. Telnov, and S. I. Chu, “Probing the origin of elliptical high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043829 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. J. Carrera, S. K. Son, and S. I. Chu, “Ab initio theoretical investigation of the frequency comb structure and coherence in the vuv-xuv regimes via high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 031401 (2008).
[Crossref]

Steiger, A.

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412–433 (1982).
[Crossref]

Strelkov, V. V.

V. V. Strelkov, A. A. Gonoskov, I. A. Gonoskov, and M. Yu. Ryabikin, “Origin for ellipticity of high-order harmonics generated in atomic gases and the sublaser-cycle evolution of harmonic polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043902 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sukiasyan, S.

S. Sukiasyan, C. McDonald, C. Destefani, M. Y. Ivanov, and T. Brabec, “Multielectron correlation in high-harmonic generation: A 2D model analysis,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 223002 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takada, H.

M. Kakehata, H. Takada, H. Yumoto, and K. Miyazaki, “Anomalous ellipticity dependence of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 55, R861–R864 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. Miyazaki and H. Takada, “High-order harmonic generation in the tunneling regime,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3007–3021 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, J. Y.

W. H. Xiong, J. W. Geng, J. Y. Tang, L. Y. Peng, and Q. H. Gong, “Mechanisms of below-threshold harmonic generation in atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 233001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tate, J. L.

J. A. Hostetter, J. L. Tate, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Semiclassical approaches to below-threshold harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023401 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, “Vacuum-ultraviolet frequency combs from below-threshold harmonics,” Nat. Phys. 5, 815–820 (2009).
[Crossref]

Telnov, D. A.

S. K. Son, D. A. Telnov, and S. I. Chu, “Probing the origin of elliptical high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043829 (2010).
[Crossref]

Thorpe, M. J.

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, Y. Q.

Tisch, J. W. G.

J. Henkel, T. Witting, D. Fabris, M. Lein, P. L. Knight, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Prediction of attosecond light pulses in the VUV range in a high-order-harmonic-generation regime,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043818 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tong, X. M.

X. M. Tong and S. I. Chu, “Probing the spectral and temporal structures of high-order harmonic generation in intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 021802(R) (2000).
[Crossref]

Udem, T.

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature (London) 436, 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref]

Velotta, R.

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Role of the intramolecular phase in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 183903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Velotta, N. Hay, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation in aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183901 (2001).
[Crossref]

Villeneuve, D.

O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Attosecond circular dichroism spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 233003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wagner, N.

X. Zhou, R. Lock, N. Wagner, W. Li, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Elliptically polarized high-order harmonic emission from molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

Wang, Y. H.

C. Yu, H. X. He, Y. H. Wang, Q. Shi, Y. D. Zhang, and R. F. Lu, “Intense attosecond pulse generated from a molecular harmonic plateau of H2+ in mid-infrared laser fields,” J. Phys. B 47, 055601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Witting, T.

J. Henkel, T. Witting, D. Fabris, M. Lein, P. L. Knight, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Prediction of attosecond light pulses in the VUV range in a high-order-harmonic-generation regime,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043818 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xiong, W. H.

W. H. Xiong, J. W. Geng, J. Y. Tang, L. Y. Peng, and Q. H. Gong, “Mechanisms of below-threshold harmonic generation in atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 233001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, S. P.

F. L. Dong, Y. Q. Tian, S. J. Yu, S. Wang, S. P. Yang, and Y. J. Chen, “Polarization properties of below-threshold harmonics from aligned molecules H2+ in linearly polarized laser fields,” Opt. Express 23, 18106–18116 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Yu, B. Zhang, Y. P. Li, S. P. Yang, and Y. J. Chen, “Ellipticity of odd-even harmonics from oriented asymmetric molecules in strong linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 053844 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ye, J.

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, “Vacuum-ultraviolet frequency combs from below-threshold harmonics,” Nat. Phys. 5, 815–820 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yost, D. C.

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, “Vacuum-ultraviolet frequency combs from below-threshold harmonics,” Nat. Phys. 5, 815–820 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, C.

C. Yu, H. X. He, Y. H. Wang, Q. Shi, Y. D. Zhang, and R. F. Lu, “Intense attosecond pulse generated from a molecular harmonic plateau of H2+ in mid-infrared laser fields,” J. Phys. B 47, 055601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, S. J.

F. L. Dong, Y. Q. Tian, S. J. Yu, S. Wang, S. P. Yang, and Y. J. Chen, “Polarization properties of below-threshold harmonics from aligned molecules H2+ in linearly polarized laser fields,” Opt. Express 23, 18106–18116 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Yu, B. Zhang, Y. P. Li, S. P. Yang, and Y. J. Chen, “Ellipticity of odd-even harmonics from oriented asymmetric molecules in strong linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 053844 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yumoto, H.

M. Kakehata, H. Takada, H. Yumoto, and K. Miyazaki, “Anomalous ellipticity dependence of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 55, R861–R864 (1997).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B.

S. J. Yu, B. Zhang, Y. P. Li, S. P. Yang, and Y. J. Chen, “Ellipticity of odd-even harmonics from oriented asymmetric molecules in strong linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 053844 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Chen and B. Zhang, “Strong-field approximations for the orientation dependence of the total ionization of homonuclear diatomic molecules with different internuclear distances,” J. Phys. B 45, 215601 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y. D.

C. Yu, H. X. He, Y. H. Wang, Q. Shi, Y. D. Zhang, and R. F. Lu, “Intense attosecond pulse generated from a molecular harmonic plateau of H2+ in mid-infrared laser fields,” J. Phys. B 47, 055601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X.

X. Zhou, R. Lock, N. Wagner, W. Li, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Elliptically polarized high-order harmonic emission from molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zuo, T.

T. Zuo and A. D. Bandrauk, “Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of diatomic molecular ions by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R2511–R2514 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Zuo, S. Chelkowski, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Harmonic generation by the H2+ molecular ion in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 3837–3844 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Comput. Phys. (1)

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412–433 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. B (3)

A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Theoretical aspects of intense field harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 24, 3315–3341 (1991).
[Crossref]

C. Yu, H. X. He, Y. H. Wang, Q. Shi, Y. D. Zhang, and R. F. Lu, “Intense attosecond pulse generated from a molecular harmonic plateau of H2+ in mid-infrared laser fields,” J. Phys. B 47, 055601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Chen and B. Zhang, “Strong-field approximations for the orientation dependence of the total ionization of homonuclear diatomic molecules with different internuclear distances,” J. Phys. B 45, 215601 (2012).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (1)

M. Yu. Ivanov, P. B. Corkum, and P. Dietrich, “Coherent control and collapse of symmetry in a two-level system in an intense laser field,” Laser Phys. 3, 375–380 (1993).

Nat. Photonics (1)

E. P. Power, A. M. March, F. Catoire, E. Sistrunk, K. Krushelnick, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “XFROG phase measurement of threshold harmonics in a Keldysh-scaled system,” Nat. Photonics 4, 352–356 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (2)

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, “Vacuum-ultraviolet frequency combs from below-threshold harmonics,” Nat. Phys. 5, 815–820 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3, 381–387 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature (London) (1)

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hansch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature (London) 436, 234–237 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. A (22)

A. Etches, C. B. Madsen, and L. B. Madsen, “Inducing elliptically polarized high-order harmonics from aligned molecules with linearly polarized femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013409 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Ramakrishna, P. A. J. Sherratt, A. D. Dutoi, and T. Seideman, “Origin and implication of ellipticity in high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 021802(R) (2010).
[Crossref]

P. A. J. Sherratt, S. Ramakrishna, and T. Seideman, “Signatures of the molecular potential in the ellipticity of high-order harmonics from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053425 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. K. Son, D. A. Telnov, and S. I. Chu, “Probing the origin of elliptical high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043829 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. J. Yu, B. Zhang, Y. P. Li, S. P. Yang, and Y. J. Chen, “Ellipticity of odd-even harmonics from oriented asymmetric molecules in strong linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 053844 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. D. Bandrauk and J. Ruel, “Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of molecular ions in intense laser pulses: Geometric and orientation effects,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2153–2162 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Zuo, S. Chelkowski, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Harmonic generation by the H2+ molecular ion in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 3837–3844 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yu. Ivanov and P. B. Corkum, “Generation of high-order harmonics from inertially confined molecular ions,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 580–590 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Zuo and A. D. Bandrauk, “Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of diatomic molecular ions by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R2511–R2514 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. J. Chen, J. Chen, and J. Liu, “Charge-resonance effect on harmonic generation by symmetric diatomic molecular ions in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063405 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Chen and S. G. Chen, “Gauge problem in molecular high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 041402(R) (2007).
[Crossref]

J. J. Carrera, S. K. Son, and S. I. Chu, “Ab initio theoretical investigation of the frequency comb structure and coherence in the vuv-xuv regimes via high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 031401 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. J. Carrera and S. I. Chu, “Ab initio time-dependent density-functional-theory study of the frequency comb structure, coherence, and dephasing of multielectron systems in the vuv-xuv regimes via high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063410 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. A. Hostetter, J. L. Tate, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Semiclassical approaches to below-threshold harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023401 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, and P. B. Corkum, “Ellipticity and polarization effects in harmonic generation in ionizing neon,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R3418–R3421 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Miyazaki and H. Takada, “High-order harmonic generation in the tunneling regime,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3007–3021 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kakehata, H. Takada, H. Yumoto, and K. Miyazaki, “Anomalous ellipticity dependence of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 55, R861–R864 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Y. Ivanov, T. Brabec, and N. Burnett, “Coulomb corrections and polarization effects in high-intensity high-harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 742–745 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Liu, M. C. Kohler, C. H. Keitel, and K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, “Coherent x-ray generation from below-threshold harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063817 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Henkel, T. Witting, D. Fabris, M. Lein, P. L. Knight, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Prediction of attosecond light pulses in the VUV range in a high-order-harmonic-generation regime,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043818 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. M. Tong and S. I. Chu, “Probing the spectral and temporal structures of high-order harmonic generation in intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 021802(R) (2000).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (12)

S. Sukiasyan, C. McDonald, C. Destefani, M. Y. Ivanov, and T. Brabec, “Multielectron correlation in high-harmonic generation: A 2D model analysis,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 223002 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Antoine, A. L. Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Attosecond pulse trains using high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1234–1237 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Velotta, N. Hay, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation in aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183901 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Role of the intramolecular phase in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 183903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 233003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. H. Xiong, J. W. Geng, J. Y. Tang, L. Y. Peng, and Q. H. Gong, “Mechanisms of below-threshold harmonic generation in atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 233001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. V. Strelkov, A. A. Gonoskov, I. A. Gonoskov, and M. Yu. Ryabikin, “Origin for ellipticity of high-order harmonics generated in atomic gases and the sublaser-cycle evolution of harmonic polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043902 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhou, R. Lock, N. Wagner, W. Li, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Elliptically polarized high-order harmonic emission from molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Attosecond circular dichroism spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Soifer, P. Botheron, D. Shafir, A. Diner, O. Raz, B. D. Bruner, Y. Mairesse, B. Pons, and N. Dudovich, “Nearthreshold high-order harmonic spectroscopy with aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “The physics of attosecond light pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 67, 813–855 (2004).
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Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Parallel [(a) and (d)] and perpendicular [(b) and (e)] spectra and the ellipticity [(c) and (f)] of NTH for H 2 + with R=16 a.u.. Results are obtained from 2D TDSE simulations of Eq. (2) with I = 5 × 1014W/cm2 and λ = 1200 nm (the left column) and I = 8 × 1014W/cm2 and λ = 1000 nm (the right column) at θ = 20° (the black-square curves), θ = 40° (the red-circle curves) and θ = 60° (the blue-triangle curves).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Same as Fig. 1 but obtained from 3D TDSE simulations.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The ellipticity of harmonics with energy Ω1 = Nc , Ω2 = 0.75Nc and Ω3 = 0.5Nc (Nc = ER cosθ) for different laser wavelengthes at different orientation angels θ. Results are obtained from 2D H 2 + with R=16 a.u. and I = 5 × 1014W/cm2.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Same as Fig. 1 but obtained from the modified SFA of Eq. (11).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Emission time and energy distributions (the color coding) of parallel [(a) and (b)] and perpendicular [(c) and (d)] NTH for H 2 + with R=16 a.u.. Results are obtained through the wavelet analysis of 2D TDSE simulations [(a) and (c)] and modified-SFA simulations [(b) and (d)], with I = 5 × 1014W/cm2 and λ = 1200 nm at θ = 20°.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Parallel [(a) and (b)] and perpendicular [(c) and (d)] NTH spectra for H 2 + with R=16 a.u. obtained using different methods with I = 5 × 1014W/cm2 and λ = 1200 nm at θ = 20°. In (a) and (c), results are obtained from 2D TDSE simulations of Eq. (2) with different filtering parameters f, and those in (b) and (d) from the modified SFA of Eq. (11) with different pulse-duration times Ts.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Parallel (a) and perpendicular (c) spectra, the ellipticity (b) and the phase difference δ 1 (d) of NTH from 2D H 2 + with R=16 a.u., obtained using Eq. (3) and Eq. (4) with I = 5 × 1014W/cm2 and λ = 1200 nm at θ = 20°. Here, the black-square curves indicate the results obtained using Eq. (3) with considering the transition back to only the ground state |0〉 and the first excited state |1〉. The red-circle curves indicate the results obtained using Eq. (4) with m = 5, where the transitions from the first six bound states (|0〉 to |5〉) to these two lowest states |0〉 and |1〉 are excluded. The blue-triangle curves indicate the results obtained using Eq. (4) with m = 9, where the transitions from the first ten bound states (|0〉 to |9〉) to |0〉 and |1〉 are excluded.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Same as Fig. 7, but θ = 40°.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Parallel and perpendicular spectra [(a) and (c)] and the ellipticity [(b) and (d)] of NTH from 2D H 2 + with R=6 a.u., obtained using Eq. (2) with I = 2 × 1014W/cm2 and λ = 1200 nm at θ = 20° (the left column) and θ = 40° (the right column).
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Train of pulses I x (t) [I y (t)] of 22 parallel [perpendicular] harmonics from 29th to 51st obtained using Eq. (2) of TDSE simulations (a) and Eq. (11) of modified SFA (b) for H 2 + with R=16 a.u. at θ = 20°. The laser parameters are as shown. In (c) and (d), we also plot the curve of I y (t) as a function of I x (t) for TDSE (c) and SFA (d) results.

Equations (11)

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x 0 = f E / ω 0 2
F ( ω ) = ψ ( t ) | e ( ) V | ψ ( t ) e i ω t d t ,
F ( ) g f ( ω ) n = 0 , 1 n | e ( ) V | ψ ( t ) a n * ( t ) e i ω t d t ,
F ( ) g f m ( ω ) n = 0 , 1 n | e ( ) V | ψ m ( t ) a n * ( t ) e i ω t d t ,
ε = 1 + r 2 1 + 2 r 2 cos ( 2 δ ) + r 4 1 + r 2 + 1 + 2 r 2 cos ( 2 δ ) + r 4 ,
| ψ ( t ) = e i I p 0 t [ a ( t ) | 0 + b ( t ) | 1 ] .
a ( t ) = 1 2 [ e i A ( t ) d 01 + e i A ( t ) d 01 ] , b ( t ) = 1 2 [ e i A ( t ) d 01 e i A ( t ) d 01 ] .
| ψ ( t ) = e i I p 0 t [ a ( t ) | 0 + b ( t ) | 1 + d v c v ( t ) | v ] .
c v ( t ) = i 0 t d t E ( t ) d [ p + A ( t ) , t ] e i S ,
D ( ) ( t ) = i c 2 d p 0 t d t [ E ( t ) d i ] [ e ( ) d r ] e i S
F ( ) SFA ( ω ) = d t D ( ) ( t ) e i ω t .

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