Abstract

Glaucoma is one of the most common causes of blindness worldwide. Early detection of glaucoma is traditionally based on assessment of the cup-to-disc (C/D) ratio, an important indicator of structural changes to the optic nerve head. Here, we present an automated optic disc segmentation algorithm in 3-D spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volumes to quantify this ratio. The proposed algorithm utilizes a two-stage strategy. First, it detects the neural canal opening (NCO) by finding the points with maximum curvature on the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) boundary with a spatial correlation smoothness constraint on consecutive B-scans, and it approximately locates the coarse disc margin in the projection image using convex hull fitting. Then, a patch searching procedure using a probabilistic support vector machine (SVM) classifier finds the most likely patch with the NCO in its center in order to refine the segmentation result. Thus, a reference plane can be determined to calculate the C/D radio. Experimental results on 42 SD-OCT volumes from 17 glaucoma patients demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve high segmentation accuracy and a low C/D ratio evaluation error. The unsigned border error for optic disc segmentation and the evaluation error for C/D ratio comparing with manual segmentation are 2.216 ± 1.406 pixels (0.067 ± 0.042 mm) and 0.045 ± 0.033, respectively.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (1)

2013 (3)

J. Cheng, J. Liu, Y. Xu, F. Yin, D. W. K. Wong, N. M. Tan, D. Tao, C. Y. Cheng, T. Aung, and T. Y. Wong, “Superpixel classification based optic disc and optic cup segmentation for glaucoma screening,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 32(6), 1019–1032 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. C. Chauhan and C. F. Burgoyne, “From clinical examination of the optic disc to clinical assessment of the optic nerve head: a paradigm change,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 156(2), 218–227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Chen, T. Leng, L. Zheng, L. Kutzscher, J. Ma, L. de Sisternes, and D. L. Rubin, “Automated drusen segmentation and quantification in SD-OCT images,” Med. Image Anal. 17(8), 1058–1072 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

H. Yu, E. S. Barriga, C. Agurto, S. Echegaray, M. S. Pattichis, W. Bauman, and P. Soliz, “Fast localization and segmentation of optic disk in retinal images using directional matched filtering and level sets,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 16(4), 644–657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, J. K. Udupa, U. Bagci, Y. Zhuge, and J. Yao, “Medical image segmentation by combining graph cuts and oriented active appearance models,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21(4), 2035–2046 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

C. C. Chang and C. J. Lin, “LIBSVM: A library for support vector machines,”ACM. Trans. Intel. Syst. Technol. 2(3), 1–27 (2011).

C. Muramatsu, T. Nakagawa, A. Sawada, Y. Hatanaka, T. Hara, T. Yamamoto, and H. Fujita, “Automated segmentation of optic disc region on retinal fundus photographs: Comparison of contour modeling and pixel classification methods,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 101(1), 23–32 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

B. J. Antony, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, P. Sonkova, P. Gupta, Y. Kwon, M. Niemeijer, Z. Hu, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated 3D segmentation of intraretinal layers from optic nerve head optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 7626, 76260U (2010).

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Aquino, M. E. Gegúndez-Arias, and D. Marín, “Detecting the optic disc boundary in digital fundus images using morphological, edge detection, and feature extraction techniques,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(11), 1860–1869 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Hu, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, K. Lee, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated segmentation of neural canal opening and optic cup in 3D spectral optical coherence tomography volumes of the optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5708–5717 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, L. Kagemann, J. E. Craig, D. A. Mackey, A. W. Hewitt, and J. S. Schuman, “Automated volumetric evaluation of stereoscopic disc photography,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11347–11359 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. G. Strouthidis, H. Yang, J. F. Reynaud, J. L. Grimm, S. K. Gardiner, B. Fortune, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Comparison of clinical and spectral domain optical coherence tomography optic disc margin anatomy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(10), 4709–4718 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. G. Strouthidis, H. Yang, B. Fortune, J. C. Downs, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Detection of optic nerve head neural canal opening within histomorphometric and spectral domain optical coherence tomography data sets,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(1), 214–223 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Kwon, M. Adix, M. B. Zimmerman, S. Piette, E. C. Greenlee, W. L. Alward, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Variance owing to observer, repeat imaging, and fundus camera type on cup-to-disc ratio estimates by stereo planimetry,” J. Glaucoma 18(4), 305–310 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, W. L. Alward, E. C. Greenlee, M. K. Garvin, M. Sonka, and Y. H. Kwon, “Automated segmentation of the cup and rim from spectral domain OCT of the optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 5778–5784 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. C. Chen, “Spectral domain optical coherence tomography in glaucoma: qualitative and quantitative analysis of the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer (an AOS thesis),” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 107, 254–281 (2009).

2008 (1)

2006 (2)

A. Manassakorn, K. Nouri-Mahdavi, and J. Caprioli, “Comparison of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and optic disk algorithms with optical coherence tomography to detect glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 141(1), 105–115 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Li, X. Wu, D. Z. Chen, and M. Sonka, “Optimal surface segmentation in volumetric images-a graph-theoretic approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 28(1), 119–134 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

F. A. Medeiros, L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, R. M. Vessani, R. Susanna, and R. N. Weinreb, “Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer, optic nerve head, and macular thickness measurements for glaucoma detection using optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(1), 44–55 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

P. Hrynchak, N. Hutchings, D. Jones, and T. Simpson, “A comparison of cup-to-disc ratio measurement in normal subjects using optical coherence tomography image analysis of the optic nerve head and stereo fundus biomicroscopy,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 24(6), 543–550 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Jaffe and J. Caprioli, “Optical coherence tomography to detect and manage retinal disease and glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137(1), 156–169 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. S. Schuman, G. Wollstein, T. Farra, E. Hertzmark, A. Aydin, J. G. Fujimoto, and L. A. Paunescu, “Comparison of optic nerve head measurements obtained by optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135(4), 504–512 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

T. Ojala, M. Pietikäinen, and T. Mäenpää, “Multiresolution gray-scale and rotation invariant texture classification with local binary patterns,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. 24(7), 971–987 (2002).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

C. Cortes and V. Vapnik, “Support-vector networks,” Mach. Learn. 20(3), 273–297 (1995).
[Crossref]

Abràmoff, M. D.

B. J. Antony, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, P. Sonkova, P. Gupta, Y. Kwon, M. Niemeijer, Z. Hu, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated 3D segmentation of intraretinal layers from optic nerve head optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 7626, 76260U (2010).

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Hu, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, K. Lee, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated segmentation of neural canal opening and optic cup in 3D spectral optical coherence tomography volumes of the optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5708–5717 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Kwon, M. Adix, M. B. Zimmerman, S. Piette, E. C. Greenlee, W. L. Alward, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Variance owing to observer, repeat imaging, and fundus camera type on cup-to-disc ratio estimates by stereo planimetry,” J. Glaucoma 18(4), 305–310 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, W. L. Alward, E. C. Greenlee, M. K. Garvin, M. Sonka, and Y. H. Kwon, “Automated segmentation of the cup and rim from spectral domain OCT of the optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 5778–5784 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “3-D segmentation of the rim and cup in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography volumes of the optic nerve head,” Proc. SPIE7262, 72622D (2009).
[Crossref]

Adix, M.

Y. H. Kwon, M. Adix, M. B. Zimmerman, S. Piette, E. C. Greenlee, W. L. Alward, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Variance owing to observer, repeat imaging, and fundus camera type on cup-to-disc ratio estimates by stereo planimetry,” J. Glaucoma 18(4), 305–310 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agurto, C.

H. Yu, E. S. Barriga, C. Agurto, S. Echegaray, M. S. Pattichis, W. Bauman, and P. Soliz, “Fast localization and segmentation of optic disk in retinal images using directional matched filtering and level sets,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 16(4), 644–657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alward, W. L.

M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, W. L. Alward, E. C. Greenlee, M. K. Garvin, M. Sonka, and Y. H. Kwon, “Automated segmentation of the cup and rim from spectral domain OCT of the optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 5778–5784 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Kwon, M. Adix, M. B. Zimmerman, S. Piette, E. C. Greenlee, W. L. Alward, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Variance owing to observer, repeat imaging, and fundus camera type on cup-to-disc ratio estimates by stereo planimetry,” J. Glaucoma 18(4), 305–310 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Antony, B. J.

B. J. Antony, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, P. Sonkova, P. Gupta, Y. Kwon, M. Niemeijer, Z. Hu, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated 3D segmentation of intraretinal layers from optic nerve head optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 7626, 76260U (2010).

Aquino, A.

A. Aquino, M. E. Gegúndez-Arias, and D. Marín, “Detecting the optic disc boundary in digital fundus images using morphological, edge detection, and feature extraction techniques,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(11), 1860–1869 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aung, T.

J. Cheng, J. Liu, Y. Xu, F. Yin, D. W. K. Wong, N. M. Tan, D. Tao, C. Y. Cheng, T. Aung, and T. Y. Wong, “Superpixel classification based optic disc and optic cup segmentation for glaucoma screening,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 32(6), 1019–1032 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aydin, A.

J. S. Schuman, G. Wollstein, T. Farra, E. Hertzmark, A. Aydin, J. G. Fujimoto, and L. A. Paunescu, “Comparison of optic nerve head measurements obtained by optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135(4), 504–512 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bagci, U.

X. Chen, J. K. Udupa, U. Bagci, Y. Zhuge, and J. Yao, “Medical image segmentation by combining graph cuts and oriented active appearance models,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21(4), 2035–2046 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barriga, E. S.

H. Yu, E. S. Barriga, C. Agurto, S. Echegaray, M. S. Pattichis, W. Bauman, and P. Soliz, “Fast localization and segmentation of optic disk in retinal images using directional matched filtering and level sets,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 16(4), 644–657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bauman, W.

H. Yu, E. S. Barriga, C. Agurto, S. Echegaray, M. S. Pattichis, W. Bauman, and P. Soliz, “Fast localization and segmentation of optic disk in retinal images using directional matched filtering and level sets,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 16(4), 644–657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bilonick, R. A.

Bowd, C.

F. A. Medeiros, L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, R. M. Vessani, R. Susanna, and R. N. Weinreb, “Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer, optic nerve head, and macular thickness measurements for glaucoma detection using optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(1), 44–55 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burgoyne, C. F.

B. C. Chauhan and C. F. Burgoyne, “From clinical examination of the optic disc to clinical assessment of the optic nerve head: a paradigm change,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 156(2), 218–227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. G. Strouthidis, H. Yang, B. Fortune, J. C. Downs, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Detection of optic nerve head neural canal opening within histomorphometric and spectral domain optical coherence tomography data sets,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(1), 214–223 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. G. Strouthidis, H. Yang, J. F. Reynaud, J. L. Grimm, S. K. Gardiner, B. Fortune, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Comparison of clinical and spectral domain optical coherence tomography optic disc margin anatomy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(10), 4709–4718 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burns, T. L.

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caprioli, J.

A. Manassakorn, K. Nouri-Mahdavi, and J. Caprioli, “Comparison of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and optic disk algorithms with optical coherence tomography to detect glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 141(1), 105–115 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Jaffe and J. Caprioli, “Optical coherence tomography to detect and manage retinal disease and glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137(1), 156–169 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, C. C.

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Farra, T.

J. S. Schuman, G. Wollstein, T. Farra, E. Hertzmark, A. Aydin, J. G. Fujimoto, and L. A. Paunescu, “Comparison of optic nerve head measurements obtained by optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135(4), 504–512 (2003).
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N. G. Strouthidis, H. Yang, B. Fortune, J. C. Downs, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Detection of optic nerve head neural canal opening within histomorphometric and spectral domain optical coherence tomography data sets,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(1), 214–223 (2009).
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J. S. Schuman, G. Wollstein, T. Farra, E. Hertzmark, A. Aydin, J. G. Fujimoto, and L. A. Paunescu, “Comparison of optic nerve head measurements obtained by optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135(4), 504–512 (2003).
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C. Muramatsu, T. Nakagawa, A. Sawada, Y. Hatanaka, T. Hara, T. Yamamoto, and H. Fujita, “Automated segmentation of optic disc region on retinal fundus photographs: Comparison of contour modeling and pixel classification methods,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 101(1), 23–32 (2011).
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N. G. Strouthidis, H. Yang, J. F. Reynaud, J. L. Grimm, S. K. Gardiner, B. Fortune, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Comparison of clinical and spectral domain optical coherence tomography optic disc margin anatomy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(10), 4709–4718 (2009).
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Garvin, M. K.

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B. J. Antony, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, P. Sonkova, P. Gupta, Y. Kwon, M. Niemeijer, Z. Hu, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated 3D segmentation of intraretinal layers from optic nerve head optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 7626, 76260U (2010).

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
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M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, W. L. Alward, E. C. Greenlee, M. K. Garvin, M. Sonka, and Y. H. Kwon, “Automated segmentation of the cup and rim from spectral domain OCT of the optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 5778–5784 (2009).
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K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “3-D segmentation of the rim and cup in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography volumes of the optic nerve head,” Proc. SPIE7262, 72622D (2009).
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Gegúndez-Arias, M. E.

A. Aquino, M. E. Gegúndez-Arias, and D. Marín, “Detecting the optic disc boundary in digital fundus images using morphological, edge detection, and feature extraction techniques,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(11), 1860–1869 (2010).
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Greenlee, E. C.

M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, W. L. Alward, E. C. Greenlee, M. K. Garvin, M. Sonka, and Y. H. Kwon, “Automated segmentation of the cup and rim from spectral domain OCT of the optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 5778–5784 (2009).
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Y. H. Kwon, M. Adix, M. B. Zimmerman, S. Piette, E. C. Greenlee, W. L. Alward, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Variance owing to observer, repeat imaging, and fundus camera type on cup-to-disc ratio estimates by stereo planimetry,” J. Glaucoma 18(4), 305–310 (2009).
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N. G. Strouthidis, H. Yang, J. F. Reynaud, J. L. Grimm, S. K. Gardiner, B. Fortune, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Comparison of clinical and spectral domain optical coherence tomography optic disc margin anatomy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(10), 4709–4718 (2009).
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Gupta, P.

B. J. Antony, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, P. Sonkova, P. Gupta, Y. Kwon, M. Niemeijer, Z. Hu, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated 3D segmentation of intraretinal layers from optic nerve head optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 7626, 76260U (2010).

Hara, T.

C. Muramatsu, T. Nakagawa, A. Sawada, Y. Hatanaka, T. Hara, T. Yamamoto, and H. Fujita, “Automated segmentation of optic disc region on retinal fundus photographs: Comparison of contour modeling and pixel classification methods,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 101(1), 23–32 (2011).
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Hatanaka, Y.

C. Muramatsu, T. Nakagawa, A. Sawada, Y. Hatanaka, T. Hara, T. Yamamoto, and H. Fujita, “Automated segmentation of optic disc region on retinal fundus photographs: Comparison of contour modeling and pixel classification methods,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 101(1), 23–32 (2011).
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Hertzmark, E.

J. S. Schuman, G. Wollstein, T. Farra, E. Hertzmark, A. Aydin, J. G. Fujimoto, and L. A. Paunescu, “Comparison of optic nerve head measurements obtained by optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135(4), 504–512 (2003).
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Hrynchak, P.

P. Hrynchak, N. Hutchings, D. Jones, and T. Simpson, “A comparison of cup-to-disc ratio measurement in normal subjects using optical coherence tomography image analysis of the optic nerve head and stereo fundus biomicroscopy,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 24(6), 543–550 (2004).
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Hu, Z.

B. J. Antony, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, P. Sonkova, P. Gupta, Y. Kwon, M. Niemeijer, Z. Hu, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated 3D segmentation of intraretinal layers from optic nerve head optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 7626, 76260U (2010).

Z. Hu, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, K. Lee, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated segmentation of neural canal opening and optic cup in 3D spectral optical coherence tomography volumes of the optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5708–5717 (2010).
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P. Hrynchak, N. Hutchings, D. Jones, and T. Simpson, “A comparison of cup-to-disc ratio measurement in normal subjects using optical coherence tomography image analysis of the optic nerve head and stereo fundus biomicroscopy,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 24(6), 543–550 (2004).
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J. Xu, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, L. Kagemann, J. E. Craig, D. A. Mackey, A. W. Hewitt, and J. S. Schuman, “Automated volumetric evaluation of stereoscopic disc photography,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11347–11359 (2010).
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J. Xu, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, and J. S. Schuman, “3D optical coherence tomography super pixel with machine classifier analysis for glaucoma detection,” in Proceedings of IEEE conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2011), pp. 3395–3398.
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G. J. Jaffe and J. Caprioli, “Optical coherence tomography to detect and manage retinal disease and glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137(1), 156–169 (2004).
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Jenkins, M. W.

Jones, D.

P. Hrynchak, N. Hutchings, D. Jones, and T. Simpson, “A comparison of cup-to-disc ratio measurement in normal subjects using optical coherence tomography image analysis of the optic nerve head and stereo fundus biomicroscopy,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 24(6), 543–550 (2004).
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Kagemann, L.

Kutzscher, L.

Q. Chen, T. Leng, L. Zheng, L. Kutzscher, J. Ma, L. de Sisternes, and D. L. Rubin, “Automated drusen segmentation and quantification in SD-OCT images,” Med. Image Anal. 17(8), 1058–1072 (2013).
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Kwon, Y.

B. J. Antony, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, P. Sonkova, P. Gupta, Y. Kwon, M. Niemeijer, Z. Hu, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated 3D segmentation of intraretinal layers from optic nerve head optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 7626, 76260U (2010).

Kwon, Y. H.

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Hu, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, K. Lee, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated segmentation of neural canal opening and optic cup in 3D spectral optical coherence tomography volumes of the optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5708–5717 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Kwon, M. Adix, M. B. Zimmerman, S. Piette, E. C. Greenlee, W. L. Alward, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Variance owing to observer, repeat imaging, and fundus camera type on cup-to-disc ratio estimates by stereo planimetry,” J. Glaucoma 18(4), 305–310 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, W. L. Alward, E. C. Greenlee, M. K. Garvin, M. Sonka, and Y. H. Kwon, “Automated segmentation of the cup and rim from spectral domain OCT of the optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 5778–5784 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “3-D segmentation of the rim and cup in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography volumes of the optic nerve head,” Proc. SPIE7262, 72622D (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Hu, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, K. Lee, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated segmentation of neural canal opening and optic cup in 3D spectral optical coherence tomography volumes of the optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5708–5717 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Antony, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, P. Sonkova, P. Gupta, Y. Kwon, M. Niemeijer, Z. Hu, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated 3D segmentation of intraretinal layers from optic nerve head optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 7626, 76260U (2010).

M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, W. L. Alward, E. C. Greenlee, M. K. Garvin, M. Sonka, and Y. H. Kwon, “Automated segmentation of the cup and rim from spectral domain OCT of the optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 5778–5784 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “3-D segmentation of the rim and cup in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography volumes of the optic nerve head,” Proc. SPIE7262, 72622D (2009).
[Crossref]

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Q. Chen, T. Leng, L. Zheng, L. Kutzscher, J. Ma, L. de Sisternes, and D. L. Rubin, “Automated drusen segmentation and quantification in SD-OCT images,” Med. Image Anal. 17(8), 1058–1072 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, K.

K. Li, X. Wu, D. Z. Chen, and M. Sonka, “Optimal surface segmentation in volumetric images-a graph-theoretic approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 28(1), 119–134 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C. J.

C. C. Chang and C. J. Lin, “LIBSVM: A library for support vector machines,”ACM. Trans. Intel. Syst. Technol. 2(3), 1–27 (2011).

Liu, J.

J. Cheng, J. Liu, Y. Xu, F. Yin, D. W. K. Wong, N. M. Tan, D. Tao, C. Y. Cheng, T. Aung, and T. Y. Wong, “Superpixel classification based optic disc and optic cup segmentation for glaucoma screening,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 32(6), 1019–1032 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, J.

Q. Chen, T. Leng, L. Zheng, L. Kutzscher, J. Ma, L. de Sisternes, and D. L. Rubin, “Automated drusen segmentation and quantification in SD-OCT images,” Med. Image Anal. 17(8), 1058–1072 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mackey, D. A.

Mäenpää, T.

T. Ojala, M. Pietikäinen, and T. Mäenpää, “Multiresolution gray-scale and rotation invariant texture classification with local binary patterns,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. 24(7), 971–987 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Ojala, M. Pietikäinen, and T. Mäenpää, “A generalized Local Binary Pattern operator for multiresolution gray scale and rotation invariant texture classification,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Advances in Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2001), pp. 399–406.
[Crossref]

Manassakorn, A.

A. Manassakorn, K. Nouri-Mahdavi, and J. Caprioli, “Comparison of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and optic disk algorithms with optical coherence tomography to detect glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 141(1), 105–115 (2006).
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C. Tomasi and R. Manduchi, “Bilateral filtering for gray and color images,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE, 1998), pp. 839–846.
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A. Aquino, M. E. Gegúndez-Arias, and D. Marín, “Detecting the optic disc boundary in digital fundus images using morphological, edge detection, and feature extraction techniques,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(11), 1860–1869 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Medeiros, F. A.

F. A. Medeiros, L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, R. M. Vessani, R. Susanna, and R. N. Weinreb, “Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer, optic nerve head, and macular thickness measurements for glaucoma detection using optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(1), 44–55 (2005).
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Muramatsu, C.

C. Muramatsu, T. Nakagawa, A. Sawada, Y. Hatanaka, T. Hara, T. Yamamoto, and H. Fujita, “Automated segmentation of optic disc region on retinal fundus photographs: Comparison of contour modeling and pixel classification methods,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 101(1), 23–32 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakagawa, T.

C. Muramatsu, T. Nakagawa, A. Sawada, Y. Hatanaka, T. Hara, T. Yamamoto, and H. Fujita, “Automated segmentation of optic disc region on retinal fundus photographs: Comparison of contour modeling and pixel classification methods,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 101(1), 23–32 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niemeijer, M.

B. J. Antony, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, P. Sonkova, P. Gupta, Y. Kwon, M. Niemeijer, Z. Hu, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated 3D segmentation of intraretinal layers from optic nerve head optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 7626, 76260U (2010).

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, W. L. Alward, E. C. Greenlee, M. K. Garvin, M. Sonka, and Y. H. Kwon, “Automated segmentation of the cup and rim from spectral domain OCT of the optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 5778–5784 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “3-D segmentation of the rim and cup in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography volumes of the optic nerve head,” Proc. SPIE7262, 72622D (2009).
[Crossref]

Niu, S.

Nouri-Mahdavi, K.

A. Manassakorn, K. Nouri-Mahdavi, and J. Caprioli, “Comparison of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and optic disk algorithms with optical coherence tomography to detect glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 141(1), 105–115 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ojala, T.

T. Ojala, M. Pietikäinen, and T. Mäenpää, “Multiresolution gray-scale and rotation invariant texture classification with local binary patterns,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. 24(7), 971–987 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Ojala, M. Pietikäinen, and T. Mäenpää, “A generalized Local Binary Pattern operator for multiresolution gray scale and rotation invariant texture classification,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Advances in Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2001), pp. 399–406.
[Crossref]

Pattichis, M. S.

H. Yu, E. S. Barriga, C. Agurto, S. Echegaray, M. S. Pattichis, W. Bauman, and P. Soliz, “Fast localization and segmentation of optic disk in retinal images using directional matched filtering and level sets,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 16(4), 644–657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paunescu, L. A.

J. S. Schuman, G. Wollstein, T. Farra, E. Hertzmark, A. Aydin, J. G. Fujimoto, and L. A. Paunescu, “Comparison of optic nerve head measurements obtained by optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135(4), 504–512 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pietikäinen, M.

T. Ojala, M. Pietikäinen, and T. Mäenpää, “Multiresolution gray-scale and rotation invariant texture classification with local binary patterns,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. 24(7), 971–987 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Ojala, M. Pietikäinen, and T. Mäenpää, “A generalized Local Binary Pattern operator for multiresolution gray scale and rotation invariant texture classification,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Advances in Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2001), pp. 399–406.
[Crossref]

Piette, S.

Y. H. Kwon, M. Adix, M. B. Zimmerman, S. Piette, E. C. Greenlee, W. L. Alward, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Variance owing to observer, repeat imaging, and fundus camera type on cup-to-disc ratio estimates by stereo planimetry,” J. Glaucoma 18(4), 305–310 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reynaud, J. F.

N. G. Strouthidis, H. Yang, J. F. Reynaud, J. L. Grimm, S. K. Gardiner, B. Fortune, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Comparison of clinical and spectral domain optical coherence tomography optic disc margin anatomy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(10), 4709–4718 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

Rubin, D. L.

Q. Chen, T. Leng, L. Zheng, L. Kutzscher, J. Ma, L. de Sisternes, and D. L. Rubin, “Automated drusen segmentation and quantification in SD-OCT images,” Med. Image Anal. 17(8), 1058–1072 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, S. R.

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sawada, A.

C. Muramatsu, T. Nakagawa, A. Sawada, Y. Hatanaka, T. Hara, T. Yamamoto, and H. Fujita, “Automated segmentation of optic disc region on retinal fundus photographs: Comparison of contour modeling and pixel classification methods,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 101(1), 23–32 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

J. Xu, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, L. Kagemann, J. E. Craig, D. A. Mackey, A. W. Hewitt, and J. S. Schuman, “Automated volumetric evaluation of stereoscopic disc photography,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11347–11359 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Schuman, G. Wollstein, T. Farra, E. Hertzmark, A. Aydin, J. G. Fujimoto, and L. A. Paunescu, “Comparison of optic nerve head measurements obtained by optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135(4), 504–512 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, and J. S. Schuman, “3D optical coherence tomography super pixel with machine classifier analysis for glaucoma detection,” in Proceedings of IEEE conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2011), pp. 3395–3398.
[Crossref]

Shen, H.

Shi, J.

Simpson, T.

P. Hrynchak, N. Hutchings, D. Jones, and T. Simpson, “A comparison of cup-to-disc ratio measurement in normal subjects using optical coherence tomography image analysis of the optic nerve head and stereo fundus biomicroscopy,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 24(6), 543–550 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soliz, P.

H. Yu, E. S. Barriga, C. Agurto, S. Echegaray, M. S. Pattichis, W. Bauman, and P. Soliz, “Fast localization and segmentation of optic disk in retinal images using directional matched filtering and level sets,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 16(4), 644–657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sonka, M.

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, W. L. Alward, E. C. Greenlee, M. K. Garvin, M. Sonka, and Y. H. Kwon, “Automated segmentation of the cup and rim from spectral domain OCT of the optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 5778–5784 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Li, X. Wu, D. Z. Chen, and M. Sonka, “Optimal surface segmentation in volumetric images-a graph-theoretic approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 28(1), 119–134 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “3-D segmentation of the rim and cup in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography volumes of the optic nerve head,” Proc. SPIE7262, 72622D (2009).
[Crossref]

Sonkova, P.

B. J. Antony, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, P. Sonkova, P. Gupta, Y. Kwon, M. Niemeijer, Z. Hu, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated 3D segmentation of intraretinal layers from optic nerve head optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 7626, 76260U (2010).

Strouthidis, N. G.

N. G. Strouthidis, H. Yang, J. F. Reynaud, J. L. Grimm, S. K. Gardiner, B. Fortune, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Comparison of clinical and spectral domain optical coherence tomography optic disc margin anatomy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(10), 4709–4718 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. G. Strouthidis, H. Yang, B. Fortune, J. C. Downs, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Detection of optic nerve head neural canal opening within histomorphometric and spectral domain optical coherence tomography data sets,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(1), 214–223 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Susanna, R.

F. A. Medeiros, L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, R. M. Vessani, R. Susanna, and R. N. Weinreb, “Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer, optic nerve head, and macular thickness measurements for glaucoma detection using optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(1), 44–55 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, N. M.

J. Cheng, J. Liu, Y. Xu, F. Yin, D. W. K. Wong, N. M. Tan, D. Tao, C. Y. Cheng, T. Aung, and T. Y. Wong, “Superpixel classification based optic disc and optic cup segmentation for glaucoma screening,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 32(6), 1019–1032 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, T.

J. Zhang, K. Huang, Y. Yu, and T. Tan, “Boosted local structured hog-lbp for object localization,” in proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1393–1400.
[Crossref]

Tao, D.

J. Cheng, J. Liu, Y. Xu, F. Yin, D. W. K. Wong, N. M. Tan, D. Tao, C. Y. Cheng, T. Aung, and T. Y. Wong, “Superpixel classification based optic disc and optic cup segmentation for glaucoma screening,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 32(6), 1019–1032 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tomasi, C.

C. Tomasi and R. Manduchi, “Bilateral filtering for gray and color images,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE, 1998), pp. 839–846.
[Crossref]

Triggs, B.

N. Dalal and B. Triggs, “Histograms of oriented gradients for human detection,” in proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2005), pp. 886–893.
[Crossref]

Udupa, J. K.

X. Chen, J. K. Udupa, U. Bagci, Y. Zhuge, and J. Yao, “Medical image segmentation by combining graph cuts and oriented active appearance models,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21(4), 2035–2046 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vapnik, V.

C. Cortes and V. Vapnik, “Support-vector networks,” Mach. Learn. 20(3), 273–297 (1995).
[Crossref]

Vessani, R. M.

F. A. Medeiros, L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, R. M. Vessani, R. Susanna, and R. N. Weinreb, “Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer, optic nerve head, and macular thickness measurements for glaucoma detection using optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(1), 44–55 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weinreb, R. N.

F. A. Medeiros, L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, R. M. Vessani, R. Susanna, and R. N. Weinreb, “Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer, optic nerve head, and macular thickness measurements for glaucoma detection using optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(1), 44–55 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, D. L.

Wollstein, G.

J. Xu, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, L. Kagemann, J. E. Craig, D. A. Mackey, A. W. Hewitt, and J. S. Schuman, “Automated volumetric evaluation of stereoscopic disc photography,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11347–11359 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Schuman, G. Wollstein, T. Farra, E. Hertzmark, A. Aydin, J. G. Fujimoto, and L. A. Paunescu, “Comparison of optic nerve head measurements obtained by optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135(4), 504–512 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, and J. S. Schuman, “3D optical coherence tomography super pixel with machine classifier analysis for glaucoma detection,” in Proceedings of IEEE conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2011), pp. 3395–3398.
[Crossref]

Wong, D. W. K.

J. Cheng, J. Liu, Y. Xu, F. Yin, D. W. K. Wong, N. M. Tan, D. Tao, C. Y. Cheng, T. Aung, and T. Y. Wong, “Superpixel classification based optic disc and optic cup segmentation for glaucoma screening,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 32(6), 1019–1032 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, T. Y.

J. Cheng, J. Liu, Y. Xu, F. Yin, D. W. K. Wong, N. M. Tan, D. Tao, C. Y. Cheng, T. Aung, and T. Y. Wong, “Superpixel classification based optic disc and optic cup segmentation for glaucoma screening,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 32(6), 1019–1032 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Li, X. Wu, D. Z. Chen, and M. Sonka, “Optimal surface segmentation in volumetric images-a graph-theoretic approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 28(1), 119–134 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

J. Xu, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, L. Kagemann, J. E. Craig, D. A. Mackey, A. W. Hewitt, and J. S. Schuman, “Automated volumetric evaluation of stereoscopic disc photography,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11347–11359 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, and J. S. Schuman, “3D optical coherence tomography super pixel with machine classifier analysis for glaucoma detection,” in Proceedings of IEEE conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2011), pp. 3395–3398.
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

J. Cheng, J. Liu, Y. Xu, F. Yin, D. W. K. Wong, N. M. Tan, D. Tao, C. Y. Cheng, T. Aung, and T. Y. Wong, “Superpixel classification based optic disc and optic cup segmentation for glaucoma screening,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 32(6), 1019–1032 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, T.

C. Muramatsu, T. Nakagawa, A. Sawada, Y. Hatanaka, T. Hara, T. Yamamoto, and H. Fujita, “Automated segmentation of optic disc region on retinal fundus photographs: Comparison of contour modeling and pixel classification methods,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 101(1), 23–32 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

N. G. Strouthidis, H. Yang, J. F. Reynaud, J. L. Grimm, S. K. Gardiner, B. Fortune, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Comparison of clinical and spectral domain optical coherence tomography optic disc margin anatomy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(10), 4709–4718 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. G. Strouthidis, H. Yang, B. Fortune, J. C. Downs, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Detection of optic nerve head neural canal opening within histomorphometric and spectral domain optical coherence tomography data sets,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(1), 214–223 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

X. Chen, J. K. Udupa, U. Bagci, Y. Zhuge, and J. Yao, “Medical image segmentation by combining graph cuts and oriented active appearance models,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21(4), 2035–2046 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, F.

J. Cheng, J. Liu, Y. Xu, F. Yin, D. W. K. Wong, N. M. Tan, D. Tao, C. Y. Cheng, T. Aung, and T. Y. Wong, “Superpixel classification based optic disc and optic cup segmentation for glaucoma screening,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 32(6), 1019–1032 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, H.

H. Yu, E. S. Barriga, C. Agurto, S. Echegaray, M. S. Pattichis, W. Bauman, and P. Soliz, “Fast localization and segmentation of optic disk in retinal images using directional matched filtering and level sets,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 16(4), 644–657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.

J. Zhang, K. Huang, Y. Yu, and T. Tan, “Boosted local structured hog-lbp for object localization,” in proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1393–1400.
[Crossref]

Yuan, S.

Zangwill, L. M.

F. A. Medeiros, L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, R. M. Vessani, R. Susanna, and R. N. Weinreb, “Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer, optic nerve head, and macular thickness measurements for glaucoma detection using optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(1), 44–55 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, K. Huang, Y. Yu, and T. Tan, “Boosted local structured hog-lbp for object localization,” in proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1393–1400.
[Crossref]

Zheng, L.

Q. Chen, T. Leng, L. Zheng, L. Kutzscher, J. Ma, L. de Sisternes, and D. L. Rubin, “Automated drusen segmentation and quantification in SD-OCT images,” Med. Image Anal. 17(8), 1058–1072 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhuge, Y.

X. Chen, J. K. Udupa, U. Bagci, Y. Zhuge, and J. Yao, “Medical image segmentation by combining graph cuts and oriented active appearance models,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21(4), 2035–2046 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zimmerman, M. B.

Y. H. Kwon, M. Adix, M. B. Zimmerman, S. Piette, E. C. Greenlee, W. L. Alward, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Variance owing to observer, repeat imaging, and fundus camera type on cup-to-disc ratio estimates by stereo planimetry,” J. Glaucoma 18(4), 305–310 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACM. Trans. Intel. Syst. Technol. (1)

C. C. Chang and C. J. Lin, “LIBSVM: A library for support vector machines,”ACM. Trans. Intel. Syst. Technol. 2(3), 1–27 (2011).

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (5)

G. J. Jaffe and J. Caprioli, “Optical coherence tomography to detect and manage retinal disease and glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137(1), 156–169 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Schuman, G. Wollstein, T. Farra, E. Hertzmark, A. Aydin, J. G. Fujimoto, and L. A. Paunescu, “Comparison of optic nerve head measurements obtained by optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135(4), 504–512 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. A. Medeiros, L. M. Zangwill, C. Bowd, R. M. Vessani, R. Susanna, and R. N. Weinreb, “Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer, optic nerve head, and macular thickness measurements for glaucoma detection using optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(1), 44–55 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Manassakorn, K. Nouri-Mahdavi, and J. Caprioli, “Comparison of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and optic disk algorithms with optical coherence tomography to detect glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 141(1), 105–115 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. C. Chauhan and C. F. Burgoyne, “From clinical examination of the optic disc to clinical assessment of the optic nerve head: a paradigm change,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 156(2), 218–227 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. (1)

C. Muramatsu, T. Nakagawa, A. Sawada, Y. Hatanaka, T. Hara, T. Yamamoto, and H. Fujita, “Automated segmentation of optic disc region on retinal fundus photographs: Comparison of contour modeling and pixel classification methods,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 101(1), 23–32 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

X. Chen, J. K. Udupa, U. Bagci, Y. Zhuge, and J. Yao, “Medical image segmentation by combining graph cuts and oriented active appearance models,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 21(4), 2035–2046 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. (1)

H. Yu, E. S. Barriga, C. Agurto, S. Echegaray, M. S. Pattichis, W. Bauman, and P. Soliz, “Fast localization and segmentation of optic disk in retinal images using directional matched filtering and level sets,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 16(4), 644–657 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (4)

J. Cheng, J. Liu, Y. Xu, F. Yin, D. W. K. Wong, N. M. Tan, D. Tao, C. Y. Cheng, T. Aung, and T. Y. Wong, “Superpixel classification based optic disc and optic cup segmentation for glaucoma screening,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 32(6), 1019–1032 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Segmentation of the optic disc in 3-D OCT scans of the optic nerve head,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(1), 159–168 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Aquino, M. E. Gegúndez-Arias, and D. Marín, “Detecting the optic disc boundary in digital fundus images using morphological, edge detection, and feature extraction techniques,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(11), 1860–1869 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. (1)

T. Ojala, M. Pietikäinen, and T. Mäenpää, “Multiresolution gray-scale and rotation invariant texture classification with local binary patterns,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. 24(7), 971–987 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

K. Li, X. Wu, D. Z. Chen, and M. Sonka, “Optimal surface segmentation in volumetric images-a graph-theoretic approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 28(1), 119–134 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (4)

N. G. Strouthidis, H. Yang, B. Fortune, J. C. Downs, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Detection of optic nerve head neural canal opening within histomorphometric and spectral domain optical coherence tomography data sets,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(1), 214–223 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, W. L. Alward, E. C. Greenlee, M. K. Garvin, M. Sonka, and Y. H. Kwon, “Automated segmentation of the cup and rim from spectral domain OCT of the optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 5778–5784 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. G. Strouthidis, H. Yang, J. F. Reynaud, J. L. Grimm, S. K. Gardiner, B. Fortune, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Comparison of clinical and spectral domain optical coherence tomography optic disc margin anatomy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(10), 4709–4718 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Hu, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, K. Lee, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated segmentation of neural canal opening and optic cup in 3D spectral optical coherence tomography volumes of the optic nerve head,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5708–5717 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Glaucoma (1)

Y. H. Kwon, M. Adix, M. B. Zimmerman, S. Piette, E. C. Greenlee, W. L. Alward, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Variance owing to observer, repeat imaging, and fundus camera type on cup-to-disc ratio estimates by stereo planimetry,” J. Glaucoma 18(4), 305–310 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mach. Learn. (1)

C. Cortes and V. Vapnik, “Support-vector networks,” Mach. Learn. 20(3), 273–297 (1995).
[Crossref]

Med. Image Anal. (1)

Q. Chen, T. Leng, L. Zheng, L. Kutzscher, J. Ma, L. de Sisternes, and D. L. Rubin, “Automated drusen segmentation and quantification in SD-OCT images,” Med. Image Anal. 17(8), 1058–1072 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (1)

P. Hrynchak, N. Hutchings, D. Jones, and T. Simpson, “A comparison of cup-to-disc ratio measurement in normal subjects using optical coherence tomography image analysis of the optic nerve head and stereo fundus biomicroscopy,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 24(6), 543–550 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. J. Antony, M. D. Abràmoff, K. Lee, P. Sonkova, P. Gupta, Y. Kwon, M. Niemeijer, Z. Hu, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated 3D segmentation of intraretinal layers from optic nerve head optical coherence tomography images,” Proc. SPIE 7626, 76260U (2010).

Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. (1)

T. C. Chen, “Spectral domain optical coherence tomography in glaucoma: qualitative and quantitative analysis of the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer (an AOS thesis),” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 107, 254–281 (2009).

Other (8)

J. Xu, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, and J. S. Schuman, “3D optical coherence tomography super pixel with machine classifier analysis for glaucoma detection,” in Proceedings of IEEE conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2011), pp. 3395–3398.
[Crossref]

Z. Hu, M. Niemeijer, K. Lee, M. D. Abramoff, M. Sonka, and M. K. Garvin, “Automated segmentation of the optic disc margin in 3-D optical coherence tomography images using a graph-theoretic approach,” Proc. SPIE Medical Imaging 72620U (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. K. Garvin, Y. H. Kwon, M. Sonka, and M. D. Abràmoff, “3-D segmentation of the rim and cup in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography volumes of the optic nerve head,” Proc. SPIE7262, 72622D (2009).
[Crossref]

M. S. Miri, K. Lee, M. Niemeijer, M. D. Abràmoff, Y. H. Kwon, and M. K. Garvin, “Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from stereo fundus and SD-OCT images,” Proc. SPIE Medical Imaging 86690O (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Tomasi and R. Manduchi, “Bilateral filtering for gray and color images,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE, 1998), pp. 839–846.
[Crossref]

T. Ojala, M. Pietikäinen, and T. Mäenpää, “A generalized Local Binary Pattern operator for multiresolution gray scale and rotation invariant texture classification,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Advances in Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2001), pp. 399–406.
[Crossref]

N. Dalal and B. Triggs, “Histograms of oriented gradients for human detection,” in proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2005), pp. 886–893.
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, K. Huang, Y. Yu, and T. Tan, “Boosted local structured hog-lbp for object localization,” in proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1393–1400.
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Central B-scan (number 100 of 200) of an example SD-OCT volume. The two NCO points at the end of the RPE (indicated by the yellow outline as automatically segmented by 3-D graph search algorithm) are denoted by red dots. The green line indicates the reference plane and its intersections with inner limiting membrane (ILM, indicated by the blue outline as automatically segmented by 3-D graph search algorithm) are cup boundary points denoted by green circle markers. (b) The projection fundus image of the same volume. The red and green dots are the points of optic disc and cup margin, respectively, which correspond to the columns of NCO and cup borders in (a).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Flowchart of the proposed algorithm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Procedures of coarse margin location. (a) Original B-san. (b) Denosied and rescaled image. (c) Layer segmentation result. (d) Initial NCO detection. (e) Projection image with initial NCO detection. (f) Convex hull fitting after initial NCO detection result. (g) Expert-defined reference standard.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 SVM-based patch searching. (a) Patch searching using slide windows denoted by red dotted boxes. (b) - (e) four classes of the image samples.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Visualization of the ONH segmentation produced by our algorithms from 10 randomly selected eyes, compared with A-scan classification-based method and the reference standard. From left to right: NCO detection in central B-scan (number 100 of 200) of the SD-OCT volume (the red dots denote the NCO points, the red lines indicate the disc border and the green line indicate the cup border), A-scan classification-based segmentation, coarse optic disc and cup margin location, patch searching-based segmentation and reference standard. The red and green curves denote the disc and cup margin, respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparisons of C/D ratio quantification by different algorithms. (a) Area C/D ratio quantification. (b) Error of C/D ratio evaluation.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 An example of inaccurate NCO detection.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Unsigned border error for LBP, HOG and fusion feature (Mean ± SD)

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Table 2 Dice similarity coefficient for LBP, HOG and fusion feature (Mean ± SD)

Tables Icon

Table 3 Unsigned border error for different segmentation algorithms (Mean ± SD)

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Table 4 Dice similarity coefficient for different segmentation algorithms (Mean ± SD)

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Table 5 Error of C/D evaluation by different algorithms (Mean ± SD)

Tables Icon

Table 6 Computational time comparison

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

p 0 = { ( x , y ) | arg max ( x , y ) R P E C ( x , y ) , x [ 1 4 w , 3 4 w ] , y [ h 1 , h 2 ] }
p i = { ( x , y i ) i f p j N ( p i ) | | x x j | | / n k ( p j N ( p i ) x j / n , y i ) e l s e
U B E = ( D i s t min ( S R , S ) + D i s t min ( R S , R ) ) / N u m ( S + R )
D S C ( S , R ) = 2 ( S R ) / ( S + R )
r a t i o c , d = S c u p / S d i s c

Metrics