Abstract

Soot aggregates (SAs)–fractal clusters of small, spherical carbonaceous monomers–modulate the incoming visible solar radiation and contribute significantly to climate forcing. Experimentalists and climate modelers typically assume a spherical morphology for SAs when computing their optical properties, causing significant errors. Here, we calculate the optical properties of freshly-generated (fractal dimension Df = 1.8) and aged (Df = 2.6) SAs at 550 nm wavelength using the numerically-exact superposition T-Matrix method. These properties were expressed as functions of equivalent aerosol diameters as measured by contemporary aerosol instruments. This work improves upon previous efforts wherein SA optical properties were computed as a function of monomer number, rendering them unusable in practical applications. Future research will address the sensitivity of variation in refractive index, fractal prefactor, and monomer overlap of SAs on the reported empirical relationships.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2014 (1)

R. K. Chakrabarty, N. D. Beres, H. Moosmüller, S. China, C. Mazzoleni, M. K. Dubey, L. Liu, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Soot superaggregates from flaming wildfires and their direct radiative forcing,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5508 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Laborde, M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, H. Saathoff, K. Naumann, O. Möhler, S. Berlenz, U. Wagner, J. Taylor, D. Liu, M. Flynn, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, K. Heimerl, F. Dahlkötter, B. Weinzierl, A. G. Wollny, M. Zanatta, J. Cozic, P. Laj, R. Hitzenberger, J. P. Schwarz, and M. Gysel, “Single Particle Soot Photometer intercomparison at the AIDA chamber,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(12), 3077–3097 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Onasch, A. Trimborn, E. Fortner, J. Jayne, G. Kok, L. Williams, P. Davidovits, and D. Worsnop, “Soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer: development, validation, and initial application,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 46(7), 804–817 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

R. K. Chakrabarty, M. A. Garro, B. A. Garro, S. Chancellor, H. Moosmüller, and C. M. Herald, “Simulation of aggregates with point-contacting monomers in the cluster–dilute regime. Part 1: Determining the most reliable technique for obtaining three-dimensional fractal dimension from two-dimensional images,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 45(1), 75–80 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

H. Li, C. Liu, L. Bi, P. Yang, and G. W. Kattawar, “Numerical accuracy of “equivalent” spherical approximations for computing ensemble-averaged scattering properties of fractal soot aggregates,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(14), 2127–2132 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. I. Mishchenko, N. T. Zakharova, G. Videen, N. G. Khlebtsov, and T. Wriedt, “Comprehensive T-matrix reference database: A 2007-2009 update,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(4), 650–658 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

R. K. Chakrabarty, M. A. Garro, S. Chancellor, C. M. Herald, and H. Moosmüller, “FracMAP: A user-interactive package for performing simulation and orientation-specific morphology analysis of fractal-like solid nano-agglomerates,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 180, 1376–1381 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Moosmüller, R. Chakrabarty, and W. Arnott, “Aerosol light absorption and its measurement: A review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(11), 844–878 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

R. Zhang, A. F. Khalizov, J. Pagels, D. Zhang, H. Xue, and P. H. McMurry, “Variability in morphology, hygroscopicity, and optical properties of soot aerosols during atmospheric processing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(30), 10291–10296 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, M. I. Mishchenko, and W. P. Arnott, “A study of radiative properties of fractal soot aggregates using the superposition T-matrix method,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(15), 2656–2663 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

E. Andrews, P. Sheridan, M. Fiebig, A. McComiskey, J. Ogren, P. Arnott, D. Covert, R. Elleman, R. Gasparini, D. Collins, H. Jonsson, B. Schmid, and J. Wang, “Comparison of methods for deriving aerosol asymmetry parameter,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111(D5), D05S04 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. C. Bond and R. W. Bergstrom, “Light absorption by carbonaceous particles: An investigative review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 40(1), 27–67 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

L. Liu and M. I. Mishchenko, “Effects of aggregation on scattering and radiative properties of soot aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 110(D11), D11211 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

K. Park, D. B. Kittelson, and P. H. McMurry, “Structural properties of diesel exhaust particles measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM): Relationships to particle mass and mobility,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 38(9), 881–889 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. F. DeCarlo, J. G. Slowik, D. R. Worsnop, P. Davidovits, and J. L. Jimenez, “Particle morphology and density characterization by combined mobility and aerodynamic diameter measurements. Part 1: Theory,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 38(12), 1185–1205 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

C. Sorensen, “Light scattering by fractal aggregates: a review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 35(2), 648–687 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

C. M. Sorensen and G. C. Roberts, “The prefactor of fractal aggregates,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 186(2), 447–452 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

M. K. Wu and S. K. Friedlander, “Note on the power law equation for fractal-like aerosol agglomerates,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 159(1), 246–248 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

Allan, J. D.

M. Laborde, M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, H. Saathoff, K. Naumann, O. Möhler, S. Berlenz, U. Wagner, J. Taylor, D. Liu, M. Flynn, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, K. Heimerl, F. Dahlkötter, B. Weinzierl, A. G. Wollny, M. Zanatta, J. Cozic, P. Laj, R. Hitzenberger, J. P. Schwarz, and M. Gysel, “Single Particle Soot Photometer intercomparison at the AIDA chamber,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(12), 3077–3097 (2012).
[Crossref]

Andrews, E.

E. Andrews, P. Sheridan, M. Fiebig, A. McComiskey, J. Ogren, P. Arnott, D. Covert, R. Elleman, R. Gasparini, D. Collins, H. Jonsson, B. Schmid, and J. Wang, “Comparison of methods for deriving aerosol asymmetry parameter,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111(D5), D05S04 (2006).
[Crossref]

Arnott, P.

E. Andrews, P. Sheridan, M. Fiebig, A. McComiskey, J. Ogren, P. Arnott, D. Covert, R. Elleman, R. Gasparini, D. Collins, H. Jonsson, B. Schmid, and J. Wang, “Comparison of methods for deriving aerosol asymmetry parameter,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111(D5), D05S04 (2006).
[Crossref]

Arnott, W.

H. Moosmüller, R. Chakrabarty, and W. Arnott, “Aerosol light absorption and its measurement: A review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(11), 844–878 (2009).
[Crossref]

Arnott, W. P.

Bates, T. S.

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bellouin, N.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Beres, N. D.

R. K. Chakrabarty, N. D. Beres, H. Moosmüller, S. China, C. Mazzoleni, M. K. Dubey, L. Liu, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Soot superaggregates from flaming wildfires and their direct radiative forcing,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5508 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergstrom, R. W.

T. C. Bond and R. W. Bergstrom, “Light absorption by carbonaceous particles: An investigative review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 40(1), 27–67 (2006).
[Crossref]

Berlenz, S.

M. Laborde, M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, H. Saathoff, K. Naumann, O. Möhler, S. Berlenz, U. Wagner, J. Taylor, D. Liu, M. Flynn, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, K. Heimerl, F. Dahlkötter, B. Weinzierl, A. G. Wollny, M. Zanatta, J. Cozic, P. Laj, R. Hitzenberger, J. P. Schwarz, and M. Gysel, “Single Particle Soot Photometer intercomparison at the AIDA chamber,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(12), 3077–3097 (2012).
[Crossref]

Berntsen, T.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bi, L.

H. Li, C. Liu, L. Bi, P. Yang, and G. W. Kattawar, “Numerical accuracy of “equivalent” spherical approximations for computing ensemble-averaged scattering properties of fractal soot aggregates,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(14), 2127–2132 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bond, T. C.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. C. Bond and R. W. Bergstrom, “Light absorption by carbonaceous particles: An investigative review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 40(1), 27–67 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cai, J.

Cappa, C. D.

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chakrabarty, R.

H. Moosmüller, R. Chakrabarty, and W. Arnott, “Aerosol light absorption and its measurement: A review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(11), 844–878 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chakrabarty, R. K.

R. K. Chakrabarty, N. D. Beres, H. Moosmüller, S. China, C. Mazzoleni, M. K. Dubey, L. Liu, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Soot superaggregates from flaming wildfires and their direct radiative forcing,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5508 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Chakrabarty, M. A. Garro, B. A. Garro, S. Chancellor, H. Moosmüller, and C. M. Herald, “Simulation of aggregates with point-contacting monomers in the cluster–dilute regime. Part 1: Determining the most reliable technique for obtaining three-dimensional fractal dimension from two-dimensional images,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 45(1), 75–80 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. K. Chakrabarty, M. A. Garro, S. Chancellor, C. M. Herald, and H. Moosmüller, “FracMAP: A user-interactive package for performing simulation and orientation-specific morphology analysis of fractal-like solid nano-agglomerates,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 180, 1376–1381 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. K. Chakrabarty, H. Moosmüller, W. P. Arnott, M. A. Garro, J. G. Slowik, E. S. Cross, J.-H. Han, P. Davidovits, T. B. Onasch, and D. R. Worsnop, “Light scattering and absorption by fractal-like carbonaceous chain aggregates: comparison of theories and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 46(28), 6990–7006 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chancellor, S.

R. K. Chakrabarty, M. A. Garro, B. A. Garro, S. Chancellor, H. Moosmüller, and C. M. Herald, “Simulation of aggregates with point-contacting monomers in the cluster–dilute regime. Part 1: Determining the most reliable technique for obtaining three-dimensional fractal dimension from two-dimensional images,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 45(1), 75–80 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. K. Chakrabarty, M. A. Garro, S. Chancellor, C. M. Herald, and H. Moosmüller, “FracMAP: A user-interactive package for performing simulation and orientation-specific morphology analysis of fractal-like solid nano-agglomerates,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 180, 1376–1381 (2009).
[Crossref]

China, S.

R. K. Chakrabarty, N. D. Beres, H. Moosmüller, S. China, C. Mazzoleni, M. K. Dubey, L. Liu, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Soot superaggregates from flaming wildfires and their direct radiative forcing,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5508 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coe, H.

M. Laborde, M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, H. Saathoff, K. Naumann, O. Möhler, S. Berlenz, U. Wagner, J. Taylor, D. Liu, M. Flynn, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, K. Heimerl, F. Dahlkötter, B. Weinzierl, A. G. Wollny, M. Zanatta, J. Cozic, P. Laj, R. Hitzenberger, J. P. Schwarz, and M. Gysel, “Single Particle Soot Photometer intercomparison at the AIDA chamber,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(12), 3077–3097 (2012).
[Crossref]

Collins, D.

E. Andrews, P. Sheridan, M. Fiebig, A. McComiskey, J. Ogren, P. Arnott, D. Covert, R. Elleman, R. Gasparini, D. Collins, H. Jonsson, B. Schmid, and J. Wang, “Comparison of methods for deriving aerosol asymmetry parameter,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111(D5), D05S04 (2006).
[Crossref]

Covert, D.

E. Andrews, P. Sheridan, M. Fiebig, A. McComiskey, J. Ogren, P. Arnott, D. Covert, R. Elleman, R. Gasparini, D. Collins, H. Jonsson, B. Schmid, and J. Wang, “Comparison of methods for deriving aerosol asymmetry parameter,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111(D5), D05S04 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cozic, J.

M. Laborde, M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, H. Saathoff, K. Naumann, O. Möhler, S. Berlenz, U. Wagner, J. Taylor, D. Liu, M. Flynn, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, K. Heimerl, F. Dahlkötter, B. Weinzierl, A. G. Wollny, M. Zanatta, J. Cozic, P. Laj, R. Hitzenberger, J. P. Schwarz, and M. Gysel, “Single Particle Soot Photometer intercomparison at the AIDA chamber,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(12), 3077–3097 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cross, E. S.

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Chakrabarty, H. Moosmüller, W. P. Arnott, M. A. Garro, J. G. Slowik, E. S. Cross, J.-H. Han, P. Davidovits, T. B. Onasch, and D. R. Worsnop, “Light scattering and absorption by fractal-like carbonaceous chain aggregates: comparison of theories and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 46(28), 6990–7006 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dahlkötter, F.

M. Laborde, M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, H. Saathoff, K. Naumann, O. Möhler, S. Berlenz, U. Wagner, J. Taylor, D. Liu, M. Flynn, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, K. Heimerl, F. Dahlkötter, B. Weinzierl, A. G. Wollny, M. Zanatta, J. Cozic, P. Laj, R. Hitzenberger, J. P. Schwarz, and M. Gysel, “Single Particle Soot Photometer intercomparison at the AIDA chamber,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(12), 3077–3097 (2012).
[Crossref]

Davidovits, P.

T. Onasch, A. Trimborn, E. Fortner, J. Jayne, G. Kok, L. Williams, P. Davidovits, and D. Worsnop, “Soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer: development, validation, and initial application,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 46(7), 804–817 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Chakrabarty, H. Moosmüller, W. P. Arnott, M. A. Garro, J. G. Slowik, E. S. Cross, J.-H. Han, P. Davidovits, T. B. Onasch, and D. R. Worsnop, “Light scattering and absorption by fractal-like carbonaceous chain aggregates: comparison of theories and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 46(28), 6990–7006 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. F. DeCarlo, J. G. Slowik, D. R. Worsnop, P. Davidovits, and J. L. Jimenez, “Particle morphology and density characterization by combined mobility and aerodynamic diameter measurements. Part 1: Theory,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 38(12), 1185–1205 (2004).
[Crossref]

DeAngelo, B.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

DeCarlo, P. F.

P. F. DeCarlo, J. G. Slowik, D. R. Worsnop, P. Davidovits, and J. L. Jimenez, “Particle morphology and density characterization by combined mobility and aerodynamic diameter measurements. Part 1: Theory,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 38(12), 1185–1205 (2004).
[Crossref]

Doherty, S. J.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dubey, M. K.

R. K. Chakrabarty, N. D. Beres, H. Moosmüller, S. China, C. Mazzoleni, M. K. Dubey, L. Liu, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Soot superaggregates from flaming wildfires and their direct radiative forcing,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5508 (2014).
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Elleman, R.

E. Andrews, P. Sheridan, M. Fiebig, A. McComiskey, J. Ogren, P. Arnott, D. Covert, R. Elleman, R. Gasparini, D. Collins, H. Jonsson, B. Schmid, and J. Wang, “Comparison of methods for deriving aerosol asymmetry parameter,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111(D5), D05S04 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fahey, D.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fiebig, M.

E. Andrews, P. Sheridan, M. Fiebig, A. McComiskey, J. Ogren, P. Arnott, D. Covert, R. Elleman, R. Gasparini, D. Collins, H. Jonsson, B. Schmid, and J. Wang, “Comparison of methods for deriving aerosol asymmetry parameter,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111(D5), D05S04 (2006).
[Crossref]

Flanner, M.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Flynn, M.

M. Laborde, M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, H. Saathoff, K. Naumann, O. Möhler, S. Berlenz, U. Wagner, J. Taylor, D. Liu, M. Flynn, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, K. Heimerl, F. Dahlkötter, B. Weinzierl, A. G. Wollny, M. Zanatta, J. Cozic, P. Laj, R. Hitzenberger, J. P. Schwarz, and M. Gysel, “Single Particle Soot Photometer intercomparison at the AIDA chamber,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(12), 3077–3097 (2012).
[Crossref]

Forster, P.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fortner, E.

T. Onasch, A. Trimborn, E. Fortner, J. Jayne, G. Kok, L. Williams, P. Davidovits, and D. Worsnop, “Soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer: development, validation, and initial application,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 46(7), 804–817 (2012).
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Friedlander, S. K.

M. K. Wu and S. K. Friedlander, “Note on the power law equation for fractal-like aerosol agglomerates,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 159(1), 246–248 (1993).
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Garro, B. A.

R. K. Chakrabarty, M. A. Garro, B. A. Garro, S. Chancellor, H. Moosmüller, and C. M. Herald, “Simulation of aggregates with point-contacting monomers in the cluster–dilute regime. Part 1: Determining the most reliable technique for obtaining three-dimensional fractal dimension from two-dimensional images,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 45(1), 75–80 (2011).
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Garro, M. A.

R. K. Chakrabarty, M. A. Garro, B. A. Garro, S. Chancellor, H. Moosmüller, and C. M. Herald, “Simulation of aggregates with point-contacting monomers in the cluster–dilute regime. Part 1: Determining the most reliable technique for obtaining three-dimensional fractal dimension from two-dimensional images,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 45(1), 75–80 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. K. Chakrabarty, M. A. Garro, S. Chancellor, C. M. Herald, and H. Moosmüller, “FracMAP: A user-interactive package for performing simulation and orientation-specific morphology analysis of fractal-like solid nano-agglomerates,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 180, 1376–1381 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. K. Chakrabarty, H. Moosmüller, W. P. Arnott, M. A. Garro, J. G. Slowik, E. S. Cross, J.-H. Han, P. Davidovits, T. B. Onasch, and D. R. Worsnop, “Light scattering and absorption by fractal-like carbonaceous chain aggregates: comparison of theories and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 46(28), 6990–7006 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gasparini, R.

E. Andrews, P. Sheridan, M. Fiebig, A. McComiskey, J. Ogren, P. Arnott, D. Covert, R. Elleman, R. Gasparini, D. Collins, H. Jonsson, B. Schmid, and J. Wang, “Comparison of methods for deriving aerosol asymmetry parameter,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111(D5), D05S04 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ghan, S.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guttikunda, S. K.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gysel, M.

M. Laborde, M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, H. Saathoff, K. Naumann, O. Möhler, S. Berlenz, U. Wagner, J. Taylor, D. Liu, M. Flynn, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, K. Heimerl, F. Dahlkötter, B. Weinzierl, A. G. Wollny, M. Zanatta, J. Cozic, P. Laj, R. Hitzenberger, J. P. Schwarz, and M. Gysel, “Single Particle Soot Photometer intercomparison at the AIDA chamber,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(12), 3077–3097 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hakala, J.

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, J.-H.

Hayden, K. L.

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heimerl, K.

M. Laborde, M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, H. Saathoff, K. Naumann, O. Möhler, S. Berlenz, U. Wagner, J. Taylor, D. Liu, M. Flynn, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, K. Heimerl, F. Dahlkötter, B. Weinzierl, A. G. Wollny, M. Zanatta, J. Cozic, P. Laj, R. Hitzenberger, J. P. Schwarz, and M. Gysel, “Single Particle Soot Photometer intercomparison at the AIDA chamber,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(12), 3077–3097 (2012).
[Crossref]

Herald, C. M.

R. K. Chakrabarty, M. A. Garro, B. A. Garro, S. Chancellor, H. Moosmüller, and C. M. Herald, “Simulation of aggregates with point-contacting monomers in the cluster–dilute regime. Part 1: Determining the most reliable technique for obtaining three-dimensional fractal dimension from two-dimensional images,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 45(1), 75–80 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. K. Chakrabarty, M. A. Garro, S. Chancellor, C. M. Herald, and H. Moosmüller, “FracMAP: A user-interactive package for performing simulation and orientation-specific morphology analysis of fractal-like solid nano-agglomerates,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 180, 1376–1381 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hitzenberger, R.

M. Laborde, M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, H. Saathoff, K. Naumann, O. Möhler, S. Berlenz, U. Wagner, J. Taylor, D. Liu, M. Flynn, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, K. Heimerl, F. Dahlkötter, B. Weinzierl, A. G. Wollny, M. Zanatta, J. Cozic, P. Laj, R. Hitzenberger, J. P. Schwarz, and M. Gysel, “Single Particle Soot Photometer intercomparison at the AIDA chamber,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(12), 3077–3097 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hopke, P. K.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jacobson, M. Z.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jayne, J.

T. Onasch, A. Trimborn, E. Fortner, J. Jayne, G. Kok, L. Williams, P. Davidovits, and D. Worsnop, “Soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer: development, validation, and initial application,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 46(7), 804–817 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jimenez, J. L.

P. F. DeCarlo, J. G. Slowik, D. R. Worsnop, P. Davidovits, and J. L. Jimenez, “Particle morphology and density characterization by combined mobility and aerodynamic diameter measurements. Part 1: Theory,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 38(12), 1185–1205 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jobson, B. T.

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jonsson, H.

E. Andrews, P. Sheridan, M. Fiebig, A. McComiskey, J. Ogren, P. Arnott, D. Covert, R. Elleman, R. Gasparini, D. Collins, H. Jonsson, B. Schmid, and J. Wang, “Comparison of methods for deriving aerosol asymmetry parameter,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111(D5), D05S04 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kaiser, J. W.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
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Kärcher, B.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
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Kattawar, G. W.

H. Li, C. Liu, L. Bi, P. Yang, and G. W. Kattawar, “Numerical accuracy of “equivalent” spherical approximations for computing ensemble-averaged scattering properties of fractal soot aggregates,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(14), 2127–2132 (2010).
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Khalizov, A. F.

R. Zhang, A. F. Khalizov, J. Pagels, D. Zhang, H. Xue, and P. H. McMurry, “Variability in morphology, hygroscopicity, and optical properties of soot aerosols during atmospheric processing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(30), 10291–10296 (2008).
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Khlebtsov, N. G.

M. I. Mishchenko, N. T. Zakharova, G. Videen, N. G. Khlebtsov, and T. Wriedt, “Comprehensive T-matrix reference database: A 2007-2009 update,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(4), 650–658 (2010).
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Kinne, S.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
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Kittelson, D. B.

K. Park, D. B. Kittelson, and P. H. McMurry, “Structural properties of diesel exhaust particles measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM): Relationships to particle mass and mobility,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 38(9), 881–889 (2004).
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Klimont, Z.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
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Koch, D.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kok, G.

T. Onasch, A. Trimborn, E. Fortner, J. Jayne, G. Kok, L. Williams, P. Davidovits, and D. Worsnop, “Soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer: development, validation, and initial application,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 46(7), 804–817 (2012).
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Kolesar, K. R.

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
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T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
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M. Laborde, M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, H. Saathoff, K. Naumann, O. Möhler, S. Berlenz, U. Wagner, J. Taylor, D. Liu, M. Flynn, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, K. Heimerl, F. Dahlkötter, B. Weinzierl, A. G. Wollny, M. Zanatta, J. Cozic, P. Laj, R. Hitzenberger, J. P. Schwarz, and M. Gysel, “Single Particle Soot Photometer intercomparison at the AIDA chamber,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(12), 3077–3097 (2012).
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C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
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M. Laborde, M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, H. Saathoff, K. Naumann, O. Möhler, S. Berlenz, U. Wagner, J. Taylor, D. Liu, M. Flynn, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, K. Heimerl, F. Dahlkötter, B. Weinzierl, A. G. Wollny, M. Zanatta, J. Cozic, P. Laj, R. Hitzenberger, J. P. Schwarz, and M. Gysel, “Single Particle Soot Photometer intercomparison at the AIDA chamber,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(12), 3077–3097 (2012).
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C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
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H. Li, C. Liu, L. Bi, P. Yang, and G. W. Kattawar, “Numerical accuracy of “equivalent” spherical approximations for computing ensemble-averaged scattering properties of fractal soot aggregates,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(14), 2127–2132 (2010).
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C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
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M. Laborde, M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, H. Saathoff, K. Naumann, O. Möhler, S. Berlenz, U. Wagner, J. Taylor, D. Liu, M. Flynn, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, K. Heimerl, F. Dahlkötter, B. Weinzierl, A. G. Wollny, M. Zanatta, J. Cozic, P. Laj, R. Hitzenberger, J. P. Schwarz, and M. Gysel, “Single Particle Soot Photometer intercomparison at the AIDA chamber,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(12), 3077–3097 (2012).
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H. Li, C. Liu, L. Bi, P. Yang, and G. W. Kattawar, “Numerical accuracy of “equivalent” spherical approximations for computing ensemble-averaged scattering properties of fractal soot aggregates,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(14), 2127–2132 (2010).
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M. Laborde, M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, H. Saathoff, K. Naumann, O. Möhler, S. Berlenz, U. Wagner, J. Taylor, D. Liu, M. Flynn, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, K. Heimerl, F. Dahlkötter, B. Weinzierl, A. G. Wollny, M. Zanatta, J. Cozic, P. Laj, R. Hitzenberger, J. P. Schwarz, and M. Gysel, “Single Particle Soot Photometer intercomparison at the AIDA chamber,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(12), 3077–3097 (2012).
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R. K. Chakrabarty, N. D. Beres, H. Moosmüller, S. China, C. Mazzoleni, M. K. Dubey, L. Liu, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Soot superaggregates from flaming wildfires and their direct radiative forcing,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5508 (2014).
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L. Liu, M. I. Mishchenko, and W. P. Arnott, “A study of radiative properties of fractal soot aggregates using the superposition T-matrix method,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(15), 2656–2663 (2008).
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L. Liu and M. I. Mishchenko, “Effects of aggregation on scattering and radiative properties of soot aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 110(D11), D11211 (2005).
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T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
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Mackowski, D. W.

Massoli, P.

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
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R. K. Chakrabarty, N. D. Beres, H. Moosmüller, S. China, C. Mazzoleni, M. K. Dubey, L. Liu, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Soot superaggregates from flaming wildfires and their direct radiative forcing,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5508 (2014).
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R. Zhang, A. F. Khalizov, J. Pagels, D. Zhang, H. Xue, and P. H. McMurry, “Variability in morphology, hygroscopicity, and optical properties of soot aerosols during atmospheric processing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(30), 10291–10296 (2008).
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C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
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Mishchenko, M. I.

R. K. Chakrabarty, N. D. Beres, H. Moosmüller, S. China, C. Mazzoleni, M. K. Dubey, L. Liu, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Soot superaggregates from flaming wildfires and their direct radiative forcing,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5508 (2014).
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L. Liu, M. I. Mishchenko, and W. P. Arnott, “A study of radiative properties of fractal soot aggregates using the superposition T-matrix method,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(15), 2656–2663 (2008).
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L. Liu and M. I. Mishchenko, “Effects of aggregation on scattering and radiative properties of soot aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 110(D11), D11211 (2005).
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D. W. Mackowski and M. I. Mishchenko, “Calculation of the T-matrix and the scattering matrix for ensembles of spheres,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13(11), 2266–2278 (1996).
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M. Laborde, M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, H. Saathoff, K. Naumann, O. Möhler, S. Berlenz, U. Wagner, J. Taylor, D. Liu, M. Flynn, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, K. Heimerl, F. Dahlkötter, B. Weinzierl, A. G. Wollny, M. Zanatta, J. Cozic, P. Laj, R. Hitzenberger, J. P. Schwarz, and M. Gysel, “Single Particle Soot Photometer intercomparison at the AIDA chamber,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(12), 3077–3097 (2012).
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Moosmüller, H.

R. K. Chakrabarty, N. D. Beres, H. Moosmüller, S. China, C. Mazzoleni, M. K. Dubey, L. Liu, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Soot superaggregates from flaming wildfires and their direct radiative forcing,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5508 (2014).
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R. K. Chakrabarty, M. A. Garro, B. A. Garro, S. Chancellor, H. Moosmüller, and C. M. Herald, “Simulation of aggregates with point-contacting monomers in the cluster–dilute regime. Part 1: Determining the most reliable technique for obtaining three-dimensional fractal dimension from two-dimensional images,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 45(1), 75–80 (2011).
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R. K. Chakrabarty, M. A. Garro, S. Chancellor, C. M. Herald, and H. Moosmüller, “FracMAP: A user-interactive package for performing simulation and orientation-specific morphology analysis of fractal-like solid nano-agglomerates,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 180, 1376–1381 (2009).
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H. Moosmüller, R. Chakrabarty, and W. Arnott, “Aerosol light absorption and its measurement: A review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(11), 844–878 (2009).
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R. K. Chakrabarty, H. Moosmüller, W. P. Arnott, M. A. Garro, J. G. Slowik, E. S. Cross, J.-H. Han, P. Davidovits, T. B. Onasch, and D. R. Worsnop, “Light scattering and absorption by fractal-like carbonaceous chain aggregates: comparison of theories and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 46(28), 6990–7006 (2007).
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M. Laborde, M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, H. Saathoff, K. Naumann, O. Möhler, S. Berlenz, U. Wagner, J. Taylor, D. Liu, M. Flynn, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, K. Heimerl, F. Dahlkötter, B. Weinzierl, A. G. Wollny, M. Zanatta, J. Cozic, P. Laj, R. Hitzenberger, J. P. Schwarz, and M. Gysel, “Single Particle Soot Photometer intercomparison at the AIDA chamber,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(12), 3077–3097 (2012).
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C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
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Ogren, J.

E. Andrews, P. Sheridan, M. Fiebig, A. McComiskey, J. Ogren, P. Arnott, D. Covert, R. Elleman, R. Gasparini, D. Collins, H. Jonsson, B. Schmid, and J. Wang, “Comparison of methods for deriving aerosol asymmetry parameter,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111(D5), D05S04 (2006).
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C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
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T. Onasch, A. Trimborn, E. Fortner, J. Jayne, G. Kok, L. Williams, P. Davidovits, and D. Worsnop, “Soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer: development, validation, and initial application,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 46(7), 804–817 (2012).
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C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
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R. K. Chakrabarty, H. Moosmüller, W. P. Arnott, M. A. Garro, J. G. Slowik, E. S. Cross, J.-H. Han, P. Davidovits, T. B. Onasch, and D. R. Worsnop, “Light scattering and absorption by fractal-like carbonaceous chain aggregates: comparison of theories and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 46(28), 6990–7006 (2007).
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Pagels, J.

R. Zhang, A. F. Khalizov, J. Pagels, D. Zhang, H. Xue, and P. H. McMurry, “Variability in morphology, hygroscopicity, and optical properties of soot aerosols during atmospheric processing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(30), 10291–10296 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, K.

K. Park, D. B. Kittelson, and P. H. McMurry, “Structural properties of diesel exhaust particles measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM): Relationships to particle mass and mobility,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 38(9), 881–889 (2004).
[Crossref]

Petäjä, T.

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
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Quinn, P. K.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
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C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
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M. Laborde, M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, H. Saathoff, K. Naumann, O. Möhler, S. Berlenz, U. Wagner, J. Taylor, D. Liu, M. Flynn, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, K. Heimerl, F. Dahlkötter, B. Weinzierl, A. G. Wollny, M. Zanatta, J. Cozic, P. Laj, R. Hitzenberger, J. P. Schwarz, and M. Gysel, “Single Particle Soot Photometer intercomparison at the AIDA chamber,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(12), 3077–3097 (2012).
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Sarofim, M. C.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
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Schmid, B.

E. Andrews, P. Sheridan, M. Fiebig, A. McComiskey, J. Ogren, P. Arnott, D. Covert, R. Elleman, R. Gasparini, D. Collins, H. Jonsson, B. Schmid, and J. Wang, “Comparison of methods for deriving aerosol asymmetry parameter,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111(D5), D05S04 (2006).
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M. Laborde, M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, H. Saathoff, K. Naumann, O. Möhler, S. Berlenz, U. Wagner, J. Taylor, D. Liu, M. Flynn, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, K. Heimerl, F. Dahlkötter, B. Weinzierl, A. G. Wollny, M. Zanatta, J. Cozic, P. Laj, R. Hitzenberger, J. P. Schwarz, and M. Gysel, “Single Particle Soot Photometer intercomparison at the AIDA chamber,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(12), 3077–3097 (2012).
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Schultz, M. G.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
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Schulz, M.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
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Schwarz, J. P.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
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M. Laborde, M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, H. Saathoff, K. Naumann, O. Möhler, S. Berlenz, U. Wagner, J. Taylor, D. Liu, M. Flynn, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, K. Heimerl, F. Dahlkötter, B. Weinzierl, A. G. Wollny, M. Zanatta, J. Cozic, P. Laj, R. Hitzenberger, J. P. Schwarz, and M. Gysel, “Single Particle Soot Photometer intercomparison at the AIDA chamber,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(12), 3077–3097 (2012).
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Sheridan, P.

E. Andrews, P. Sheridan, M. Fiebig, A. McComiskey, J. Ogren, P. Arnott, D. Covert, R. Elleman, R. Gasparini, D. Collins, H. Jonsson, B. Schmid, and J. Wang, “Comparison of methods for deriving aerosol asymmetry parameter,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111(D5), D05S04 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shindell, D.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Slowik, J. G.

R. K. Chakrabarty, H. Moosmüller, W. P. Arnott, M. A. Garro, J. G. Slowik, E. S. Cross, J.-H. Han, P. Davidovits, T. B. Onasch, and D. R. Worsnop, “Light scattering and absorption by fractal-like carbonaceous chain aggregates: comparison of theories and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 46(28), 6990–7006 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. F. DeCarlo, J. G. Slowik, D. R. Worsnop, P. Davidovits, and J. L. Jimenez, “Particle morphology and density characterization by combined mobility and aerodynamic diameter measurements. Part 1: Theory,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 38(12), 1185–1205 (2004).
[Crossref]

Song, C.

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sorensen, C.

C. Sorensen, “Light scattering by fractal aggregates: a review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 35(2), 648–687 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sorensen, C. M.

Storelvmo, T.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Subramanian, R.

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, J.

M. Laborde, M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, H. Saathoff, K. Naumann, O. Möhler, S. Berlenz, U. Wagner, J. Taylor, D. Liu, M. Flynn, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, K. Heimerl, F. Dahlkötter, B. Weinzierl, A. G. Wollny, M. Zanatta, J. Cozic, P. Laj, R. Hitzenberger, J. P. Schwarz, and M. Gysel, “Single Particle Soot Photometer intercomparison at the AIDA chamber,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(12), 3077–3097 (2012).
[Crossref]

Trimborn, A.

T. Onasch, A. Trimborn, E. Fortner, J. Jayne, G. Kok, L. Williams, P. Davidovits, and D. Worsnop, “Soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer: development, validation, and initial application,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 46(7), 804–817 (2012).
[Crossref]

Venkataraman, C.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Videen, G.

M. I. Mishchenko, N. T. Zakharova, G. Videen, N. G. Khlebtsov, and T. Wriedt, “Comprehensive T-matrix reference database: A 2007-2009 update,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(4), 650–658 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wagner, U.

M. Laborde, M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, H. Saathoff, K. Naumann, O. Möhler, S. Berlenz, U. Wagner, J. Taylor, D. Liu, M. Flynn, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, K. Heimerl, F. Dahlkötter, B. Weinzierl, A. G. Wollny, M. Zanatta, J. Cozic, P. Laj, R. Hitzenberger, J. P. Schwarz, and M. Gysel, “Single Particle Soot Photometer intercomparison at the AIDA chamber,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(12), 3077–3097 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

E. Andrews, P. Sheridan, M. Fiebig, A. McComiskey, J. Ogren, P. Arnott, D. Covert, R. Elleman, R. Gasparini, D. Collins, H. Jonsson, B. Schmid, and J. Wang, “Comparison of methods for deriving aerosol asymmetry parameter,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111(D5), D05S04 (2006).
[Crossref]

Warren, S. G.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Weinzierl, B.

M. Laborde, M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, H. Saathoff, K. Naumann, O. Möhler, S. Berlenz, U. Wagner, J. Taylor, D. Liu, M. Flynn, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, K. Heimerl, F. Dahlkötter, B. Weinzierl, A. G. Wollny, M. Zanatta, J. Cozic, P. Laj, R. Hitzenberger, J. P. Schwarz, and M. Gysel, “Single Particle Soot Photometer intercomparison at the AIDA chamber,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(12), 3077–3097 (2012).
[Crossref]

Williams, E. J.

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, L.

T. Onasch, A. Trimborn, E. Fortner, J. Jayne, G. Kok, L. Williams, P. Davidovits, and D. Worsnop, “Soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer: development, validation, and initial application,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 46(7), 804–817 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wollny, A. G.

M. Laborde, M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, H. Saathoff, K. Naumann, O. Möhler, S. Berlenz, U. Wagner, J. Taylor, D. Liu, M. Flynn, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, K. Heimerl, F. Dahlkötter, B. Weinzierl, A. G. Wollny, M. Zanatta, J. Cozic, P. Laj, R. Hitzenberger, J. P. Schwarz, and M. Gysel, “Single Particle Soot Photometer intercomparison at the AIDA chamber,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(12), 3077–3097 (2012).
[Crossref]

Worsnop, D.

T. Onasch, A. Trimborn, E. Fortner, J. Jayne, G. Kok, L. Williams, P. Davidovits, and D. Worsnop, “Soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer: development, validation, and initial application,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 46(7), 804–817 (2012).
[Crossref]

Worsnop, D. R.

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Chakrabarty, H. Moosmüller, W. P. Arnott, M. A. Garro, J. G. Slowik, E. S. Cross, J.-H. Han, P. Davidovits, T. B. Onasch, and D. R. Worsnop, “Light scattering and absorption by fractal-like carbonaceous chain aggregates: comparison of theories and experiment,” Appl. Opt. 46(28), 6990–7006 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. F. DeCarlo, J. G. Slowik, D. R. Worsnop, P. Davidovits, and J. L. Jimenez, “Particle morphology and density characterization by combined mobility and aerodynamic diameter measurements. Part 1: Theory,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 38(12), 1185–1205 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wriedt, T.

M. I. Mishchenko, N. T. Zakharova, G. Videen, N. G. Khlebtsov, and T. Wriedt, “Comprehensive T-matrix reference database: A 2007-2009 update,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(4), 650–658 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wu, M. K.

M. K. Wu and S. K. Friedlander, “Note on the power law equation for fractal-like aerosol agglomerates,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 159(1), 246–248 (1993).
[Crossref]

Xue, H.

R. Zhang, A. F. Khalizov, J. Pagels, D. Zhang, H. Xue, and P. H. McMurry, “Variability in morphology, hygroscopicity, and optical properties of soot aerosols during atmospheric processing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(30), 10291–10296 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, P.

H. Li, C. Liu, L. Bi, P. Yang, and G. W. Kattawar, “Numerical accuracy of “equivalent” spherical approximations for computing ensemble-averaged scattering properties of fractal soot aggregates,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(14), 2127–2132 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zakharova, N. T.

M. I. Mishchenko, N. T. Zakharova, G. Videen, N. G. Khlebtsov, and T. Wriedt, “Comprehensive T-matrix reference database: A 2007-2009 update,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(4), 650–658 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zanatta, M.

M. Laborde, M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, H. Saathoff, K. Naumann, O. Möhler, S. Berlenz, U. Wagner, J. Taylor, D. Liu, M. Flynn, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, K. Heimerl, F. Dahlkötter, B. Weinzierl, A. G. Wollny, M. Zanatta, J. Cozic, P. Laj, R. Hitzenberger, J. P. Schwarz, and M. Gysel, “Single Particle Soot Photometer intercomparison at the AIDA chamber,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(12), 3077–3097 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zaveri, R. A.

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zender, C. S.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D.

R. Zhang, A. F. Khalizov, J. Pagels, D. Zhang, H. Xue, and P. H. McMurry, “Variability in morphology, hygroscopicity, and optical properties of soot aerosols during atmospheric processing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(30), 10291–10296 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, R.

R. Zhang, A. F. Khalizov, J. Pagels, D. Zhang, H. Xue, and P. H. McMurry, “Variability in morphology, hygroscopicity, and optical properties of soot aerosols during atmospheric processing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(30), 10291–10296 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

Aerosol Sci. Technol. (6)

C. Sorensen, “Light scattering by fractal aggregates: a review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 35(2), 648–687 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. F. DeCarlo, J. G. Slowik, D. R. Worsnop, P. Davidovits, and J. L. Jimenez, “Particle morphology and density characterization by combined mobility and aerodynamic diameter measurements. Part 1: Theory,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 38(12), 1185–1205 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Onasch, A. Trimborn, E. Fortner, J. Jayne, G. Kok, L. Williams, P. Davidovits, and D. Worsnop, “Soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer: development, validation, and initial application,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 46(7), 804–817 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. K. Chakrabarty, M. A. Garro, B. A. Garro, S. Chancellor, H. Moosmüller, and C. M. Herald, “Simulation of aggregates with point-contacting monomers in the cluster–dilute regime. Part 1: Determining the most reliable technique for obtaining three-dimensional fractal dimension from two-dimensional images,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 45(1), 75–80 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Park, D. B. Kittelson, and P. H. McMurry, “Structural properties of diesel exhaust particles measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM): Relationships to particle mass and mobility,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 38(9), 881–889 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. C. Bond and R. W. Bergstrom, “Light absorption by carbonaceous particles: An investigative review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 40(1), 27–67 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Atmos. Meas. Tech. (1)

M. Laborde, M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, H. Saathoff, K. Naumann, O. Möhler, S. Berlenz, U. Wagner, J. Taylor, D. Liu, M. Flynn, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, K. Heimerl, F. Dahlkötter, B. Weinzierl, A. G. Wollny, M. Zanatta, J. Cozic, P. Laj, R. Hitzenberger, J. P. Schwarz, and M. Gysel, “Single Particle Soot Photometer intercomparison at the AIDA chamber,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(12), 3077–3097 (2012).
[Crossref]

Comput. Phys. Commun. (1)

R. K. Chakrabarty, M. A. Garro, S. Chancellor, C. M. Herald, and H. Moosmüller, “FracMAP: A user-interactive package for performing simulation and orientation-specific morphology analysis of fractal-like solid nano-agglomerates,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 180, 1376–1381 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (2)

C. M. Sorensen and G. C. Roberts, “The prefactor of fractal aggregates,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 186(2), 447–452 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Wu and S. K. Friedlander, “Note on the power law equation for fractal-like aerosol agglomerates,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 159(1), 246–248 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. (3)

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. Fahey, P. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. DeAngelo, M. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Andrews, P. Sheridan, M. Fiebig, A. McComiskey, J. Ogren, P. Arnott, D. Covert, R. Elleman, R. Gasparini, D. Collins, H. Jonsson, B. Schmid, and J. Wang, “Comparison of methods for deriving aerosol asymmetry parameter,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111(D5), D05S04 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. Liu and M. I. Mishchenko, “Effects of aggregation on scattering and radiative properties of soot aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 110(D11), D11211 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (4)

H. Li, C. Liu, L. Bi, P. Yang, and G. W. Kattawar, “Numerical accuracy of “equivalent” spherical approximations for computing ensemble-averaged scattering properties of fractal soot aggregates,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(14), 2127–2132 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Moosmüller, R. Chakrabarty, and W. Arnott, “Aerosol light absorption and its measurement: A review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(11), 844–878 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. I. Mishchenko, N. T. Zakharova, G. Videen, N. G. Khlebtsov, and T. Wriedt, “Comprehensive T-matrix reference database: A 2007-2009 update,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(4), 650–658 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, M. I. Mishchenko, and W. P. Arnott, “A study of radiative properties of fractal soot aggregates using the superposition T-matrix method,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(15), 2656–2663 (2008).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

R. Zhang, A. F. Khalizov, J. Pagels, D. Zhang, H. Xue, and P. H. McMurry, “Variability in morphology, hygroscopicity, and optical properties of soot aerosols during atmospheric processing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(30), 10291–10296 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

R. K. Chakrabarty, N. D. Beres, H. Moosmüller, S. China, C. Mazzoleni, M. K. Dubey, L. Liu, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Soot superaggregates from flaming wildfires and their direct radiative forcing,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5508 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S. M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M. Lindskog and E. Nordin, Ageing of Diesel Aerosols: Design and Implementation of a Teflon Simulation Chamber (Lund University, 2009).

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles (Cambridge University Press, 2002).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Example of a 3-d quasi-fractal agglomerate simulated by FracMAP and its 2-d pixelated projection image for a stable orientation.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Variation of (a) Cscat (µm2), (b) Cabs (µm2), and (c) g, with mobility diameter, dm (µm) of soot aggregates with Df equal to 1.8 (fresh) and 2.6 (aged).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Variation of (a) Cscat (µm2), (b) Cabs (µm2), and (c) g, with mass equivalent diameter, dme (µm) of soot aggregates with Df equal to 1.8 (fresh) and 2.6 (aged).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Variation of (a) Cscat (µm2), (b) Cabs (µm2), and (c) g, with vacuum aerodynamic diameter, dVa (µm) of soot aggregates with Df equal to 1.8 (fresh) and 2.6 (aged).

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Estimated equivalent aerosol diameters (nm) for fresh and aged soot aggregates as a function of monomer number (N).

Tables Icon

Table 2 Best fit empirical equations connecting the mobility diameter, dm (in μm) and the optical properties of fresh and aged SA.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Best fit empirical equations connecting the mass equivalent diameter, dme (in μm) and the optical properties of fresh and aged SA.

Tables Icon

Table 4 Best fit empirical equations connecting the vacuum aerodynamic diameter, dVa (in μm) and the optical properties of fresh and aged SA.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N = k 0 × ( R g r 0 ) D f
ω = C s c a t C s c a t + C a b s
g =   7.14 f 3 + 7.46 f 2 3.96 f + 0.9893
d m e = d m o n o   ×   N 1 3
d V a =   ρ p ρ o × d v e χ
χ =   d m   d v e × C ( K n v e ) C ( K n m )

Metrics