Abstract

Pd/Y multilayer mirrors operating in the soft X-ray region are characterized by a high theoretical reflectance, reaching 65% at normal incidence in the 8-12 nm wavelength range. However, a severe intermixing of neighboring Pd and Y layers results in an almost total disappearance of the interfaces inside the multilayer structures fabricated by direct current magnetron sputtering and thus a dramatic reflectivity decrease. Based on grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the stability of the interfaces in Pd/Y multilayer structures can be essentially improved by adding a small amount of nitrogen (4-8%) to the working gas (Ar). High resolution transmission electron microscopy shows that the interlayer width is only 0.9 nm and 0.6 nm for Y(N)-on-Pd(N) and Pd(N)-on-Y(N) interfaces, respectively. A well-defined crystalline texture of YN (200) is observed on the electron diffraction pattern. As a result, the measured reflectance of the Pd(N)/Y(N) multilayer achieves 30% at λ = 9.3 nm. The peak reflectivity value is limited by the remaining interlayers and the formation of the YN compound inside the yttrium layers, resulting in an increased absorption.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
  4. P. Boerner, C. Edwards, J. Lemen, A. Rausch, C. Schrijver, R. Shine, L. Shing, R. Stern, T. Tarbell, A. Title, C. Jacob Wolfson, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, E. Gullikson, D. McKenzie, D. Windt, L. Golub, W. Podgorski, P. Testa, and M. Weber, “Initial Calibration of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO),” Sol. Phys. 275(1-2), 41–66 (2012).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. D. L. Windt and E. M. Gullikson, “Pd/B4C/Y multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet applications near 10 nm wavelength,” Appl. Opt. 54(18), 5850–5860 (2015).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  22. N. Ghafoor, F. Ericsson, E. Gullikson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Incorporation of nitrogen in Cr/Sc multilayers giving improved soft x-ray reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091913 (2008).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

A. J. Corso, P. Zuppella, D. L. Windt, M. Zangrando, and M. G. Pelizzo, “Extreme ultraviolet multilayer for the FERMI@Elettra free electron laser beam transport system,” Opt. Express 20(7), 8006–8014 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Boerner, C. Edwards, J. Lemen, A. Rausch, C. Schrijver, R. Shine, L. Shing, R. Stern, T. Tarbell, A. Title, C. Jacob Wolfson, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, E. Gullikson, D. McKenzie, D. Windt, L. Golub, W. Podgorski, P. Testa, and M. Weber, “Initial Calibration of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO),” Sol. Phys. 275(1-2), 41–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, T. Tsarfati, and F. Bijkerk, “Nanometer interface and materials control for multilayer EUV-optical applications,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86(11-12), 255–294 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2008 (2)

F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Reflectivity and structural evolution of Cr/Sc and nitrogen containing Cr/Sc multilayers during thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063516 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Ghafoor, F. Ericsson, E. Gullikson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Incorporation of nitrogen in Cr/Sc multilayers giving improved soft x-ray reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091913 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

D. L. Windt, “Reduction of stress and roughness by reactive sputtering in W/B4C X-ray multilayer films,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 66880R (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

J.-M. André, P. Jonnard, C. Michaelsen, J. Wiesmann, M.-F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, F. Bridou, and E. Filatova, “La/B4C small period multilayer interferential mirrors for the analysis of boron,” X-Ray Spectrom. 34(3), 203–206 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR Beamline at Elettra,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 450–453 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. Kjornrattanawanich and S. Bajt, “Structural characterization and lifetime stability of Mo/Y extreme-ultraviolet multilayer mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 43(32), 5955–5962 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

U. Diebold, “The surface science of titanium dioxide,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 48(5-8), 53–229 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

S. Bajt, D. G. Stearns, and P. A. Kearney, “Investigation of the amorphous-to-crystalline transition in Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(2), 1017–1025 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. Sae-Lao and C. Montcalm, “Molybdenum-strontium multilayer mirrors for the 8-12-nm extreme-ultraviolet wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 26(7), 468–470 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. Li, W. Hebenstreit, and U. Diebold, “Morphology change of oxygen-restructured TiO2 (110) surfaces by UHV annealing: Formation of a low-temperature (1×2) structure,” Phys. Rev. B 61(7), 4926–4933 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

R. A. Alqasmi, S. Paasch, and H.-J. Schaller, “Thermodynamic properties of Pd–Y and Pd–Gd intermetallic phases,” J. Alloys Compd. 283(1-2), 173–177 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

1957 (1)

P. Kempter, N. H. Krikorian, and J. C. McGuire, “The crystal structure of yttrium nitride,” J. Phys. Chem. 61(9), 1237–1238 (1957).
[Crossref]

Alqasmi, R. A.

R. A. Alqasmi, S. Paasch, and H.-J. Schaller, “Thermodynamic properties of Pd–Y and Pd–Gd intermetallic phases,” J. Alloys Compd. 283(1-2), 173–177 (1999).
[Crossref]

André, J. M.

André, J.-M.

J.-M. André, P. Jonnard, C. Michaelsen, J. Wiesmann, M.-F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, F. Bridou, and E. Filatova, “La/B4C small period multilayer interferential mirrors for the analysis of boron,” X-Ray Spectrom. 34(3), 203–206 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bajt, S.

Beyerlein, K. R.

Bijkerk, F.

D. S. Kuznetsov, A. E. Yakshin, J. M. Sturm, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Louis, and F. Bijkerk, “High-reflectance La/B-based multilayer mirror for 6.x nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3778–3781 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. V. Medvedev, A. E. Yakshin, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, and F. Bijkerk, “Phosphorus-based compounds for EUV multilayer optics materials,” Opt. Express 5(6), 1450–1459 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, T. Tsarfati, and F. Bijkerk, “Nanometer interface and materials control for multilayer EUV-optical applications,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86(11-12), 255–294 (2011).
[Crossref]

Birch, J.

F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Reflectivity and structural evolution of Cr/Sc and nitrogen containing Cr/Sc multilayers during thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063516 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Ghafoor, F. Ericsson, E. Gullikson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Incorporation of nitrogen in Cr/Sc multilayers giving improved soft x-ray reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091913 (2008).
[Crossref]

Boerner, P.

P. Boerner, C. Edwards, J. Lemen, A. Rausch, C. Schrijver, R. Shine, L. Shing, R. Stern, T. Tarbell, A. Title, C. Jacob Wolfson, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, E. Gullikson, D. McKenzie, D. Windt, L. Golub, W. Podgorski, P. Testa, and M. Weber, “Initial Calibration of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO),” Sol. Phys. 275(1-2), 41–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Borgatti, F.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR Beamline at Elettra,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 450–453 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bridou, F.

J.-M. André, P. Jonnard, C. Michaelsen, J. Wiesmann, M.-F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, F. Bridou, and E. Filatova, “La/B4C small period multilayer interferential mirrors for the analysis of boron,” X-Ray Spectrom. 34(3), 203–206 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chaker, M.

Corso, A. J.

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

Delmotte, F.

M. H. Hu, K. Le Guen, J. M. André, P. Jonnard, E. Meltchakov, F. Delmotte, and A. Galtayries, “Structural properties of Al/Mo/SiC multilayers with high reflectivity for extreme ultraviolet light,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20019–20028 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-M. André, P. Jonnard, C. Michaelsen, J. Wiesmann, M.-F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, F. Bridou, and E. Filatova, “La/B4C small period multilayer interferential mirrors for the analysis of boron,” X-Ray Spectrom. 34(3), 203–206 (2005).
[Crossref]

DeLuisa, A.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR Beamline at Elettra,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 450–453 (2004).
[Crossref]

Diebold, U.

U. Diebold, “The surface science of titanium dioxide,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 48(5-8), 53–229 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Li, W. Hebenstreit, and U. Diebold, “Morphology change of oxygen-restructured TiO2 (110) surfaces by UHV annealing: Formation of a low-temperature (1×2) structure,” Phys. Rev. B 61(7), 4926–4933 (2000).
[Crossref]

Doyle, B. P.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR Beamline at Elettra,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 450–453 (2004).
[Crossref]

Edwards, C.

P. Boerner, C. Edwards, J. Lemen, A. Rausch, C. Schrijver, R. Shine, L. Shing, R. Stern, T. Tarbell, A. Title, C. Jacob Wolfson, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, E. Gullikson, D. McKenzie, D. Windt, L. Golub, W. Podgorski, P. Testa, and M. Weber, “Initial Calibration of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO),” Sol. Phys. 275(1-2), 41–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ericsson, F.

N. Ghafoor, F. Ericsson, E. Gullikson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Incorporation of nitrogen in Cr/Sc multilayers giving improved soft x-ray reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091913 (2008).
[Crossref]

Eriksson, F.

F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Reflectivity and structural evolution of Cr/Sc and nitrogen containing Cr/Sc multilayers during thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063516 (2008).
[Crossref]

Falco, C. M.

Filatova, E.

J.-M. André, P. Jonnard, C. Michaelsen, J. Wiesmann, M.-F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, F. Bridou, and E. Filatova, “La/B4C small period multilayer interferential mirrors for the analysis of boron,” X-Ray Spectrom. 34(3), 203–206 (2005).
[Crossref]

Finetti, P.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR Beamline at Elettra,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 450–453 (2004).
[Crossref]

Galtayries, A.

Gazzadi, G. C.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR Beamline at Elettra,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 450–453 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ghafoor, N.

N. Ghafoor, F. Ericsson, E. Gullikson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Incorporation of nitrogen in Cr/Sc multilayers giving improved soft x-ray reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091913 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Reflectivity and structural evolution of Cr/Sc and nitrogen containing Cr/Sc multilayers during thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063516 (2008).
[Crossref]

Giglia, A.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR Beamline at Elettra,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 450–453 (2004).
[Crossref]

Golub, L.

P. Boerner, C. Edwards, J. Lemen, A. Rausch, C. Schrijver, R. Shine, L. Shing, R. Stern, T. Tarbell, A. Title, C. Jacob Wolfson, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, E. Gullikson, D. McKenzie, D. Windt, L. Golub, W. Podgorski, P. Testa, and M. Weber, “Initial Calibration of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO),” Sol. Phys. 275(1-2), 41–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gullikson, E.

P. Boerner, C. Edwards, J. Lemen, A. Rausch, C. Schrijver, R. Shine, L. Shing, R. Stern, T. Tarbell, A. Title, C. Jacob Wolfson, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, E. Gullikson, D. McKenzie, D. Windt, L. Golub, W. Podgorski, P. Testa, and M. Weber, “Initial Calibration of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO),” Sol. Phys. 275(1-2), 41–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Ghafoor, F. Ericsson, E. Gullikson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Incorporation of nitrogen in Cr/Sc multilayers giving improved soft x-ray reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091913 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gullikson, E. M.

D. L. Windt and E. M. Gullikson, “Pd/B4C/Y multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet applications near 10 nm wavelength,” Appl. Opt. 54(18), 5850–5860 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hebenstreit, W.

M. Li, W. Hebenstreit, and U. Diebold, “Morphology change of oxygen-restructured TiO2 (110) surfaces by UHV annealing: Formation of a low-temperature (1×2) structure,” Phys. Rev. B 61(7), 4926–4933 (2000).
[Crossref]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hu, M. H.

Hultman, L.

N. Ghafoor, F. Ericsson, E. Gullikson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Incorporation of nitrogen in Cr/Sc multilayers giving improved soft x-ray reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091913 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Reflectivity and structural evolution of Cr/Sc and nitrogen containing Cr/Sc multilayers during thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063516 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jacob Wolfson, C.

P. Boerner, C. Edwards, J. Lemen, A. Rausch, C. Schrijver, R. Shine, L. Shing, R. Stern, T. Tarbell, A. Title, C. Jacob Wolfson, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, E. Gullikson, D. McKenzie, D. Windt, L. Golub, W. Podgorski, P. Testa, and M. Weber, “Initial Calibration of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO),” Sol. Phys. 275(1-2), 41–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jonnard, P.

Kearney, P. A.

Kempter, P.

P. Kempter, N. H. Krikorian, and J. C. McGuire, “The crystal structure of yttrium nitride,” J. Phys. Chem. 61(9), 1237–1238 (1957).
[Crossref]

Kjornrattanawanich, B.

Krikorian, N. H.

P. Kempter, N. H. Krikorian, and J. C. McGuire, “The crystal structure of yttrium nitride,” J. Phys. Chem. 61(9), 1237–1238 (1957).
[Crossref]

Kuznetsov, D. S.

Le Guen, K.

Lemen, J.

P. Boerner, C. Edwards, J. Lemen, A. Rausch, C. Schrijver, R. Shine, L. Shing, R. Stern, T. Tarbell, A. Title, C. Jacob Wolfson, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, E. Gullikson, D. McKenzie, D. Windt, L. Golub, W. Podgorski, P. Testa, and M. Weber, “Initial Calibration of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO),” Sol. Phys. 275(1-2), 41–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Leontowich, A. F. G.

Li, J.

Li, M.

M. Li, W. Hebenstreit, and U. Diebold, “Morphology change of oxygen-restructured TiO2 (110) surfaces by UHV annealing: Formation of a low-temperature (1×2) structure,” Phys. Rev. B 61(7), 4926–4933 (2000).
[Crossref]

Louis, E.

D. S. Kuznetsov, A. E. Yakshin, J. M. Sturm, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Louis, and F. Bijkerk, “High-reflectance La/B-based multilayer mirror for 6.x nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3778–3781 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, T. Tsarfati, and F. Bijkerk, “Nanometer interface and materials control for multilayer EUV-optical applications,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86(11-12), 255–294 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mahne, N.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR Beamline at Elettra,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 450–453 (2004).
[Crossref]

McGuire, J. C.

P. Kempter, N. H. Krikorian, and J. C. McGuire, “The crystal structure of yttrium nitride,” J. Phys. Chem. 61(9), 1237–1238 (1957).
[Crossref]

McKenzie, D.

P. Boerner, C. Edwards, J. Lemen, A. Rausch, C. Schrijver, R. Shine, L. Shing, R. Stern, T. Tarbell, A. Title, C. Jacob Wolfson, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, E. Gullikson, D. McKenzie, D. Windt, L. Golub, W. Podgorski, P. Testa, and M. Weber, “Initial Calibration of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO),” Sol. Phys. 275(1-2), 41–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Medvedev, V. V.

V. V. Medvedev, A. E. Yakshin, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, and F. Bijkerk, “Phosphorus-based compounds for EUV multilayer optics materials,” Opt. Express 5(6), 1450–1459 (2015).
[Crossref]

Meltchakov, E.

Michaelsen, C.

J.-M. André, P. Jonnard, C. Michaelsen, J. Wiesmann, M.-F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, F. Bridou, and E. Filatova, “La/B4C small period multilayer interferential mirrors for the analysis of boron,” X-Ray Spectrom. 34(3), 203–206 (2005).
[Crossref]

Montcalm, C.

Naletto, G.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR Beamline at Elettra,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 450–453 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nannarone, S.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR Beamline at Elettra,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 450–453 (2004).
[Crossref]

Paasch, S.

R. A. Alqasmi, S. Paasch, and H.-J. Schaller, “Thermodynamic properties of Pd–Y and Pd–Gd intermetallic phases,” J. Alloys Compd. 283(1-2), 173–177 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pasquali, L.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR Beamline at Elettra,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 450–453 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pedio, M.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR Beamline at Elettra,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 450–453 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pelizzo, M. G.

A. J. Corso, P. Zuppella, D. L. Windt, M. Zangrando, and M. G. Pelizzo, “Extreme ultraviolet multilayer for the FERMI@Elettra free electron laser beam transport system,” Opt. Express 20(7), 8006–8014 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR Beamline at Elettra,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 450–453 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pépin, H.

Podgorski, W.

P. Boerner, C. Edwards, J. Lemen, A. Rausch, C. Schrijver, R. Shine, L. Shing, R. Stern, T. Tarbell, A. Title, C. Jacob Wolfson, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, E. Gullikson, D. McKenzie, D. Windt, L. Golub, W. Podgorski, P. Testa, and M. Weber, “Initial Calibration of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO),” Sol. Phys. 275(1-2), 41–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Prasciolu, M.

Qi, R.

Rausch, A.

P. Boerner, C. Edwards, J. Lemen, A. Rausch, C. Schrijver, R. Shine, L. Shing, R. Stern, T. Tarbell, A. Title, C. Jacob Wolfson, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, E. Gullikson, D. McKenzie, D. Windt, L. Golub, W. Podgorski, P. Testa, and M. Weber, “Initial Calibration of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO),” Sol. Phys. 275(1-2), 41–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ravet, M.-F.

J.-M. André, P. Jonnard, C. Michaelsen, J. Wiesmann, M.-F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, F. Bridou, and E. Filatova, “La/B4C small period multilayer interferential mirrors for the analysis of boron,” X-Ray Spectrom. 34(3), 203–206 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sae-Lao, B.

Schaller, H.-J.

R. A. Alqasmi, S. Paasch, and H.-J. Schaller, “Thermodynamic properties of Pd–Y and Pd–Gd intermetallic phases,” J. Alloys Compd. 283(1-2), 173–177 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schrijver, C.

P. Boerner, C. Edwards, J. Lemen, A. Rausch, C. Schrijver, R. Shine, L. Shing, R. Stern, T. Tarbell, A. Title, C. Jacob Wolfson, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, E. Gullikson, D. McKenzie, D. Windt, L. Golub, W. Podgorski, P. Testa, and M. Weber, “Initial Calibration of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO),” Sol. Phys. 275(1-2), 41–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Selvaggi, G.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR Beamline at Elettra,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 450–453 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shine, R.

P. Boerner, C. Edwards, J. Lemen, A. Rausch, C. Schrijver, R. Shine, L. Shing, R. Stern, T. Tarbell, A. Title, C. Jacob Wolfson, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, E. Gullikson, D. McKenzie, D. Windt, L. Golub, W. Podgorski, P. Testa, and M. Weber, “Initial Calibration of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO),” Sol. Phys. 275(1-2), 41–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shing, L.

P. Boerner, C. Edwards, J. Lemen, A. Rausch, C. Schrijver, R. Shine, L. Shing, R. Stern, T. Tarbell, A. Title, C. Jacob Wolfson, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, E. Gullikson, D. McKenzie, D. Windt, L. Golub, W. Podgorski, P. Testa, and M. Weber, “Initial Calibration of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO),” Sol. Phys. 275(1-2), 41–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Slaughter, J. M.

Soufli, R.

P. Boerner, C. Edwards, J. Lemen, A. Rausch, C. Schrijver, R. Shine, L. Shing, R. Stern, T. Tarbell, A. Title, C. Jacob Wolfson, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, E. Gullikson, D. McKenzie, D. Windt, L. Golub, W. Podgorski, P. Testa, and M. Weber, “Initial Calibration of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO),” Sol. Phys. 275(1-2), 41–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Spiller, E.

P. Boerner, C. Edwards, J. Lemen, A. Rausch, C. Schrijver, R. Shine, L. Shing, R. Stern, T. Tarbell, A. Title, C. Jacob Wolfson, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, E. Gullikson, D. McKenzie, D. Windt, L. Golub, W. Podgorski, P. Testa, and M. Weber, “Initial Calibration of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO),” Sol. Phys. 275(1-2), 41–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stearns, D. G.

S. Bajt, D. G. Stearns, and P. A. Kearney, “Investigation of the amorphous-to-crystalline transition in Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(2), 1017–1025 (2001).
[Crossref]

Stern, R.

P. Boerner, C. Edwards, J. Lemen, A. Rausch, C. Schrijver, R. Shine, L. Shing, R. Stern, T. Tarbell, A. Title, C. Jacob Wolfson, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, E. Gullikson, D. McKenzie, D. Windt, L. Golub, W. Podgorski, P. Testa, and M. Weber, “Initial Calibration of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO),” Sol. Phys. 275(1-2), 41–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sturm, J. M.

Sullivan, B. T.

Tarbell, T.

P. Boerner, C. Edwards, J. Lemen, A. Rausch, C. Schrijver, R. Shine, L. Shing, R. Stern, T. Tarbell, A. Title, C. Jacob Wolfson, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, E. Gullikson, D. McKenzie, D. Windt, L. Golub, W. Podgorski, P. Testa, and M. Weber, “Initial Calibration of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO),” Sol. Phys. 275(1-2), 41–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Testa, P.

P. Boerner, C. Edwards, J. Lemen, A. Rausch, C. Schrijver, R. Shine, L. Shing, R. Stern, T. Tarbell, A. Title, C. Jacob Wolfson, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, E. Gullikson, D. McKenzie, D. Windt, L. Golub, W. Podgorski, P. Testa, and M. Weber, “Initial Calibration of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO),” Sol. Phys. 275(1-2), 41–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Title, A.

P. Boerner, C. Edwards, J. Lemen, A. Rausch, C. Schrijver, R. Shine, L. Shing, R. Stern, T. Tarbell, A. Title, C. Jacob Wolfson, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, E. Gullikson, D. McKenzie, D. Windt, L. Golub, W. Podgorski, P. Testa, and M. Weber, “Initial Calibration of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO),” Sol. Phys. 275(1-2), 41–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tondello, G.

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR Beamline at Elettra,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 450–453 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tsarfati, T.

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, T. Tsarfati, and F. Bijkerk, “Nanometer interface and materials control for multilayer EUV-optical applications,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86(11-12), 255–294 (2011).
[Crossref]

van de Kruijs, R. W. E.

V. V. Medvedev, A. E. Yakshin, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, and F. Bijkerk, “Phosphorus-based compounds for EUV multilayer optics materials,” Opt. Express 5(6), 1450–1459 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. S. Kuznetsov, A. E. Yakshin, J. M. Sturm, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Louis, and F. Bijkerk, “High-reflectance La/B-based multilayer mirror for 6.x nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3778–3781 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vinogradov, A. V.

Wang, Z.

Weber, M.

P. Boerner, C. Edwards, J. Lemen, A. Rausch, C. Schrijver, R. Shine, L. Shing, R. Stern, T. Tarbell, A. Title, C. Jacob Wolfson, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, E. Gullikson, D. McKenzie, D. Windt, L. Golub, W. Podgorski, P. Testa, and M. Weber, “Initial Calibration of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO),” Sol. Phys. 275(1-2), 41–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wiesmann, J.

J.-M. André, P. Jonnard, C. Michaelsen, J. Wiesmann, M.-F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, F. Bridou, and E. Filatova, “La/B4C small period multilayer interferential mirrors for the analysis of boron,” X-Ray Spectrom. 34(3), 203–206 (2005).
[Crossref]

Windt, D.

P. Boerner, C. Edwards, J. Lemen, A. Rausch, C. Schrijver, R. Shine, L. Shing, R. Stern, T. Tarbell, A. Title, C. Jacob Wolfson, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, E. Gullikson, D. McKenzie, D. Windt, L. Golub, W. Podgorski, P. Testa, and M. Weber, “Initial Calibration of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO),” Sol. Phys. 275(1-2), 41–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Windt, D. L.

Yakshin, A. E.

V. V. Medvedev, A. E. Yakshin, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, and F. Bijkerk, “Phosphorus-based compounds for EUV multilayer optics materials,” Opt. Express 5(6), 1450–1459 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. S. Kuznetsov, A. E. Yakshin, J. M. Sturm, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Louis, and F. Bijkerk, “High-reflectance La/B-based multilayer mirror for 6.x nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3778–3781 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, T. Tsarfati, and F. Bijkerk, “Nanometer interface and materials control for multilayer EUV-optical applications,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86(11-12), 255–294 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zangrando, M.

Zeldovich, B. Ya.

Zhang, Z.

Zhong, Q.

Zuppella, P.

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

S. Nannarone, F. Borgatti, A. DeLuisa, B. P. Doyle, G. C. Gazzadi, A. Giglia, P. Finetti, N. Mahne, L. Pasquali, M. Pedio, G. Selvaggi, G. Naletto, M. G. Pelizzo, and G. Tondello, “The BEAR Beamline at Elettra,” AIP Conf. Proc. 705, 450–453 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. Ghafoor, F. Ericsson, E. Gullikson, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Incorporation of nitrogen in Cr/Sc multilayers giving improved soft x-ray reflectivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091913 (2008).
[Crossref]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

R. A. Alqasmi, S. Paasch, and H.-J. Schaller, “Thermodynamic properties of Pd–Y and Pd–Gd intermetallic phases,” J. Alloys Compd. 283(1-2), 173–177 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, L. Hultman, and J. Birch, “Reflectivity and structural evolution of Cr/Sc and nitrogen containing Cr/Sc multilayers during thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063516 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Bajt, D. G. Stearns, and P. A. Kearney, “Investigation of the amorphous-to-crystalline transition in Mo/Si multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(2), 1017–1025 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

P. Kempter, N. H. Krikorian, and J. C. McGuire, “The crystal structure of yttrium nitride,” J. Phys. Chem. 61(9), 1237–1238 (1957).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Li, W. Hebenstreit, and U. Diebold, “Morphology change of oxygen-restructured TiO2 (110) surfaces by UHV annealing: Formation of a low-temperature (1×2) structure,” Phys. Rev. B 61(7), 4926–4933 (2000).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. L. Windt, “Reduction of stress and roughness by reactive sputtering in W/B4C X-ray multilayer films,” Proc. SPIE 6688, 66880R (2007).
[Crossref]

Prog. Surf. Sci. (1)

E. Louis, A. E. Yakshin, T. Tsarfati, and F. Bijkerk, “Nanometer interface and materials control for multilayer EUV-optical applications,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86(11-12), 255–294 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sol. Phys. (1)

P. Boerner, C. Edwards, J. Lemen, A. Rausch, C. Schrijver, R. Shine, L. Shing, R. Stern, T. Tarbell, A. Title, C. Jacob Wolfson, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, E. Gullikson, D. McKenzie, D. Windt, L. Golub, W. Podgorski, P. Testa, and M. Weber, “Initial Calibration of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO),” Sol. Phys. 275(1-2), 41–66 (2012).
[Crossref]

Surf. Sci. Rep. (1)

U. Diebold, “The surface science of titanium dioxide,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 48(5-8), 53–229 (2003).
[Crossref]

X-Ray Spectrom. (1)

J.-M. André, P. Jonnard, C. Michaelsen, J. Wiesmann, M.-F. Ravet, F. Delmotte, F. Bridou, and E. Filatova, “La/B4C small period multilayer interferential mirrors for the analysis of boron,” X-Ray Spectrom. 34(3), 203–206 (2005).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, A. L. Aquila, and F. Dollar, “Progress in short period multilayer coatings for water window applications,” The 8th International Conference on The Physics of X-Ray Multilayers Structures, (2006).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Maximal normal incidence reflectance of different multilayer mirrors for operation in the 8-12 nm wavelength range. The calculations were performed for semi-infinite multilayer structures with the optimized thickness of absorbing and spacing layers [17]. Neither interlayers nor interfacial roughness were taken into account.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 X-ray reflectivity (at λ = 0.154 nm) versus the grazing angle of Pd(N)/Y(N) multilayers fabricated by magnetron sputtering with the use of pure Ar as the working gas (a) and a mixture of Ar + N2, where the content of nitrogen is 4% (b), 6% (c) and 8% (d).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 XPS sputter depth profiles of the Pd/Y multilayer and the Pd(N)/Y(N) multilayer fabricated with 4% N2 content.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 TEM bright field image (a), dark field image (b) and electron diffraction pattern (c) of the Pd(N)/Y(N) multilayer fabricated with 4% N2 content in the working gas. The multilayer surface is on the top of images (a) and (b).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The measured reflectivity versus the radiation wavelength of the Pd(N)/Y(N) multilayers fabricated by magnetron sputtering with different nitrogen contents (4%, 6%, and 8%) in the working gas (Ar).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The calculated reflectivity versus the radiation wavelength of the Pd/Y and Pd/YN multilayers, with the different YN densities indicated in the graph. Interlayers of 0.6 nm and 0.9 nm thickness were taken into account at the Pd-on-Y and Y-on-Pd interfaces, respectively. The optical constants of materials were taken from the CXRO website [23].

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