Abstract

The linewidth of a singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) has been narrowed with respect to an external cavity by the use of an acousto-optic modulator (AOM). This made possible an improvement of the sensitivity of a previously realized OPO-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry instrument for the 3.2 - 3.9 µm mid-infrared region by one order of magnitude. The resulting system shows a detection sensitivity for methane of 2.4 × 10−10 cm−1 Hz−1∕2 and 1.3 × 10−10 cm−1 at 20 s, which allows for detection of both the environmentally important 13CH4 and CH3D isotopologues in atmospheric samples.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2016 (1)

W. Ma, I. Silander, T. Hausmaninger, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened NICE-OHMS beyond the cavity-limited weak absorption condition – I. Theoretical description,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 168, 217–244 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (12)

I. Silander, T. Hausmaninger, W. Ma, F. J. Harren, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened mid-infrared noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry based on an optical parametric oscillator for trace gas detection,” Opt. Lett. 40(4), 439–442 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Genoud, M. Vainio, H. Phillips, J. Dean, and M. Merimaa, “Radiocarbon dioxide detection based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy and a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(7), 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. McCartt, T. Ognibene, G. Bench, and K. Turteltaub, “Measurements of carbon-14 with cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 361, 277–280 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Patimisco, S. Borri, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “High finesse optical cavity coupled with a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopic sensor,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(3), 736–743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Meng and Q. J. Wang, “Broadly tunable single-mode mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” J. Opt. 17(2), 023001 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Berer, M. Brandstetter, A. Hochreiner, G. Langer, W. Märzinger, P. Burgholzer, and B. Lendl, “Remote mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(15), 3476–3479 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Northern, S. O’Hagan, B. Fletcher, B. Gras, P. Ewart, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-infrared multi-mode absorption spectroscopy using interband cascade lasers for multi-species sensing,” Opt. Lett. 40(17), 4186–4189 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Sigrist, “Mid-infrared laser-spectroscopic sensing of chemical species,” J. Adv. Res. 6(3), 529–533 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Steinle, F. Neubrech, A. Steinmann, X. Yin, and H. Giessen, “Mid-infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy with a high-brilliance tunable laser source: investigating sample areas down to 5 μm diameter,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11105–11113 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Zhu, A. Bicer, R. Askar, J. Bounds, A. A. Kolomenskii, V. Kelessides, M. Amani, and H. A. Schuessler, “Mid-infrared dual frequency comb spectroscopy based on fiber lasers for the detection of methane in ambient air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(9), 095701 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Silander, T. Hausmaninger, and O. Axner, “Model for in-coupling of etalons into signal strengths extracted from spectral line shape fitting and methodology for predicting the optimum scanning range—demonstration of Doppler-broadened, noise-immune, cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy down to 9 × 10−14 cm−1,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(10), 2104–2114 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Silander, T. Hausmaninger, W. Ma, P. Ehlers, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry down to 4 × 10⁻¹³ cm⁻¹ Hz⁻¹/2: implementation of a 50,000 finesse cavity,” Opt. Lett. 40(9), 2004–2007 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

P. Ehlers, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Doppler broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry: optimum modulation and demodulation conditions, cavity length, and modulation order,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31(9), 2051–2060 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. A. Long, A. J. Fleisher, S. Wojtewicz, and J. T. Hodges, “Quantum-noise-limited cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 115(2), 149–153 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. A. Hakala, “Use of stable isotopes to identify sources of methane in Appalachian Basin shallow groundwaters: a review,” Environ. Sci. Process. Impacts 16(9), 2080–2086 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Ehlers, J. Y. Wang, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Doppler broadened NICE-OHMS beyond the triplet formalism: assessment of optimum modulation index,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31(7), 1499–1507 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (8)

J. N. Hodges, A. J. Perry, P. A. Jenkins, B. M. Siller, and B. J. McCall, “High-precision and high-accuracy rovibrational spectroscopy of molecular ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 139(16), 164201 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Peltola, M. Vainio, T. Hieta, J. Uotila, S. Sinisalo, M. Metsälä, M. Siltanen, and L. Halonen, “High sensitivity trace gas detection by cantilever-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy using a mid-infrared continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10240–10250 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mizouri, L. Z. Deng, J. S. Eardley, N. H. Nahler, E. Wrede, and D. Carty, “Absolute density measurement of SD radicals in a supersonic jet at the quantum-noise-limit,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(45), 19575–19579 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Foltynowicz, P. Maslowski, A. J. Fleisher, B. J. Bjork, and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy in the mid-infrared application to trace detection of hydrogen peroxide,” Appl. Phys. B 110(2), 163–175 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Gorrotxategi-Carbajo, E. Fasci, I. Ventrillard, M. Carras, G. Maisons, and D. Romanini, “Optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy with a quantum-cascade laser yields the lowest formaldehyde detection limit,” Appl. Phys. B 110(3), 309–314 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, “Optical gas sensing: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(1), 012004 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. C. Liao, Y. H. Lien, K. Y. Wu, Y. R. Lin, and J. T. Shy, “Widely tunable difference frequency generation source for high-precision mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 21(8), 9238–9246 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (6)

K. E. Whittaker, L. Ciaffoni, G. Hancock, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “A DFG-based cavity ring-down spectrometer for trace gas sensing in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. B 109(2), 333–343 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, A. J. Hoffman, and C. F. Gmachl, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 432–439 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Schliesser, N. Picque, and T. W. Hansch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. N. Crabtree, J. N. Hodges, B. M. Siller, A. J. Perry, J. E. Kelly, P. A. Jenkins, and B. J. McCall, “Sub-Doppler mid-infrared spectroscopy of molecular ions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 551, 1–6 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Ehlers, I. Silander, J. Wang, and O. Axner, “Fiber-laser-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry instrumentation for Doppler-broadened detection in the 10−12 cm−1 Hz-1/2 region,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(6), 1305–1315 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Wang, P. Ehlers, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Speed-dependent effects in dispersion mode of detection and in noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry: experimental demonstration and validation of predicted line shape,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(10), 2980–2989 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

J. Y. Wang, P. Ehlers, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Dicke narrowing in the dispersion mode of detection and in noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy – theory and experimental verification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(10), 2390–2401 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Foltynowicz, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Reduction of background signals in fiber-based NICE-OHMS,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(11), 2797–2805 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Galli, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, D. Mazzotti, P. De Natale, and G. Giusfredi, “Molecular Gas Sensing Below Parts Per Trillion: Radiocarbon-Dioxide Optical Detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(27), 270802 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Witinski, D. S. Sayres, and J. G. Anderson, “High precision methane isotopologue ratio measurements at ambient mixing ratios using integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 102(2), 375–380 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

G. Giusfredi, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(11), 110801 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

M. N. Fiddler, I. Begashaw, M. A. Mickens, M. S. Collingwood, Z. Assefa, and S. Bililign, “Laser Spectroscopy for Atmospheric and Environmental Sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(12), 10447–10512 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Galli, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Ultra-stable, widely tunable and absolutely linked mid-IR coherent source,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9582–9587 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

E. J. Moyer, D. S. Sayres, G. S. Engel, J. M. S. Clair, F. N. Keutsch, N. T. Allen, J. H. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 467–474 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Characterization of fiber-laser-based sub-Doppler NICE-OHMS for quantitative trace gas detection,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14689–14702 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: Current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 313–326 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Foltynowicz, W. G. Ma, F. M. Schmidt, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry signals from optically saturated transitions under low pressure conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(7), 1156–1165 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

K. Anzai, H. Sasada, and N. Yoshida, “Best Pair of 3.3-µm-Band Transitions for Isotopomer Abundance Ratio Measurements of 13CH4 to 12CH4,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4A), 1717–1721 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Verbraak, A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and H. Linnartz, “Mid-infrared continuous wave cavity ring down spectroscopy of molecular ions using an optical parametric oscillator,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 442(1-3), 145–149 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

D. Halmer, G. von Basum, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Mid-infrared cavity leak-out spectroscopy for ultrasensitive detection of carbonyl sulfide,” Opt. Lett. 30(17), 2314–2316 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Morville, S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, and D. Romanini, “Fast, low-noise, mode-by-mode, cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy by diode-laser self-locking,” Appl. Phys. B 80(8), 1027–1038 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, “Stabilization, injection and control of quantum cascade lasers, and their application to chemical sensing in the infrared,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3457–3468 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. J. van Leeuwen, H. G. Kjaergaard, D. L. Howard, and A. C. Wilson, “Measurement of ultraweak transitions in the visible region of molecular oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 228(1), 83–91 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

J. Ye and T. W. Lynn, “Applications of optical cavities in modern atomic, molecular, and optical physics,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 49, 1–83 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1984 (1)

R. G. Devoe and R. G. Brewer, “Laser-frequency division and stabilization,” Phys. Rev. A 30(5), 2827–2829 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization Using an Optical-Resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Abell, J.

Adhimoolam, B.

Akikusa, N.

P. Patimisco, S. Borri, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “High finesse optical cavity coupled with a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopic sensor,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(3), 736–743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Allen, N. T.

E. J. Moyer, D. S. Sayres, G. S. Engel, J. M. S. Clair, F. N. Keutsch, N. T. Allen, J. H. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 467–474 (2008).
[Crossref]

Amani, M.

F. Zhu, A. Bicer, R. Askar, J. Bounds, A. A. Kolomenskii, V. Kelessides, M. Amani, and H. A. Schuessler, “Mid-infrared dual frequency comb spectroscopy based on fiber lasers for the detection of methane in ambient air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(9), 095701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Anderson, J. G.

M. F. Witinski, D. S. Sayres, and J. G. Anderson, “High precision methane isotopologue ratio measurements at ambient mixing ratios using integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 102(2), 375–380 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. J. Moyer, D. S. Sayres, G. S. Engel, J. M. S. Clair, F. N. Keutsch, N. T. Allen, J. H. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 467–474 (2008).
[Crossref]

Anzai, K.

K. Anzai, H. Sasada, and N. Yoshida, “Best Pair of 3.3-µm-Band Transitions for Isotopomer Abundance Ratio Measurements of 13CH4 to 12CH4,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4A), 1717–1721 (2007).
[Crossref]

Askar, R.

F. Zhu, A. Bicer, R. Askar, J. Bounds, A. A. Kolomenskii, V. Kelessides, M. Amani, and H. A. Schuessler, “Mid-infrared dual frequency comb spectroscopy based on fiber lasers for the detection of methane in ambient air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(9), 095701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Assefa, Z.

M. N. Fiddler, I. Begashaw, M. A. Mickens, M. S. Collingwood, Z. Assefa, and S. Bililign, “Laser Spectroscopy for Atmospheric and Environmental Sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(12), 10447–10512 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Axner, O.

W. Ma, I. Silander, T. Hausmaninger, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened NICE-OHMS beyond the cavity-limited weak absorption condition – I. Theoretical description,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 168, 217–244 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Silander, T. Hausmaninger, W. Ma, F. J. Harren, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened mid-infrared noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry based on an optical parametric oscillator for trace gas detection,” Opt. Lett. 40(4), 439–442 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Silander, T. Hausmaninger, and O. Axner, “Model for in-coupling of etalons into signal strengths extracted from spectral line shape fitting and methodology for predicting the optimum scanning range—demonstration of Doppler-broadened, noise-immune, cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy down to 9 × 10−14 cm−1,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(10), 2104–2114 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Silander, T. Hausmaninger, W. Ma, P. Ehlers, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry down to 4 × 10⁻¹³ cm⁻¹ Hz⁻¹/2: implementation of a 50,000 finesse cavity,” Opt. Lett. 40(9), 2004–2007 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Ehlers, J. Y. Wang, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Doppler broadened NICE-OHMS beyond the triplet formalism: assessment of optimum modulation index,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31(7), 1499–1507 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Ehlers, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Doppler broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry: optimum modulation and demodulation conditions, cavity length, and modulation order,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31(9), 2051–2060 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Ehlers, I. Silander, J. Wang, and O. Axner, “Fiber-laser-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry instrumentation for Doppler-broadened detection in the 10−12 cm−1 Hz-1/2 region,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(6), 1305–1315 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Wang, P. Ehlers, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Speed-dependent effects in dispersion mode of detection and in noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry: experimental demonstration and validation of predicted line shape,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(10), 2980–2989 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Wang, P. Ehlers, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Dicke narrowing in the dispersion mode of detection and in noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy – theory and experimental verification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(10), 2390–2401 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Foltynowicz, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Reduction of background signals in fiber-based NICE-OHMS,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(11), 2797–2805 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Foltynowicz, W. G. Ma, F. M. Schmidt, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry signals from optically saturated transitions under low pressure conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(7), 1156–1165 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Characterization of fiber-laser-based sub-Doppler NICE-OHMS for quantitative trace gas detection,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14689–14702 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: Current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 313–326 (2008).
[Crossref]

Babikov, Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bartalini, S.

I. Galli, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, D. Mazzotti, P. De Natale, and G. Giusfredi, “Molecular Gas Sensing Below Parts Per Trillion: Radiocarbon-Dioxide Optical Detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(27), 270802 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Giusfredi, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(11), 110801 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Galli, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Ultra-stable, widely tunable and absolutely linked mid-IR coherent source,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9582–9587 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Begashaw, I.

M. N. Fiddler, I. Begashaw, M. A. Mickens, M. S. Collingwood, Z. Assefa, and S. Bililign, “Laser Spectroscopy for Atmospheric and Environmental Sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(12), 10447–10512 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bench, G.

A. D. McCartt, T. Ognibene, G. Bench, and K. Turteltaub, “Measurements of carbon-14 with cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 361, 277–280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Berer, T.

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bewley, W. W.

Bicer, A.

F. Zhu, A. Bicer, R. Askar, J. Bounds, A. A. Kolomenskii, V. Kelessides, M. Amani, and H. A. Schuessler, “Mid-infrared dual frequency comb spectroscopy based on fiber lasers for the detection of methane in ambient air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(9), 095701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bililign, S.

M. N. Fiddler, I. Begashaw, M. A. Mickens, M. S. Collingwood, Z. Assefa, and S. Bililign, “Laser Spectroscopy for Atmospheric and Environmental Sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(12), 10447–10512 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bizzocchi, L.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bjork, B. J.

A. Foltynowicz, P. Maslowski, A. J. Fleisher, B. J. Bjork, and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy in the mid-infrared application to trace detection of hydrogen peroxide,” Appl. Phys. B 110(2), 163–175 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boller, K. J.

Bood, J.

J. Bood, A. McIlroy, and D. L. Osborn, “Measurement of the sixth overtone band of nitric oxide, and its dipole moment function, using cavity-enhanced frequency modulation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(8), 084311 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borri, S.

P. Patimisco, S. Borri, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “High finesse optical cavity coupled with a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopic sensor,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(3), 736–743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Galli, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, D. Mazzotti, P. De Natale, and G. Giusfredi, “Molecular Gas Sensing Below Parts Per Trillion: Radiocarbon-Dioxide Optical Detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(27), 270802 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Giusfredi, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(11), 110801 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bounds, J.

F. Zhu, A. Bicer, R. Askar, J. Bounds, A. A. Kolomenskii, V. Kelessides, M. Amani, and H. A. Schuessler, “Mid-infrared dual frequency comb spectroscopy based on fiber lasers for the detection of methane in ambient air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(9), 095701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Brandstetter, M.

Brewer, R. G.

R. G. Devoe and R. G. Brewer, “Laser-frequency division and stabilization,” Phys. Rev. A 30(5), 2827–2829 (1984).
[Crossref]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Burgholzer, P.

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Cancio, P.

I. Galli, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, D. Mazzotti, P. De Natale, and G. Giusfredi, “Molecular Gas Sensing Below Parts Per Trillion: Radiocarbon-Dioxide Optical Detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(27), 270802 (2011).
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G. Giusfredi, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(11), 110801 (2010).
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I. Galli, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Ultra-stable, widely tunable and absolutely linked mid-IR coherent source,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9582–9587 (2009).
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Canedy, C. L.

Cannon, B. D.

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, “Stabilization, injection and control of quantum cascade lasers, and their application to chemical sensing in the infrared,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3457–3468 (2004).
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Carras, M.

P. Gorrotxategi-Carbajo, E. Fasci, I. Ventrillard, M. Carras, G. Maisons, and D. Romanini, “Optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy with a quantum-cascade laser yields the lowest formaldehyde detection limit,” Appl. Phys. B 110(3), 309–314 (2013).
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Carty, D.

A. Mizouri, L. Z. Deng, J. S. Eardley, N. H. Nahler, E. Wrede, and D. Carty, “Absolute density measurement of SD radicals in a supersonic jet at the quantum-noise-limit,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(45), 19575–19579 (2013).
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Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Chenevier, M.

J. Morville, S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, and D. Romanini, “Fast, low-noise, mode-by-mode, cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy by diode-laser self-locking,” Appl. Phys. B 80(8), 1027–1038 (2005).
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Chris Benner, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Ciaffoni, L.

K. E. Whittaker, L. Ciaffoni, G. Hancock, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “A DFG-based cavity ring-down spectrometer for trace gas sensing in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. B 109(2), 333–343 (2012).
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Clair, J. M. S.

E. J. Moyer, D. S. Sayres, G. S. Engel, J. M. S. Clair, F. N. Keutsch, N. T. Allen, J. H. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 467–474 (2008).
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Cohen, E. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Collingwood, M. S.

M. N. Fiddler, I. Begashaw, M. A. Mickens, M. S. Collingwood, Z. Assefa, and S. Bililign, “Laser Spectroscopy for Atmospheric and Environmental Sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(12), 10447–10512 (2009).
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Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Crabtree, K. N.

K. N. Crabtree, J. N. Hodges, B. M. Siller, A. J. Perry, J. E. Kelly, P. A. Jenkins, and B. J. McCall, “Sub-Doppler mid-infrared spectroscopy of molecular ions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 551, 1–6 (2012).
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De Natale, P.

P. Patimisco, S. Borri, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “High finesse optical cavity coupled with a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopic sensor,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(3), 736–743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Galli, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, D. Mazzotti, P. De Natale, and G. Giusfredi, “Molecular Gas Sensing Below Parts Per Trillion: Radiocarbon-Dioxide Optical Detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(27), 270802 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Giusfredi, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(11), 110801 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Galli, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Ultra-stable, widely tunable and absolutely linked mid-IR coherent source,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9582–9587 (2009).
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P. Malara, P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, and P. De Natale, “Combining a difference-frequency source with an off-axis high-finesse cavity for trace-gas monitoring around 3 µm,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1304–1313 (2006).
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Dean, J.

Deng, L. Z.

A. Mizouri, L. Z. Deng, J. S. Eardley, N. H. Nahler, E. Wrede, and D. Carty, “Absolute density measurement of SD radicals in a supersonic jet at the quantum-noise-limit,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(45), 19575–19579 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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R. G. Devoe and R. G. Brewer, “Laser-frequency division and stabilization,” Phys. Rev. A 30(5), 2827–2829 (1984).
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Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization Using an Optical-Resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
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Drouin, B. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Dube, P.

Eardley, J. S.

A. Mizouri, L. Z. Deng, J. S. Eardley, N. H. Nahler, E. Wrede, and D. Carty, “Absolute density measurement of SD radicals in a supersonic jet at the quantum-noise-limit,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(45), 19575–19579 (2013).
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Ehlers, P.

I. Silander, T. Hausmaninger, W. Ma, P. Ehlers, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry down to 4 × 10⁻¹³ cm⁻¹ Hz⁻¹/2: implementation of a 50,000 finesse cavity,” Opt. Lett. 40(9), 2004–2007 (2015).
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P. Ehlers, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Doppler broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry: optimum modulation and demodulation conditions, cavity length, and modulation order,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31(9), 2051–2060 (2014).
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P. Ehlers, J. Y. Wang, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Doppler broadened NICE-OHMS beyond the triplet formalism: assessment of optimum modulation index,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31(7), 1499–1507 (2014).
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P. Ehlers, I. Silander, J. Wang, and O. Axner, “Fiber-laser-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry instrumentation for Doppler-broadened detection in the 10−12 cm−1 Hz-1/2 region,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(6), 1305–1315 (2012).
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J. Y. Wang, P. Ehlers, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Speed-dependent effects in dispersion mode of detection and in noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry: experimental demonstration and validation of predicted line shape,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(10), 2980–2989 (2012).
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J. Y. Wang, P. Ehlers, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Dicke narrowing in the dispersion mode of detection and in noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy – theory and experimental verification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(10), 2390–2401 (2011).
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Engel, G. S.

E. J. Moyer, D. S. Sayres, G. S. Engel, J. M. S. Clair, F. N. Keutsch, N. T. Allen, J. H. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 467–474 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ewart, P.

Fasci, E.

P. Gorrotxategi-Carbajo, E. Fasci, I. Ventrillard, M. Carras, G. Maisons, and D. Romanini, “Optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy with a quantum-cascade laser yields the lowest formaldehyde detection limit,” Appl. Phys. B 110(3), 309–314 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Fiddler, M. N.

M. N. Fiddler, I. Begashaw, M. A. Mickens, M. S. Collingwood, Z. Assefa, and S. Bililign, “Laser Spectroscopy for Atmospheric and Environmental Sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(12), 10447–10512 (2009).
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Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Fleisher, A. J.

D. A. Long, A. J. Fleisher, S. Wojtewicz, and J. T. Hodges, “Quantum-noise-limited cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 115(2), 149–153 (2014).
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A. Foltynowicz, P. Maslowski, A. J. Fleisher, B. J. Bjork, and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy in the mid-infrared application to trace detection of hydrogen peroxide,” Appl. Phys. B 110(2), 163–175 (2013).
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Fletcher, B.

Foltynowicz, A.

A. Foltynowicz, P. Maslowski, A. J. Fleisher, B. J. Bjork, and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy in the mid-infrared application to trace detection of hydrogen peroxide,” Appl. Phys. B 110(2), 163–175 (2013).
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A. Foltynowicz, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Reduction of background signals in fiber-based NICE-OHMS,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(11), 2797–2805 (2011).
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A. Foltynowicz, W. G. Ma, F. M. Schmidt, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry signals from optically saturated transitions under low pressure conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(7), 1156–1165 (2008).
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A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Characterization of fiber-laser-based sub-Doppler NICE-OHMS for quantitative trace gas detection,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14689–14702 (2008).
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A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: Current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 313–326 (2008).
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Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization Using an Optical-Resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Gagliardi, G.

Galli, I.

P. Patimisco, S. Borri, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “High finesse optical cavity coupled with a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopic sensor,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(3), 736–743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Galli, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, D. Mazzotti, P. De Natale, and G. Giusfredi, “Molecular Gas Sensing Below Parts Per Trillion: Radiocarbon-Dioxide Optical Detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(27), 270802 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Giusfredi, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(11), 110801 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Galli, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Ultra-stable, widely tunable and absolutely linked mid-IR coherent source,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9582–9587 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Genoud, G.

Giessen, H.

Giusfredi, G.

P. Patimisco, S. Borri, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “High finesse optical cavity coupled with a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopic sensor,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(3), 736–743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Galli, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, D. Mazzotti, P. De Natale, and G. Giusfredi, “Molecular Gas Sensing Below Parts Per Trillion: Radiocarbon-Dioxide Optical Detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(27), 270802 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Giusfredi, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(11), 110801 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Galli, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Ultra-stable, widely tunable and absolutely linked mid-IR coherent source,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9582–9587 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gmachl, C. F.

Y. Yao, A. J. Hoffman, and C. F. Gmachl, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 432–439 (2012).
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K. N. Crabtree, J. N. Hodges, B. M. Siller, A. J. Perry, J. E. Kelly, P. A. Jenkins, and B. J. McCall, “Sub-Doppler mid-infrared spectroscopy of molecular ions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 551, 1–6 (2012).
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McCartt, A. D.

A. D. McCartt, T. Ognibene, G. Bench, and K. Turteltaub, “Measurements of carbon-14 with cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 361, 277–280 (2015).
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McIlroy, A.

J. Bood, A. McIlroy, and D. L. Osborn, “Measurement of the sixth overtone band of nitric oxide, and its dipole moment function, using cavity-enhanced frequency modulation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(8), 084311 (2006).
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J. Morville, S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, and D. Romanini, “Fast, low-noise, mode-by-mode, cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy by diode-laser self-locking,” Appl. Phys. B 80(8), 1027–1038 (2005).
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E. J. Moyer, D. S. Sayres, G. S. Engel, J. M. S. Clair, F. N. Keutsch, N. T. Allen, J. H. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 467–474 (2008).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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A. Mizouri, L. Z. Deng, J. S. Eardley, N. H. Nahler, E. Wrede, and D. Carty, “Absolute density measurement of SD radicals in a supersonic jet at the quantum-noise-limit,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(45), 19575–19579 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Ngai, A. K. Y.

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Northern, J. H.

O’Hagan, S.

Ognibene, T.

A. D. McCartt, T. Ognibene, G. Bench, and K. Turteltaub, “Measurements of carbon-14 with cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 361, 277–280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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J. Bood, A. McIlroy, and D. L. Osborn, “Measurement of the sixth overtone band of nitric oxide, and its dipole moment function, using cavity-enhanced frequency modulation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(8), 084311 (2006).
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Patimisco, P.

P. Patimisco, S. Borri, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “High finesse optical cavity coupled with a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopic sensor,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(3), 736–743 (2015).
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S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
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Peltola, J.

Perevalov, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Perry, A. J.

J. N. Hodges, A. J. Perry, P. A. Jenkins, B. M. Siller, and B. J. McCall, “High-precision and high-accuracy rovibrational spectroscopy of molecular ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 139(16), 164201 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. N. Crabtree, J. N. Hodges, B. M. Siller, A. J. Perry, J. E. Kelly, P. A. Jenkins, and B. J. McCall, “Sub-Doppler mid-infrared spectroscopy of molecular ions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 551, 1–6 (2012).
[Crossref]

Persijn, S. T.

H. Verbraak, A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and H. Linnartz, “Mid-infrared continuous wave cavity ring down spectroscopy of molecular ions using an optical parametric oscillator,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 442(1-3), 145–149 (2007).
[Crossref]

Peverall, R.

K. E. Whittaker, L. Ciaffoni, G. Hancock, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “A DFG-based cavity ring-down spectrometer for trace gas sensing in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. B 109(2), 333–343 (2012).
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Phillips, H.

Picque, N.

A. Schliesser, N. Picque, and T. W. Hansch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 440–449 (2012).
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Polovtseva, E. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ritchie, G. A. D.

K. E. Whittaker, L. Ciaffoni, G. Hancock, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “A DFG-based cavity ring-down spectrometer for trace gas sensing in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. B 109(2), 333–343 (2012).
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Romanini, D.

P. Gorrotxategi-Carbajo, E. Fasci, I. Ventrillard, M. Carras, G. Maisons, and D. Romanini, “Optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy with a quantum-cascade laser yields the lowest formaldehyde detection limit,” Appl. Phys. B 110(3), 309–314 (2013).
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J. Morville, S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, and D. Romanini, “Fast, low-noise, mode-by-mode, cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy by diode-laser self-locking,” Appl. Phys. B 80(8), 1027–1038 (2005).
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Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Sayres, D. S.

M. F. Witinski, D. S. Sayres, and J. G. Anderson, “High precision methane isotopologue ratio measurements at ambient mixing ratios using integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 102(2), 375–380 (2011).
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E. J. Moyer, D. S. Sayres, G. S. Engel, J. M. S. Clair, F. N. Keutsch, N. T. Allen, J. H. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 467–474 (2008).
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Scamarcio, G.

P. Patimisco, S. Borri, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “High finesse optical cavity coupled with a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopic sensor,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(3), 736–743 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schliesser, A.

A. Schliesser, N. Picque, and T. W. Hansch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 440–449 (2012).
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Schmidt, F. M.

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: Current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 313–326 (2008).
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A. Foltynowicz, W. G. Ma, F. M. Schmidt, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry signals from optically saturated transitions under low pressure conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(7), 1156–1165 (2008).
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Schuessler, H. A.

F. Zhu, A. Bicer, R. Askar, J. Bounds, A. A. Kolomenskii, V. Kelessides, M. Amani, and H. A. Schuessler, “Mid-infrared dual frequency comb spectroscopy based on fiber lasers for the detection of methane in ambient air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(9), 095701 (2015).
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Silander, I.

W. Ma, I. Silander, T. Hausmaninger, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened NICE-OHMS beyond the cavity-limited weak absorption condition – I. Theoretical description,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 168, 217–244 (2016).
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I. Silander, T. Hausmaninger, W. Ma, F. J. Harren, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened mid-infrared noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry based on an optical parametric oscillator for trace gas detection,” Opt. Lett. 40(4), 439–442 (2015).
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I. Silander, T. Hausmaninger, W. Ma, P. Ehlers, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry down to 4 × 10⁻¹³ cm⁻¹ Hz⁻¹/2: implementation of a 50,000 finesse cavity,” Opt. Lett. 40(9), 2004–2007 (2015).
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I. Silander, T. Hausmaninger, and O. Axner, “Model for in-coupling of etalons into signal strengths extracted from spectral line shape fitting and methodology for predicting the optimum scanning range—demonstration of Doppler-broadened, noise-immune, cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy down to 9 × 10−14 cm−1,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(10), 2104–2114 (2015).
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P. Ehlers, J. Y. Wang, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Doppler broadened NICE-OHMS beyond the triplet formalism: assessment of optimum modulation index,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31(7), 1499–1507 (2014).
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P. Ehlers, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Doppler broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry: optimum modulation and demodulation conditions, cavity length, and modulation order,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31(9), 2051–2060 (2014).
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J. Y. Wang, P. Ehlers, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Speed-dependent effects in dispersion mode of detection and in noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry: experimental demonstration and validation of predicted line shape,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(10), 2980–2989 (2012).
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P. Ehlers, I. Silander, J. Wang, and O. Axner, “Fiber-laser-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry instrumentation for Doppler-broadened detection in the 10−12 cm−1 Hz-1/2 region,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(6), 1305–1315 (2012).
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A. Foltynowicz, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Reduction of background signals in fiber-based NICE-OHMS,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(11), 2797–2805 (2011).
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J. Y. Wang, P. Ehlers, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Dicke narrowing in the dispersion mode of detection and in noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy – theory and experimental verification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(10), 2390–2401 (2011).
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Siller, B. M.

J. N. Hodges, A. J. Perry, P. A. Jenkins, B. M. Siller, and B. J. McCall, “High-precision and high-accuracy rovibrational spectroscopy of molecular ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 139(16), 164201 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. N. Crabtree, J. N. Hodges, B. M. Siller, A. J. Perry, J. E. Kelly, P. A. Jenkins, and B. J. McCall, “Sub-Doppler mid-infrared spectroscopy of molecular ions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 551, 1–6 (2012).
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Siltanen, M.

Sinisalo, S.

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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P. Patimisco, S. Borri, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “High finesse optical cavity coupled with a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopic sensor,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(3), 736–743 (2015).
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S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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N. J. van Leeuwen, H. G. Kjaergaard, D. L. Howard, and A. C. Wilson, “Measurement of ultraweak transitions in the visible region of molecular oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 228(1), 83–91 (2004).
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P. Gorrotxategi-Carbajo, E. Fasci, I. Ventrillard, M. Carras, G. Maisons, and D. Romanini, “Optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy with a quantum-cascade laser yields the lowest formaldehyde detection limit,” Appl. Phys. B 110(3), 309–314 (2013).
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H. Verbraak, A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and H. Linnartz, “Mid-infrared continuous wave cavity ring down spectroscopy of molecular ions using an optical parametric oscillator,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 442(1-3), 145–149 (2007).
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Vurgaftman, I.

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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K. E. Whittaker, L. Ciaffoni, G. Hancock, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “A DFG-based cavity ring-down spectrometer for trace gas sensing in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. B 109(2), 333–343 (2012).
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M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, “Stabilization, injection and control of quantum cascade lasers, and their application to chemical sensing in the infrared,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3457–3468 (2004).
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N. J. van Leeuwen, H. G. Kjaergaard, D. L. Howard, and A. C. Wilson, “Measurement of ultraweak transitions in the visible region of molecular oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 228(1), 83–91 (2004).
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Witinski, M. F.

M. F. Witinski, D. S. Sayres, and J. G. Anderson, “High precision methane isotopologue ratio measurements at ambient mixing ratios using integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 102(2), 375–380 (2011).
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D. A. Long, A. J. Fleisher, S. Wojtewicz, and J. T. Hodges, “Quantum-noise-limited cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 115(2), 149–153 (2014).
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Yamanishi, M.

P. Patimisco, S. Borri, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “High finesse optical cavity coupled with a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopic sensor,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(3), 736–743 (2015).
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S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
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A. Foltynowicz, P. Maslowski, A. J. Fleisher, B. J. Bjork, and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy in the mid-infrared application to trace detection of hydrogen peroxide,” Appl. Phys. B 110(2), 163–175 (2013).
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J. Ye and T. W. Lynn, “Applications of optical cavities in modern atomic, molecular, and optical physics,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 49, 1–83 (2003).
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L. S. Ma, J. Ye, P. Dube, and J. L. Hall, “Ultrasensitive frequency-modulation spectroscopy enhanced by a high-finesse optical cavity: theory and application to overtone transitions of C2H2 and C2HD,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(12), 2255–2268 (1999).
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J. Ye, L. S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Ultrasensitive detections in atomic and molecular physics: demonstration in molecular overtone spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15(1), 6–15 (1998).
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Yin, X.

Yoshida, N.

K. Anzai, H. Sasada, and N. Yoshida, “Best Pair of 3.3-µm-Band Transitions for Isotopomer Abundance Ratio Measurements of 13CH4 to 12CH4,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4A), 1717–1721 (2007).
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Zhu, F.

F. Zhu, A. Bicer, R. Askar, J. Bounds, A. A. Kolomenskii, V. Kelessides, M. Amani, and H. A. Schuessler, “Mid-infrared dual frequency comb spectroscopy based on fiber lasers for the detection of methane in ambient air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(9), 095701 (2015).
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Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

J. Ye and T. W. Lynn, “Applications of optical cavities in modern atomic, molecular, and optical physics,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 49, 1–83 (2003).
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Analyst (Lond.) (1)

P. Patimisco, S. Borri, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “High finesse optical cavity coupled with a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopic sensor,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(3), 736–743 (2015).
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Appl. Phys. B (9)

A. Foltynowicz, P. Maslowski, A. J. Fleisher, B. J. Bjork, and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy in the mid-infrared application to trace detection of hydrogen peroxide,” Appl. Phys. B 110(2), 163–175 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser Phase and Frequency Stabilization Using an Optical-Resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

K. E. Whittaker, L. Ciaffoni, G. Hancock, R. Peverall, and G. A. D. Ritchie, “A DFG-based cavity ring-down spectrometer for trace gas sensing in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. B 109(2), 333–343 (2012).
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A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: Current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 313–326 (2008).
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E. J. Moyer, D. S. Sayres, G. S. Engel, J. M. S. Clair, F. N. Keutsch, N. T. Allen, J. H. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 467–474 (2008).
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M. F. Witinski, D. S. Sayres, and J. G. Anderson, “High precision methane isotopologue ratio measurements at ambient mixing ratios using integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 102(2), 375–380 (2011).
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J. Morville, S. Kassi, M. Chenevier, and D. Romanini, “Fast, low-noise, mode-by-mode, cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy by diode-laser self-locking,” Appl. Phys. B 80(8), 1027–1038 (2005).
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P. Gorrotxategi-Carbajo, E. Fasci, I. Ventrillard, M. Carras, G. Maisons, and D. Romanini, “Optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy with a quantum-cascade laser yields the lowest formaldehyde detection limit,” Appl. Phys. B 110(3), 309–314 (2013).
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D. A. Long, A. J. Fleisher, S. Wojtewicz, and J. T. Hodges, “Quantum-noise-limited cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 115(2), 149–153 (2014).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
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Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. N. Crabtree, J. N. Hodges, B. M. Siller, A. J. Perry, J. E. Kelly, P. A. Jenkins, and B. J. McCall, “Sub-Doppler mid-infrared spectroscopy of molecular ions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 551, 1–6 (2012).
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H. Verbraak, A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, F. J. M. Harren, and H. Linnartz, “Mid-infrared continuous wave cavity ring down spectroscopy of molecular ions using an optical parametric oscillator,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 442(1-3), 145–149 (2007).
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Environ. Sci. Process. Impacts (1)

J. A. Hakala, “Use of stable isotopes to identify sources of methane in Appalachian Basin shallow groundwaters: a review,” Environ. Sci. Process. Impacts 16(9), 2080–2086 (2014).
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J. Adv. Res. (1)

M. W. Sigrist, “Mid-infrared laser-spectroscopic sensing of chemical species,” J. Adv. Res. 6(3), 529–533 (2015).
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J. Chem. Phys. (2)

J. Bood, A. McIlroy, and D. L. Osborn, “Measurement of the sixth overtone band of nitric oxide, and its dipole moment function, using cavity-enhanced frequency modulation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(8), 084311 (2006).
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J. N. Hodges, A. J. Perry, P. A. Jenkins, B. M. Siller, and B. J. McCall, “High-precision and high-accuracy rovibrational spectroscopy of molecular ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 139(16), 164201 (2013).
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J. Mol. Spectrosc. (1)

N. J. van Leeuwen, H. G. Kjaergaard, D. L. Howard, and A. C. Wilson, “Measurement of ultraweak transitions in the visible region of molecular oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 228(1), 83–91 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

B. Meng and Q. J. Wang, “Broadly tunable single-mode mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” J. Opt. 17(2), 023001 (2015).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (10)

J. Ye, L. S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Ultrasensitive detections in atomic and molecular physics: demonstration in molecular overtone spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15(1), 6–15 (1998).
[Crossref]

L. S. Ma, J. Ye, P. Dube, and J. L. Hall, “Ultrasensitive frequency-modulation spectroscopy enhanced by a high-finesse optical cavity: theory and application to overtone transitions of C2H2 and C2HD,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(12), 2255–2268 (1999).
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I. Silander, T. Hausmaninger, and O. Axner, “Model for in-coupling of etalons into signal strengths extracted from spectral line shape fitting and methodology for predicting the optimum scanning range—demonstration of Doppler-broadened, noise-immune, cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy down to 9 × 10−14 cm−1,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(10), 2104–2114 (2015).
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A. Foltynowicz, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Reduction of background signals in fiber-based NICE-OHMS,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(11), 2797–2805 (2011).
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P. Ehlers, I. Silander, J. Wang, and O. Axner, “Fiber-laser-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry instrumentation for Doppler-broadened detection in the 10−12 cm−1 Hz-1/2 region,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(6), 1305–1315 (2012).
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P. Ehlers, J. Y. Wang, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Doppler broadened NICE-OHMS beyond the triplet formalism: assessment of optimum modulation index,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31(7), 1499–1507 (2014).
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J. Y. Wang, P. Ehlers, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Dicke narrowing in the dispersion mode of detection and in noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy – theory and experimental verification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(10), 2390–2401 (2011).
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J. Y. Wang, P. Ehlers, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Speed-dependent effects in dispersion mode of detection and in noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry: experimental demonstration and validation of predicted line shape,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(10), 2980–2989 (2012).
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A. Foltynowicz, W. G. Ma, F. M. Schmidt, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry signals from optically saturated transitions under low pressure conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(7), 1156–1165 (2008).
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P. Ehlers, I. Silander, and O. Axner, “Doppler broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry: optimum modulation and demodulation conditions, cavity length, and modulation order,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31(9), 2051–2060 (2014).
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J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (2)

W. Ma, I. Silander, T. Hausmaninger, and O. Axner, “Doppler-broadened NICE-OHMS beyond the cavity-limited weak absorption condition – I. Theoretical description,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 168, 217–244 (2016).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Anzai, H. Sasada, and N. Yoshida, “Best Pair of 3.3-µm-Band Transitions for Isotopomer Abundance Ratio Measurements of 13CH4 to 12CH4,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4A), 1717–1721 (2007).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic illustration OPO-based NICE-OHMS system realized in this work. It is based on the system described in detail in [40], realized around a plano-concave cavity with a finesse of 4000, to which an AOM has been implemented. The PDH servo for locking the 3.2 - 3.9 µm OPO idler output (red in color) to the cavity gives feedback to the seed fiber-laser PZT at frequencies < 40 Hz while the fast components go to the AOM.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Panel (a) and (b) illustrate the gain and the phase, respectively, of the open loop transfer functions of various parts of the PDH servo (i.e. Bode plots). The four curves in these panels represent the responses of the PZT-servo (dash-dotted, green), the PZT-resonance-servo (dotted, blue), the AOM-servo (dashed, orange), and their combination (solid, black). Panel (c) shows the power spectrum from the PDH error signal when the laser is locked with the PZT servo only (green), after implementation of the AOM servo (orange), and when all three servos, including the PZT-resonance-servo, are active (black). Panel (d) illustrates, as area-normalized histograms, the amplitude distribution of the PDH-error signal in terms of laser-cavity frequency jitter for the three sets of data presented in panel (c).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Upper windows: single scan NICE-OHMS signals of the F2-F1 transition in the R(6) manifold of the ν2 + ν4 band of methane at 3.393 µm (black) at 106 Torr (panel a) and 911 mTorr (panel b) together with their fitted line-shapes (red). Lower windows: the residuals of the fits (lower parts).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Allan-Werle deviation of the absorption coefficient from an empty cavity as a function of integration time, evaluated by fitting the CONV model function to the NICE-OHMS signal in pure dispersion phase. The upper and lower curves (black and blue) represent the results of measurements with the 500 finesse cavity system (previous system) and the 4000 finesse system including the AOM (present instrumentation), respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Individual markers: the estimated (assessed) on-resonance absorption per unit length, α 0 est , versus the nominal on-resonance absorption per unit length, α 0 nom , for the particular transition addressed. Each marker represents an individual scan (measured at 1 Hz) and all data were taken with a non-diluted reference gas containing 45 ppm of methane at different pressures (between 40 mTorr and 120 Torr). The α 0 est -values were extracted from NICE-OHMS measurements by the use of the FULL or the CONV description, blue circles and red crosses, respectively. Solid line: the ideal case.

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