Abstract

Higher-order mode fiber amplifiers have demonstrated effective areas as large as 6000 μm2, allowing for high pulse energy and peak power amplification. Long-period gratings are used to convert the fundamental mode to the higher-order mode at the entrance to the amplifier, and reconvert back to the fundamental at the exit, to achieve a diffraction limited beam. However, long period gratings are susceptible to nonlinearity at high peak power. In this work, we propose and demonstrate axicons for linear bulk-optic mode conversion at the output of higher order mode amplifiers. We achieve an M2 of less than 1.25 for 80% mode conversion efficiency. Experiments with pulsed amplifiers confirm that the mode conversion is free from nonlinearity. Furthermore, chirp pulse amplifier experiments confirm that HOM amplifiers plus axicon mode convertors provide energy scalability in femtosecond pulses, compared to smaller effective area, fundamental mode fiber amplifiers. We also propose and demonstrate a route towards fiber integration of the axicon mode convertor by fabricating axicons directly on the tip of the fiber amplifier end-cap.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (1)

2013 (3)

2012 (4)

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

J. C. Jasapara, M. J. Andrejco, A. DeSantolo, A. D. Yablon, Z. Varallyay, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, D. J. DiGiovanni, C. Headley, E. Monberg, and F. V. DiMarcello, “Diffraction-limited fundamental mode operation of core-pumped very-large-mode-area Er fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J Sel. Top Quantum Electron. 15, 3–11 (2009).

2008 (1)

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(6), 429–448 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (5)

2006 (4)

2005 (3)

2003 (1)

S.-K. Eah, W. Jhe, and Y. Arakawa, “Nearly diffraction-limited focusing of a fiber axicon microlens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(11), 4969 (2003).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. N. Kutz, B. J. Eggleton, J. B. Stark, and R. E. Slusher, “Nonlinear pulse propagation in long-period fiber gratings: Theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(5), 1232–1245 (1997).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

1982 (1)

Andrejco, M.

Andrejco, M. J.

J. C. Jasapara, M. J. Andrejco, A. DeSantolo, A. D. Yablon, Z. Varallyay, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, D. J. DiGiovanni, C. Headley, E. Monberg, and F. V. DiMarcello, “Diffraction-limited fundamental mode operation of core-pumped very-large-mode-area Er fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J Sel. Top Quantum Electron. 15, 3–11 (2009).

Arakawa, Y.

S.-K. Eah, W. Jhe, and Y. Arakawa, “Nearly diffraction-limited focusing of a fiber axicon microlens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(11), 4969 (2003).
[Crossref]

Armstrong, J. P.

Ballato, J.

L. Rishøj, M. Jones, J. Demas, G. Prabhaker, L. Yan, T. Hawkins, J. Ballato, and S. Ramachandran, “Large Mode Area Guidance in a Simple Fiber Structure,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2015), paper Stu4L.3.

Baskiotis, C.

Birge, J. R.

Booth, T.

Broeng, J.

Cabrini, S.

S. Cabrini, C. Liberale, D. Cojoc, A. Carpentiero, M. Prasciolu, S. Mora, V. Degiorgio, F. De Angelis, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Axicon lens on optical fiber forming optical tweezers, made by focused ion beam milling,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 804–807 (2006).
[Crossref]

Carpentiero, A.

S. Cabrini, C. Liberale, D. Cojoc, A. Carpentiero, M. Prasciolu, S. Mora, V. Degiorgio, F. De Angelis, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Axicon lens on optical fiber forming optical tweezers, made by focused ion beam milling,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 804–807 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chang, G.

Charraut, D.

Chen, H.-W.

Chen, L.-J.

Chen, S.

Cojoc, D.

S. Cabrini, C. Liberale, D. Cojoc, A. Carpentiero, M. Prasciolu, S. Mora, V. Degiorgio, F. De Angelis, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Axicon lens on optical fiber forming optical tweezers, made by focused ion beam milling,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 804–807 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dawson, J. W.

De Angelis, F.

S. Cabrini, C. Liberale, D. Cojoc, A. Carpentiero, M. Prasciolu, S. Mora, V. Degiorgio, F. De Angelis, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Axicon lens on optical fiber forming optical tweezers, made by focused ion beam milling,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 804–807 (2006).
[Crossref]

Degiorgio, V.

S. Cabrini, C. Liberale, D. Cojoc, A. Carpentiero, M. Prasciolu, S. Mora, V. Degiorgio, F. De Angelis, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Axicon lens on optical fiber forming optical tweezers, made by focused ion beam milling,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 804–807 (2006).
[Crossref]

Deguil-Robin, N.

Demas, J.

L. Rishøj, M. Jones, J. Demas, G. Prabhaker, L. Yan, T. Hawkins, J. Ballato, and S. Ramachandran, “Large Mode Area Guidance in a Simple Fiber Structure,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2015), paper Stu4L.3.

J. Demas, L. Rishøj, and S. Ramachandran, “Input and Output Coupling in Higher Order Mode Fibers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2015), paper Stu4L.2.
[Crossref]

Desantolo, A.

X. Peng, K. Kim, M. Mielke, T. Booth, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, X. Liu, A. Desantolo, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, E. M. Monberg, F. V. Dimarcello, C. Headley, and D. J. Digiovanni, “Higher-order mode fiber enables high energy chirped-pulse amplification,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32411–32416 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Jasapara, M. J. Andrejco, A. DeSantolo, A. D. Yablon, Z. Varallyay, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, D. J. DiGiovanni, C. Headley, E. Monberg, and F. V. DiMarcello, “Diffraction-limited fundamental mode operation of core-pumped very-large-mode-area Er fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J Sel. Top Quantum Electron. 15, 3–11 (2009).

DeSantolo, A. M.

DeSantolo, A.M.

J.W. Nicholson, J.M. Fini, X. Liu, A.M. DeSantolo, P.S. Westbrook, R.S. Windeler, E. Monberg, F. DiMarcello, C. Headley, and D.J. DiGiovanni, “Single-frequency pulse amplification in a higher-order mode fiber amplifier with fundamental-mode output,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2013), paper CW3M.3.

Di Fabrizio, E.

S. Cabrini, C. Liberale, D. Cojoc, A. Carpentiero, M. Prasciolu, S. Mora, V. Degiorgio, F. De Angelis, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Axicon lens on optical fiber forming optical tweezers, made by focused ion beam milling,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 804–807 (2006).
[Crossref]

Digiovanni, D. J.

DiGiovanni, D.J.

J.W. Nicholson, J.M. Fini, X. Liu, A.M. DeSantolo, P.S. Westbrook, R.S. Windeler, E. Monberg, F. DiMarcello, C. Headley, and D.J. DiGiovanni, “Single-frequency pulse amplification in a higher-order mode fiber amplifier with fundamental-mode output,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2013), paper CW3M.3.

DiMarcello, F.

Dimarcello, F. V.

Dong, L.

Drachenberg, D. R.

Eah, S.-K.

S.-K. Eah, W. Jhe, and Y. Arakawa, “Nearly diffraction-limited focusing of a fiber axicon microlens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(11), 4969 (2003).
[Crossref]

Eggleton, B. J.

J. N. Kutz, B. J. Eggleton, J. B. Stark, and R. E. Slusher, “Nonlinear pulse propagation in long-period fiber gratings: Theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(5), 1232–1245 (1997).
[Crossref]

Eidam, T.

J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, and A. Tünnermann, “Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(4), e8 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eisenstein, G.

Feder, K.

Fini, J. M.

X. Peng, K. Kim, M. Mielke, T. Booth, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, X. Liu, A. Desantolo, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, E. M. Monberg, F. V. Dimarcello, C. Headley, and D. J. Digiovanni, “Higher-order mode fiber enables high energy chirped-pulse amplification,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32411–32416 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, A. M. DeSantolo, X. Liu, K. Feder, P. S. Westbrook, V. R. Supradeepa, E. Monberg, F. DiMarcello, R. Ortiz, C. Headley, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Scaling the effective area of higher-order-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24575–24584 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Jasapara, M. J. Andrejco, A. DeSantolo, A. D. Yablon, Z. Varallyay, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, D. J. DiGiovanni, C. Headley, E. Monberg, and F. V. DiMarcello, “Diffraction-limited fundamental mode operation of core-pumped very-large-mode-area Er fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J Sel. Top Quantum Electron. 15, 3–11 (2009).

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(6), 429–448 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, A. D. Yablon, P. S. Westbrook, K. Feder, and C. Headley, “Demonstration of bend-induced nonlinearities in large-mode-area fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2562–2564 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Fini and S. Ramachandran, “Natural bend-distortion immunity of higher-order-mode large-mode-area fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 748–750 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Fini, “Intuitive modeling of bend distortion in large-mode-area fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1632–1634 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kremp, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, and P. S. Westbrook, “High Power Effects in Long Period Optical Fiber Gratings,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2015), paper STu1N.2.
[Crossref]

Fini, J.M.

J.W. Nicholson, J.M. Fini, X. Liu, A.M. DeSantolo, P.S. Westbrook, R.S. Windeler, E. Monberg, F. DiMarcello, C. Headley, and D.J. DiGiovanni, “Single-frequency pulse amplification in a higher-order mode fiber amplifier with fundamental-mode output,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2013), paper CW3M.3.

Fleming, J.

Foy, P.

Fu, J.

Galvanauskas, A.

Ghalmi, S.

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(6), 429–448 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, E. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “Light propagation with ultralarge modal areas in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1797–1799 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goto, M.

Grosjean, T.

Gu, G.

Hawkins, T.

F. Kong, K. Saitoh, D. Mcclane, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, G. Gu, and L. Dong, “Mode area scaling with all-solid photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 20(24), 26363–26372 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Rishøj, M. Jones, J. Demas, G. Prabhaker, L. Yan, T. Hawkins, J. Ballato, and S. Ramachandran, “Large Mode Area Guidance in a Simple Fiber Structure,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2015), paper Stu4L.3.

Headley, C.

X. Peng, K. Kim, M. Mielke, T. Booth, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, X. Liu, A. Desantolo, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, E. M. Monberg, F. V. Dimarcello, C. Headley, and D. J. Digiovanni, “Higher-order mode fiber enables high energy chirped-pulse amplification,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32411–32416 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, A. M. DeSantolo, X. Liu, K. Feder, P. S. Westbrook, V. R. Supradeepa, E. Monberg, F. DiMarcello, R. Ortiz, C. Headley, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Scaling the effective area of higher-order-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24575–24584 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, J. Fleming, F. DiMarcello, E. Monberg, T. Taunay, C. Headley, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Raman fiber laser with 81 W output power at 1480 nm,” Opt. Lett. 35(18), 3069–3071 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Jasapara, M. J. Andrejco, A. DeSantolo, A. D. Yablon, Z. Varallyay, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, D. J. DiGiovanni, C. Headley, E. Monberg, and F. V. DiMarcello, “Diffraction-limited fundamental mode operation of core-pumped very-large-mode-area Er fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J Sel. Top Quantum Electron. 15, 3–11 (2009).

J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, A. D. Yablon, P. S. Westbrook, K. Feder, and C. Headley, “Demonstration of bend-induced nonlinearities in large-mode-area fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2562–2564 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.W. Nicholson, J.M. Fini, X. Liu, A.M. DeSantolo, P.S. Westbrook, R.S. Windeler, E. Monberg, F. DiMarcello, C. Headley, and D.J. DiGiovanni, “Single-frequency pulse amplification in a higher-order mode fiber amplifier with fundamental-mode output,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2013), paper CW3M.3.

Heebner, J. E.

Hermann, R. M.

Huang, H.

Ibrahim, I. A.

Jain, D.

Jakobsen, C.

Jansen, F.

J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, and A. Tünnermann, “Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(4), e8 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jasapara, J. C.

J. C. Jasapara, M. J. Andrejco, A. DeSantolo, A. D. Yablon, Z. Varallyay, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, D. J. DiGiovanni, C. Headley, E. Monberg, and F. V. DiMarcello, “Diffraction-limited fundamental mode operation of core-pumped very-large-mode-area Er fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J Sel. Top Quantum Electron. 15, 3–11 (2009).

Jauregui, C.

J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, and A. Tünnermann, “Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(4), e8 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jhe, W.

S.-K. Eah, W. Jhe, and Y. Arakawa, “Nearly diffraction-limited focusing of a fiber axicon microlens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(11), 4969 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Z.

Jones, M.

L. Rishøj, M. Jones, J. Demas, G. Prabhaker, L. Yan, T. Hawkins, J. Ballato, and S. Ramachandran, “Large Mode Area Guidance in a Simple Fiber Structure,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2015), paper Stu4L.3.

Kärtner, F. X.

Kim, K.

Kong, F.

Kremp, T.

T. Kremp, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, and P. S. Westbrook, “High Power Effects in Long Period Optical Fiber Gratings,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2015), paper STu1N.2.
[Crossref]

Kristensen, P.

S. Ramachandran and P. Kristensen, “Optical vortices in fiber,” J. Nanophotonics 2, 455 (2013).

Kutz, J. N.

J. N. Kutz, B. J. Eggleton, J. B. Stark, and R. E. Slusher, “Nonlinear pulse propagation in long-period fiber gratings: Theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(5), 1232–1245 (1997).
[Crossref]

Leuchs, G.

Li, Q.

Liberale, C.

S. Cabrini, C. Liberale, D. Cojoc, A. Carpentiero, M. Prasciolu, S. Mora, V. Degiorgio, F. De Angelis, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Axicon lens on optical fiber forming optical tweezers, made by focused ion beam milling,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 804–807 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liem, A.

Limpert, J.

J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, and A. Tünnermann, “Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(4), e8 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, F. Röser, A. Liem, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, “High-power rod-type photonic crystal fiber laser,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1055–1058 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, F.

Lindlein, N.

Liu, C.-H.

Liu, X.

Manek-Hönninger, I.

Marciante, J. R.

Mcclane, D.

McLaughlin, J. M.

Mermelstein, M.

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(6), 429–448 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mielke, M.

Monberg, E.

J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, A. M. DeSantolo, X. Liu, K. Feder, P. S. Westbrook, V. R. Supradeepa, E. Monberg, F. DiMarcello, R. Ortiz, C. Headley, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Scaling the effective area of higher-order-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24575–24584 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, J. Fleming, F. DiMarcello, E. Monberg, T. Taunay, C. Headley, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Raman fiber laser with 81 W output power at 1480 nm,” Opt. Lett. 35(18), 3069–3071 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Jasapara, M. J. Andrejco, A. DeSantolo, A. D. Yablon, Z. Varallyay, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, D. J. DiGiovanni, C. Headley, E. Monberg, and F. V. DiMarcello, “Diffraction-limited fundamental mode operation of core-pumped very-large-mode-area Er fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J Sel. Top Quantum Electron. 15, 3–11 (2009).

S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, E. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “Light propagation with ultralarge modal areas in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1797–1799 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.W. Nicholson, J.M. Fini, X. Liu, A.M. DeSantolo, P.S. Westbrook, R.S. Windeler, E. Monberg, F. DiMarcello, C. Headley, and D.J. DiGiovanni, “Single-frequency pulse amplification in a higher-order mode fiber amplifier with fundamental-mode output,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2013), paper CW3M.3.

Monberg, E. M.

Mora, S.

S. Cabrini, C. Liberale, D. Cojoc, A. Carpentiero, M. Prasciolu, S. Mora, V. Degiorgio, F. De Angelis, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Axicon lens on optical fiber forming optical tweezers, made by focused ion beam milling,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 804–807 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nicholson, J. W.

X. Peng, K. Kim, M. Mielke, T. Booth, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, X. Liu, A. Desantolo, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, E. M. Monberg, F. V. Dimarcello, C. Headley, and D. J. Digiovanni, “Higher-order mode fiber enables high energy chirped-pulse amplification,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32411–32416 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, A. M. DeSantolo, X. Liu, K. Feder, P. S. Westbrook, V. R. Supradeepa, E. Monberg, F. DiMarcello, R. Ortiz, C. Headley, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Scaling the effective area of higher-order-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24575–24584 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, J. Fleming, F. DiMarcello, E. Monberg, T. Taunay, C. Headley, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Raman fiber laser with 81 W output power at 1480 nm,” Opt. Lett. 35(18), 3069–3071 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Jasapara, M. J. Andrejco, A. DeSantolo, A. D. Yablon, Z. Varallyay, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, D. J. DiGiovanni, C. Headley, E. Monberg, and F. V. DiMarcello, “Diffraction-limited fundamental mode operation of core-pumped very-large-mode-area Er fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J Sel. Top Quantum Electron. 15, 3–11 (2009).

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(6), 429–448 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, A. D. Yablon, P. S. Westbrook, K. Feder, and C. Headley, “Demonstration of bend-induced nonlinearities in large-mode-area fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2562–2564 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson and M. Andrejco, “A polarization maintaining, dispersion managed, femtosecond figure-eight fiber laser,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8160–8167 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, E. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “Light propagation with ultralarge modal areas in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1797–1799 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kremp, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, and P. S. Westbrook, “High Power Effects in Long Period Optical Fiber Gratings,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2015), paper STu1N.2.
[Crossref]

Nicholson, J.W.

J.W. Nicholson, J.M. Fini, X. Liu, A.M. DeSantolo, P.S. Westbrook, R.S. Windeler, E. Monberg, F. DiMarcello, C. Headley, and D.J. DiGiovanni, “Single-frequency pulse amplification in a higher-order mode fiber amplifier with fundamental-mode output,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2013), paper CW3M.3.

Nolte, S.

Ortiz, R.

Otto, H.-J.

J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, and A. Tünnermann, “Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(4), e8 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pax, P. H.

Peng, X.

Petersson, A.

Piquerey, V.

Prabhaker, G.

L. Rishøj, M. Jones, J. Demas, G. Prabhaker, L. Yan, T. Hawkins, J. Ballato, and S. Ramachandran, “Large Mode Area Guidance in a Simple Fiber Structure,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2015), paper Stu4L.3.

Prasciolu, M.

S. Cabrini, C. Liberale, D. Cojoc, A. Carpentiero, M. Prasciolu, S. Mora, V. Degiorgio, F. De Angelis, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Axicon lens on optical fiber forming optical tweezers, made by focused ion beam milling,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 804–807 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ramachandran, S.

S. Ramachandran and P. Kristensen, “Optical vortices in fiber,” J. Nanophotonics 2, 455 (2013).

P. Steinvurzel, K. Tantiwanichapan, M. Goto, and S. Ramachandran, “Fiber-based Bessel beams with controllable diffraction-resistant distance,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4671–4673 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(6), 429–448 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Lindlein, G. Leuchs, and S. Ramachandran, “Achieving Gaussian outputs from large-mode-area higher-order-mode fibers,” Appl. Opt. 46(22), 5147–5157 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Fini and S. Ramachandran, “Natural bend-distortion immunity of higher-order-mode large-mode-area fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 748–750 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ramachandran, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, E. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “Light propagation with ultralarge modal areas in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1797–1799 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ramachandran, “Dispersion-tailored few-mode fibers: a versatile platform for in-fiber photonic devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(11), 3426–3443 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Demas, L. Rishøj, and S. Ramachandran, “Input and Output Coupling in Higher Order Mode Fibers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2015), paper Stu4L.2.
[Crossref]

L. Rishøj, M. Jones, J. Demas, G. Prabhaker, L. Yan, T. Hawkins, J. Ballato, and S. Ramachandran, “Large Mode Area Guidance in a Simple Fiber Structure,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2015), paper Stu4L.3.

Rishøj, L.

L. Rishøj, M. Jones, J. Demas, G. Prabhaker, L. Yan, T. Hawkins, J. Ballato, and S. Ramachandran, “Large Mode Area Guidance in a Simple Fiber Structure,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2015), paper Stu4L.3.

J. Demas, L. Rishøj, and S. Ramachandran, “Input and Output Coupling in Higher Order Mode Fibers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2015), paper Stu4L.2.
[Crossref]

Röser, F.

Sahu, J. K.

Saitoh, K.

Saleh, S. S.

Salin, F.

Sandoz, P.

Schreiber, T.

Slusher, R. E.

J. N. Kutz, B. J. Eggleton, J. B. Stark, and R. E. Slusher, “Nonlinear pulse propagation in long-period fiber gratings: Theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(5), 1232–1245 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sosnowski, T.

Sridharan, A. K.

Stark, J. B.

J. N. Kutz, B. J. Eggleton, J. B. Stark, and R. E. Slusher, “Nonlinear pulse propagation in long-period fiber gratings: Theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(5), 1232–1245 (1997).
[Crossref]

Steinvurzel, P.

Stutzki, F.

J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, and A. Tünnermann, “Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(4), e8 (2012).
[Crossref]

Suarez, M. A.

Supradeepa, V. R.

Tantiwanichapan, K.

Taunay, T.

Tünnermann, A.

J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, and A. Tünnermann, “Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(4), e8 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, F. Röser, A. Liem, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, “High-power rod-type photonic crystal fiber laser,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1055–1058 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Varallyay, Z.

J. C. Jasapara, M. J. Andrejco, A. DeSantolo, A. D. Yablon, Z. Varallyay, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, D. J. DiGiovanni, C. Headley, E. Monberg, and F. V. DiMarcello, “Diffraction-limited fundamental mode operation of core-pumped very-large-mode-area Er fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J Sel. Top Quantum Electron. 15, 3–11 (2009).

Vitello, D.

Westbrook, P. S.

Westbrook, P.S.

J.W. Nicholson, J.M. Fini, X. Liu, A.M. DeSantolo, P.S. Westbrook, R.S. Windeler, E. Monberg, F. DiMarcello, C. Headley, and D.J. DiGiovanni, “Single-frequency pulse amplification in a higher-order mode fiber amplifier with fundamental-mode output,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2013), paper CW3M.3.

Wiggins, T. A.

Windeler, R. S.

Windeler, R.S.

J.W. Nicholson, J.M. Fini, X. Liu, A.M. DeSantolo, P.S. Westbrook, R.S. Windeler, E. Monberg, F. DiMarcello, C. Headley, and D.J. DiGiovanni, “Single-frequency pulse amplification in a higher-order mode fiber amplifier with fundamental-mode output,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2013), paper CW3M.3.

Wisk, P.

Wong, W. S.

Wu, X.

Yablon, A. D.

J. C. Jasapara, M. J. Andrejco, A. DeSantolo, A. D. Yablon, Z. Varallyay, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, D. J. DiGiovanni, C. Headley, E. Monberg, and F. V. DiMarcello, “Diffraction-limited fundamental mode operation of core-pumped very-large-mode-area Er fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J Sel. Top Quantum Electron. 15, 3–11 (2009).

J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, A. D. Yablon, P. S. Westbrook, K. Feder, and C. Headley, “Demonstration of bend-induced nonlinearities in large-mode-area fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2562–2564 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, L.

L. Rishøj, M. Jones, J. Demas, G. Prabhaker, L. Yan, T. Hawkins, J. Ballato, and S. Ramachandran, “Large Mode Area Guidance in a Simple Fiber Structure,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2015), paper Stu4L.3.

Yan, M. F.

Zellmer, H.

Zou, H.

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE J Sel. Top Quantum Electron. (1)

J. C. Jasapara, M. J. Andrejco, A. DeSantolo, A. D. Yablon, Z. Varallyay, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, D. J. DiGiovanni, C. Headley, E. Monberg, and F. V. DiMarcello, “Diffraction-limited fundamental mode operation of core-pumped very-large-mode-area Er fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J Sel. Top Quantum Electron. 15, 3–11 (2009).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. N. Kutz, B. J. Eggleton, J. B. Stark, and R. E. Slusher, “Nonlinear pulse propagation in long-period fiber gratings: Theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(5), 1232–1245 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Nanophotonics (1)

S. Ramachandran and P. Kristensen, “Optical vortices in fiber,” J. Nanophotonics 2, 455 (2013).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, M. Mermelstein, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, and M. F. Yan, “Ultra-large effective-area, higher-order mode fibers: a new strategy for high-power lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(6), 429–448 (2008).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, and A. Tünnermann, “Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(4), e8 (2012).
[Crossref]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

S. Cabrini, C. Liberale, D. Cojoc, A. Carpentiero, M. Prasciolu, S. Mora, V. Degiorgio, F. De Angelis, and E. Di Fabrizio, “Axicon lens on optical fiber forming optical tweezers, made by focused ion beam milling,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 804–807 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (9)

J. W. Nicholson and M. Andrejco, “A polarization maintaining, dispersion managed, femtosecond figure-eight fiber laser,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8160–8167 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, I. Manek-Hönninger, F. Salin, F. Röser, A. Liem, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, “High-power rod-type photonic crystal fiber laser,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1055–1058 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-W. Chen, T. Sosnowski, C.-H. Liu, L.-J. Chen, J. R. Birge, A. Galvanauskas, F. X. Kärtner, and G. Chang, “Chirally-coupled-core Yb-fiber laser delivering 80-fs pulses with diffraction-limited beam quality warranted by a high-dispersion mirror based compressor,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24699–24705 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, A. M. DeSantolo, X. Liu, K. Feder, P. S. Westbrook, V. R. Supradeepa, E. Monberg, F. DiMarcello, R. Ortiz, C. Headley, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Scaling the effective area of higher-order-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24575–24584 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Kong, K. Saitoh, D. Mcclane, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, G. Gu, and L. Dong, “Mode area scaling with all-solid photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 20(24), 26363–26372 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, D. R. Drachenberg, J. P. Armstrong, and J. W. Dawson, “Mode-converters for rectangular-core fiber amplifiers to achieve diffraction-limited power scaling,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28792–28800 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Jain, C. Baskiotis, and J. K. Sahu, “Mode area scaling with multi-trench rod-type fibers,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1448–1455 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Peng, K. Kim, M. Mielke, T. Booth, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, X. Liu, A. Desantolo, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, E. M. Monberg, F. V. Dimarcello, C. Headley, and D. J. Digiovanni, “Higher-order mode fiber enables high energy chirped-pulse amplification,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32411–32416 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, S. Chen, H. Zou, Q. Li, J. Fu, F. Lin, and X. Wu, “Fabrication of micro-axicons using direct-laser writing,” Opt. Express 22(9), 11035–11042 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S.-K. Eah, W. Jhe, and Y. Arakawa, “Nearly diffraction-limited focusing of a fiber axicon microlens,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(11), 4969 (2003).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

J. Demas, L. Rishøj, and S. Ramachandran, “Input and Output Coupling in Higher Order Mode Fibers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2015), paper Stu4L.2.
[Crossref]

L. Rishøj, M. Jones, J. Demas, G. Prabhaker, L. Yan, T. Hawkins, J. Ballato, and S. Ramachandran, “Large Mode Area Guidance in a Simple Fiber Structure,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2015), paper Stu4L.3.

D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, 1992).

J.W. Nicholson, J.M. Fini, X. Liu, A.M. DeSantolo, P.S. Westbrook, R.S. Windeler, E. Monberg, F. DiMarcello, C. Headley, and D.J. DiGiovanni, “Single-frequency pulse amplification in a higher-order mode fiber amplifier with fundamental-mode output,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2013), paper CW3M.3.

T. Kremp, J. W. Nicholson, J. M. Fini, and P. S. Westbrook, “High Power Effects in Long Period Optical Fiber Gratings,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2015), paper STu1N.2.
[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of an Er-doped higher-order mode fiber amplifier. (b) The index profile of a rare-earth doped, higher-order mode fiber. The LP0,1 mode (red) is guided in the central core whereas the LP0,N higher-order modes (blue) reside in the outer core. (c) Output power vs. pump power. (d) Output beam profile and M2 measurement at 50 W output power.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Setup for mode conversion of LP0,N modes using an axicon.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Simulations of axicon mode conversion of a higher order mode. (a) The beam produced by a Gaussian focused by an axicon for 1 mm diameter beam, vs. a 2 mm diameter beam. (b) Optimal overlap of the LP0,14 mode with a Gaussian focused by an axicon, as a function of input beam width, for different axicon apex angles. (c) Required magnification of the LP0,14 for optimal conversion, as a function of axicon apex angle. (d) Axicon placement for optimal conversion of the LP0,14 mode, as a function of axicon apex angle.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Intensity of the LP0,14 mode of a typical higher-order mode fiber, compared to the intensity produced by a Gaussian beam incident on an axicon. (b) M2 vs. aperture transmission for the axicon mode convertor, compared to that achieved with the binary phase plate proposed in Ref [25], N. Lindlein et. al.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured performance of axicon mode conversion of the LP0,14 mode. (a) Beam profile measured with lens 1 and lens 2, but without the axicon. (b) Beam profile measured when the axicon is in the system. (c) M2 vs. aperture transmission. (c) M2 measurement at 70% aperture transmission.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Mode conversion performance of a fiber-based axicon end-cap. (a) Schematic of the amplifier architecture. (b) Microscope images of the fabricated axicon end-cap. (c) Beam profile. (d) M2 vs. aperture transmission
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Fabrication tolerances in an axicon end-cap (a) M2 vs. apex angle and end-cap length for 77% transmission through the spatial filter. (b) M2 vs. end-cap length and end-tip radius of curvature for 77% transmission through the spatial filter.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Beam profiles measured with scanning knife edge for both CW and pulsed operation. (a) HOM amplifier with output LPG for mode conversion. (b) HOM amplifier with axicon for output mode conversion.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Femtosecond chirped-pulse amplifier results comparing an LP01 VLMA amplifier spectrum, (a), and autocorrelation, (b), to an HOM-Er amplifier with axicon mode conversion (c) and (d).

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