Abstract

We report a cascaded optical link of 1100 km for ultra-stable frequency distribution over an Internet fiber network. The link is composed of four spans for which the propagation noise is actively compensated. The robustness and the performance of the link are ensured by five fully automated optoelectronic stations, two of them at the link ends, and three deployed on the field and connecting the spans. This device coherently regenerates the optical signal with the heterodyne optical phase locking of a low-noise laser diode. Optical detection of the beat-note signals for the laser lock and the link noise compensation are obtained with stable and low-noise fibered optical interferometer. We show 3.5 days of continuous operation of the noise-compensated 4-span cascaded link leading to fractional frequency instability of 4x10−16 at 1-s measurement time and 1x10−19 at 2000 s. This cascaded link was extended to 1480-km with the same performance. This work is a significant step towards a sustainable wide area ultra-stable optical frequency distribution and comparison network at a very high level of performance.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (6)

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, P. E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” C. R. Phys. 16(5), 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. M. F. Raupach, A. Koczwara, and G. Grosche, “Brillouin amplification supports 1 x 10-20 accuracy in optical frequency transfer over 1400 km of underground fibre,” Phys. Rev. A 92(2), 021801 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10-18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Ushijima, M. Takamoto, M. Das, T. Ohkubo, and H. Katori, “Cryogenic optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 185–189 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, C. Daussy, B. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Stefani, O. Lopez, A. Bercy, W.-K. Lee, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, P.-E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Tackling the limits of optical fiber links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(5), 787–797 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117(3), 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-Frequency Transfer over a Single-Span 1840 km Fiber Link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(11), 110801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

L. Sliwczynski, P. Krehlik, L. Buczek, and M. Lipinski, “Frequency transfer in electronically stabilized fiber optic link exploiting bidirectional optical amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61(9), 2573–2580 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6(10), 687–692 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, A. Haboucha, B. Chanteau, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-stable long distance optical frequency distribution using the Internet fiber network,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23518–23526 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement of the stability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(5), 918–925 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. R. Newbury, P. A. Williams, and W. C. Swann, “Coherent transfer of an optical carrier over 251 km,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3056–3058 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlava, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

E. Rubiola, “On the measurement of frequency and of its sample variance with high-resolution counters,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(5), 054703 (2005).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

Abgrall, M.

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, C. Daussy, B. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

Achkar, J.

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, P. E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” C. R. Phys. 16(5), 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlava, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Alnis, J.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amemiya, M.

Amy-Klein, A.

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, C. Daussy, B. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, P. E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” C. R. Phys. 16(5), 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Stefani, O. Lopez, A. Bercy, W.-K. Lee, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, P.-E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Tackling the limits of optical fiber links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(5), 787–797 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, A. Haboucha, B. Chanteau, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-stable long distance optical frequency distribution using the Internet fiber network,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23518–23526 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Lopez, A. Haboucha, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, B. Chanteau, V. Roncin, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Cascaded multiplexed optical link on a telecommunication network for frequency dissemination,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16849–16857 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Kéfélian, O. Lopez, H. Jiang, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution optical frequency dissemination on a telecommunications network with data traffic,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1573–1575 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 2029–2035 (2008).
[Crossref]

Argence, B.

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, C. Daussy, B. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barrett, M. D.

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10-18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bauch, A.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlava, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bercy, A.

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, P. E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” C. R. Phys. 16(5), 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Stefani, O. Lopez, A. Bercy, W.-K. Lee, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, P.-E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Tackling the limits of optical fiber links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(5), 787–797 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bertacco, E. K.

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117(3), 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bize, S.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlava, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bloom, B. J.

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10-18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buczek, L.

L. Sliwczynski, P. Krehlik, L. Buczek, and M. Lipinski, “Frequency transfer in electronically stabilized fiber optic link exploiting bidirectional optical amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61(9), 2573–2580 (2012).
[Crossref]

Calonico, D.

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117(3), 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlava, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Calosso, C. E.

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117(3), 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

Campbell, S. L.

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10-18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chanteau, B.

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, P. E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” C. R. Phys. 16(5), 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, C. Daussy, B. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, A. Haboucha, B. Chanteau, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-stable long distance optical frequency distribution using the Internet fiber network,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23518–23526 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Lopez, A. Haboucha, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, B. Chanteau, V. Roncin, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Cascaded multiplexed optical link on a telecommunication network for frequency dissemination,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16849–16857 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chardonnet, C.

F. Stefani, O. Lopez, A. Bercy, W.-K. Lee, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, P.-E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Tackling the limits of optical fiber links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(5), 787–797 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, C. Daussy, B. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, P. E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” C. R. Phys. 16(5), 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, A. Haboucha, B. Chanteau, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-stable long distance optical frequency distribution using the Internet fiber network,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23518–23526 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Lopez, A. Haboucha, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, B. Chanteau, V. Roncin, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Cascaded multiplexed optical link on a telecommunication network for frequency dissemination,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16849–16857 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Kéfélian, O. Lopez, H. Jiang, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution optical frequency dissemination on a telecommunications network with data traffic,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1573–1575 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 2029–2035 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6(10), 687–692 (2012).
[Crossref]

Clivati, C.

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117(3), 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

Costanzo, G. A.

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117(3), 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

Crane, S.

Dach, R.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlava, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Darquié, B.

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, C. Daussy, B. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

Das, M.

I. Ushijima, M. Takamoto, M. Das, T. Ohkubo, and H. Katori, “Cryogenic optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 185–189 (2015).
[Crossref]

Daussy, C.

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, C. Daussy, B. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dawkins, S. T.

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement of the stability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(5), 918–925 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Droste, S.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-Frequency Transfer over a Single-Span 1840 km Fiber Link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(11), 110801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frittelli, M.

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117(3), 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fujieda, M.

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, “Coherent microwave transfer over a 204-km telecom fiber link by a cascaded system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 168–174 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujii, Y.

Godone, A.

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117(3), 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

Grebing, C.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6(10), 687–692 (2012).
[Crossref]

Grosche, G.

S. M. F. Raupach, A. Koczwara, and G. Grosche, “Brillouin amplification supports 1 x 10-20 accuracy in optical frequency transfer over 1400 km of underground fibre,” Phys. Rev. A 92(2), 021801 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-Frequency Transfer over a Single-Span 1840 km Fiber Link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(11), 110801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Terra, G. Grosche, and H. Schnatz, “Brillouin amplification in phase coherent transfer of optical frequencies over 480 km fiber,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16102–16111 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haboucha, A.

Hagemann, C.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6(10), 687–692 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hall, J. L.

Hänsch, T. W.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-Frequency Transfer over a Single-Span 1840 km Fiber Link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(11), 110801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hlava, R.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlava, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Holleville, D.

Holzwarth, R.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-Frequency Transfer over a Single-Span 1840 km Fiber Link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(11), 110801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, F. L.

Hong, F.-L.

Hutson, R. B.

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10-18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ikegami, T.

Imae, M.

Inaba, H.

Jiang, H.

Jungner, P.

Kanj, A.

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, P. E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” C. R. Phys. 16(5), 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

Katori, H.

Kéfélian, F.

Kessler, T.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6(10), 687–692 (2012).
[Crossref]

Koczwara, A.

S. M. F. Raupach, A. Koczwara, and G. Grosche, “Brillouin amplification supports 1 x 10-20 accuracy in optical frequency transfer over 1400 km of underground fibre,” Phys. Rev. A 92(2), 021801 (2015).
[Crossref]

Krehlik, P.

L. Sliwczynski, P. Krehlik, L. Buczek, and M. Lipinski, “Frequency transfer in electronically stabilized fiber optic link exploiting bidirectional optical amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61(9), 2573–2580 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kumagai, M.

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, “Coherent microwave transfer over a 204-km telecom fiber link by a cascaded system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 168–174 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le Coq, Y.

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, C. Daussy, B. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.-K.

Legero, T.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6(10), 687–692 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lemonde, P.

Levi, F.

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117(3), 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lipinski, M.

L. Sliwczynski, P. Krehlik, L. Buczek, and M. Lipinski, “Frequency transfer in electronically stabilized fiber optic link exploiting bidirectional optical amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61(9), 2573–2580 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lopez, O.

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, P. E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” C. R. Phys. 16(5), 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, C. Daussy, B. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Stefani, O. Lopez, A. Bercy, W.-K. Lee, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, P.-E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Tackling the limits of optical fiber links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(5), 787–797 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, A. Haboucha, B. Chanteau, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-stable long distance optical frequency distribution using the Internet fiber network,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23518–23526 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Lopez, A. Haboucha, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, B. Chanteau, V. Roncin, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Cascaded multiplexed optical link on a telecommunication network for frequency dissemination,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16849–16857 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Kéfélian, O. Lopez, H. Jiang, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution optical frequency dissemination on a telecommunications network with data traffic,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1573–1575 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 2029–2035 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lorini, L.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlava, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lours, M.

Luiten, A. N.

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement of the stability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(5), 918–925 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lutes, G. F.

L. E. Primas, G. F. Lutes, and R. L. Sydnor, “Stabilized fiber optic frequency distribution system,” 20th Annual PTTI Meeting, 23–34 (1988).

Ma, L. S.

Marti, G. E.

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10-18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, M. J.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6(10), 687–692 (2012).
[Crossref]

McFerran, J. J.

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement of the stability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(5), 918–925 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McNally, R. L.

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10-18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Millo, J.

Mura, A.

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117(3), 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

Musha, M.

Nagano, S.

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, “Coherent microwave transfer over a 204-km telecom fiber link by a cascaded system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 168–174 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakagawa, K.

Newbury, N. R.

Nicholson, T. L.

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10-18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nicolodi, D.

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, C. Daussy, B. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ohkubo, T.

I. Ushijima, M. Takamoto, M. Das, T. Ohkubo, and H. Katori, “Cryogenic optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 185–189 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ozimek, F.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-Frequency Transfer over a Single-Span 1840 km Fiber Link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(11), 110801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parker, T.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlava, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Petit, G.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlava, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Piester, D.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlava, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Poli, N.

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117(3), 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pottie, P. E.

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, P. E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” C. R. Phys. 16(5), 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pottie, P.-E.

Predehl, K.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-Frequency Transfer over a Single-Span 1840 km Fiber Link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(11), 110801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Primas, L. E.

L. E. Primas, G. F. Lutes, and R. L. Sydnor, “Stabilized fiber optic frequency distribution system,” 20th Annual PTTI Meeting, 23–34 (1988).

Raupach, S. M. F.

S. M. F. Raupach, A. Koczwara, and G. Grosche, “Brillouin amplification supports 1 x 10-20 accuracy in optical frequency transfer over 1400 km of underground fibre,” Phys. Rev. A 92(2), 021801 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riehle, F.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6(10), 687–692 (2012).
[Crossref]

Roncin, V.

Rovera, D.

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, P. E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” C. R. Phys. 16(5), 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rubiola, E.

E. Rubiola, “On the measurement of frequency and of its sample variance with high-resolution counters,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(5), 054703 (2005).
[Crossref]

Safronova, M. S.

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10-18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santarelli, G.

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, P. E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” C. R. Phys. 16(5), 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Stefani, O. Lopez, A. Bercy, W.-K. Lee, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, P.-E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Tackling the limits of optical fiber links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(5), 787–797 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, A. Haboucha, B. Chanteau, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-stable long distance optical frequency distribution using the Internet fiber network,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23518–23526 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Lopez, A. Haboucha, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, B. Chanteau, V. Roncin, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Cascaded multiplexed optical link on a telecommunication network for frequency dissemination,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16849–16857 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Kéfélian, O. Lopez, H. Jiang, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution optical frequency dissemination on a telecommunications network with data traffic,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1573–1575 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 2029–2035 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schnatz, H.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-Frequency Transfer over a Single-Span 1840 km Fiber Link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(11), 110801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Terra, G. Grosche, and H. Schnatz, “Brillouin amplification in phase coherent transfer of optical frequencies over 480 km fiber,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16102–16111 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sliwczynski, L.

L. Sliwczynski, P. Krehlik, L. Buczek, and M. Lipinski, “Frequency transfer in electronically stabilized fiber optic link exploiting bidirectional optical amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61(9), 2573–2580 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stefani, F.

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, P. E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” C. R. Phys. 16(5), 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Stefani, O. Lopez, A. Bercy, W.-K. Lee, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, P.-E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Tackling the limits of optical fiber links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(5), 787–797 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sterr, U.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6(10), 687–692 (2012).
[Crossref]

Strouse, G. F.

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10-18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sutyrin, D. V.

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117(3), 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

Swann, W. C.

Sydnor, R. L.

L. E. Primas, G. F. Lutes, and R. L. Sydnor, “Stabilized fiber optic frequency distribution system,” 20th Annual PTTI Meeting, 23–34 (1988).

Szymaniec, K.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlava, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Takamizawa, A.

Takamoto, M.

Terra, O.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Terra, G. Grosche, and H. Schnatz, “Brillouin amplification in phase coherent transfer of optical frequencies over 480 km fiber,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16102–16111 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tew, W. L.

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10-18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tino, G.

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117(3), 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

Udem, T.

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-Frequency Transfer over a Single-Span 1840 km Fiber Link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(11), 110801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ueda, K.

Uhrich, P.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlava, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ushijima, I.

I. Ushijima, M. Takamoto, M. Das, T. Ohkubo, and H. Katori, “Cryogenic optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 185–189 (2015).
[Crossref]

Watabe, K.

Williams, P. A.

Yanagimachi, S.

Ye, J.

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10-18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6(10), 687–692 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. S. Ma, P. Jungner, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Delivering the same optical frequency at two places: accurate cancellation of phase noise introduced by an optical fiber or other time-varying path,” Opt. Lett. 19(21), 1777–1779 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10-18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zucco, M. E.

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117(3), 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. Godone, A. Mura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117(3), 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. R. Phys. (1)

O. Lopez, F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, A. Haboucha, A. Bercy, F. Stefani, B. Chanteau, A. Kanj, D. Rovera, J. Achkar, C. Chardonnet, P. E. Pottie, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres,” C. R. Phys. 16(5), 531–539 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

L. Sliwczynski, P. Krehlik, L. Buczek, and M. Lipinski, “Frequency transfer in electronically stabilized fiber optic link exploiting bidirectional optical amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61(9), 2573–2580 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (2)

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, “Coherent microwave transfer over a 204-km telecom fiber link by a cascaded system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 168–174 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement of the stability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(5), 918–925 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Metrologia (1)

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlava, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43(1), 109–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10-18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

I. Ushijima, M. Takamoto, M. Das, T. Ohkubo, and H. Katori, “Cryogenic optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 9(3), 185–189 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6(10), 687–692 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, C. Daussy, B. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S. M. F. Raupach, A. Koczwara, and G. Grosche, “Brillouin amplification supports 1 x 10-20 accuracy in optical frequency transfer over 1400 km of underground fibre,” Phys. Rev. A 92(2), 021801 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-Frequency Transfer over a Single-Span 1840 km Fiber Link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(11), 110801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

E. Rubiola, “On the measurement of frequency and of its sample variance with high-resolution counters,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(5), 054703 (2005).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-kilometer optical fiber link for frequency metrology at the 19th decimal place,” Science 336(6080), 441–444 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

O. Lopez, N. Chiodo, F. Stefani, F. Wiotte, N. Quintin, A. Bercy, C. Chardonnet, G. Santarelli, P.-E. Pottie, and A. Amy-Klein, “Cascaded optical link on a telecommunication fiber network for ultra-stable frequency dissemination,” Proc. SPIE. 9378, Slow Light, Fast Light, and Opto-Atomic Precision Metrology VIII, (2015).

L. E. Primas, G. F. Lutes, and R. L. Sydnor, “Stabilized fiber optic frequency distribution system,” 20th Annual PTTI Meeting, 23–34 (1988).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Scheme of the four-spans cascaded optical link using the RENATER fiber network between Villetaneuse and Nancy, and its extension to Strasbourg. The insert shows the Paris metropolitan area; USL: ultrastable laser.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Detailed scheme of the second span between Reims and Nancy.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic of the Nth repeater station, OC: optical coupler, FM: Faraday mirror, PD: photodiode, PC: polarization controller, AOM: acousto-optic modulator.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 a) Phase fluctuations along time of each span of the compensated cascaded link (black, green, brown and blue curves for the spans 1 to 4, as depicted on Fig. 1 calculated from the in-loop error signal, b) Phase noise spectral density of the successive spans of the cascaded link (same colors as for (a)) calculated from the in-loop error signal (and divided by two) and the whole cascaded link (red curve) calculated from the end-to-end phase signal.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 End-to-end phase fluctuations along time of the Villetaneuse-Nancy-Villetaneuse 1100-km compensated optical link (red curve) and its extension to Strasbourg (blue curve).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Fractional frequency instability versus averaging time of the Villetaneuse-Nancy-Villetaneuse 1100-km compensated optical link (red squares) and of its extension to Strasbourg (blue circles). The stabilities are calculated from Λ-type data using modified Allan deviation.

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