Abstract

Single-shot ultrashort extreme-UV(EUV) pulse waveform measurement is demonstrated by utilizing strong field ionization of H2 gas for transmission gating. A cross-propagating intense near-IR gate pulse ionizes the EUV absorbing H2 molecules into EUV-non-absorbing H2++ (two protons) and creates a time sweep of transmission encoded spatially across the EUV pulse. The temporal envelope is then retrieved from the lopsided spatial profile of the transmitted pulse. This method not only measures EUV temporal envelope for each single shot, but also determines timing jitter and envelope fluctuation statistically, thus is particularly useful for characterizing low-repetition-rate fluctuating EUV/soft x-ray sources.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (1)

G. D. Ninno, D. Gauthier, B. Mahieu, P. Ribič, E. Allaria, P. Cinquegrana, M. B. Danailov, A. Demidovich, E. Ferrari, L. Giannessi, G. Penco, P. Sigalotti, and M. Stupar, “Single-shot spectro-temporal characterization of XUV pulses from a seeded free-electron laser,” Nat. Commun. 6, 9075 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

W. Helml, A. R. Maier, W. Schweinberger, I. Grguraš, P. Radcliffe, G. Doumy, C. Roedig, J. Gagnon, M. Messerschmidt, S. Schorb, C. Bostedt, F. Grner, L. F. DiMauro, D. Cubaynes, J. D. Bozek, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, R. Coffee, S. Düsterer, A. L. Cavalieri, and R. Kienberger, “Measuring the temporal structure of few-femtosecond free-electron laser X-ray pulses directly in the time domain,” Nat. Photonics 8, 950–957 (2014).
[Crossref]

T.-S. Hung, C.-H. Yang, J. Wang, S. yuan Chen, J.-Y. Lin, and H. hsin Chu, “A 110-TW multiple-beam laser system with a 5-TW wavelength-tunable auxiliary beam for versatile control of laser-plasma interaction,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 1189–1200 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

R. Riedel, A. Al-Shemmary, M. Gensch, T. Golz, M. Harmand, N. Medvedev, M. J. Prandolini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, S. Toleikis, U. Wegner, B. Ziaja, N. Stojanovic, and F. Tavella, “Single-shot pulse duration monitor for extreme ultraviolet and X-ray free-electron lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1731 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

I. Grguraš, A. R. Maier, C. Behrens, T. Mazza, T. J. Kelly, P. Radcliffe, S. Dsterer, A. K. Kazansky, N. M. Kabachnik, T. Tschentscher, J. T. Costello, M. Meyer, M. C. Hoffmann, H. Schlarb, and A. L. Cavalieri, “Ultrafast X-ray pulse characterization at free-electron lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6, 852–857 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Aliauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Baliunas, O. D. Mcke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuka, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernndez-Garca, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent X-ray generation,” Nat. Photonics 4, 822–832 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. W. J. McNeil and N. R. Thompson, “X-ray free-electron lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4, 814–821 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, “Colloquium: Optimal control of high-harmonic generation,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 80, 117–140 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-D. Yang, C.-S. Hsu, S.-L. Lin, H. Miao, C.-B. Huang, and A. M. Weiner, “Direct spectral phase retrieval of ultrashort pulses by double modified one-dimensional autocorrelation traces,” Opt. Express 16, 20617–20625 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

M.-C. Chou, P.-H. Lin, C.-A. Lin, J.-Y. Lin, J. Wang, and S.-Y. Chen, “Dramatic Enhancement of Optical-Field-Ionization Collisional-Excitation X-Ray Lasing by an Optically Preformed Plasma Waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063904 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3, 381–387 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

Y. Nabekawa, T. Shimizu, T. Okino, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Midorikawa, “Interferometric Autocorrelation of an Attosecond Pulse Train in the Single-Cycle Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 153904 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Kosuge, T. Sekikawa, X. Zhou, T. Kanai, S. Adachi, and S. Watanabe, “Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating of Isolated Attosecond Pulses in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 263901 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, E. P. Benis, P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Second Order Autocorrelation of an XUV Attosecond Pulse Train,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 113905 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Seres, E. Seres, A. J. Verhoef, G. Tempea, C. Streli, P. Wobrauschek, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, “Source of coherent kiloelectronvolt X-rays,” Nature 433, 596 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

P. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, M. Fajardo, D. Aubert, P. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, S. Kazamias, G. de Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, S. le Pape, P. Mercère, H. Merdji, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, and C. Valentin, “A high-intensity highly coherent soft X-ray femtosecond laser seeded by a high harmonic beam,” Nature 431, 426–429 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Oguri, T. Nishikawa, T. Ozaki, and H. Nakano, “Sampling measurement of soft-x-ray-pulse shapes by femtosecond sequential ionization of Kr+ in an intense laser field,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1279–1281 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

L. C. Dinu, H. G. Muller, S. Kazamias, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, P. M. Paul, M. Kovačev, P. Breger, and P. Agostini, “Measurement of the Subcycle Timing of Attosecond XUV Bursts in High-Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 063901 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N. A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Direct observation of attosecond light bunching,” Nature 426, 267–271 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

H. G. Muller, “Reconstruction of attosecond harmonic beating by interference of two-photon transitions,” Appl. Phys. B 74, s17–s21 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Norin, J. Mauritsson, A. Johansson, M. K. Raarup, S. Buil, A. Persson, O. Dühr, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, U. Keller, C.-G. Wahlström, and A. L’Huillier, “Time-Frequency Characterization of Femtosecond Extreme Ultraviolet Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 193901 (2002).
[Crossref]

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Theory of molecular tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 033402 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1998 (3)

A. Bouhal, P. Salières, P. Breger, P. Agostini, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Antonetti, R. Constantinescu, and H. G. Muller, “Temporal dependence of high-order harmonics in the presence of strong ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 389–399 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. D. G. Walsh, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, F. Châteauneuf, T. T. Nguyen-Dang, S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, and O. Atabek, “Laser-induced processes during the Coulomb explosion of H2 in a Ti-sapphire laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3922–3933 (1998).
[Crossref]

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, “Spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23, 792–794 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

G. N. Gibson, M. Li, C. Guo, and J. Neira, “Strong-Field Dissociation and Ionization of H2+ Using Ultrashort Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2022–2025 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (4)

Y. Kobayashi, O. Yoshihara, Y. Nabekawa, K. Kondo, and S. Watanabe, “Femtosecond measurement of high-order harmonic pulse width and electron recombination time by field ionization,” Opt. Lett. 21, 417–419 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H. Chin, and C. V. Shank, “Observation of Laser Assisted Photoelectric Effect and Femtosecond High Order Harmonic Radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2468–2471 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, A. Bouhal, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Cross-correlation measurements of femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 197–200 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. A. Verner, G. J. Ferland, K. T. Korista, and D. G. Yakovlev, “Atomic Data for Astrophysics. II. New Analytic Fits for Photoionization Cross Sections of Atoms and Ions,” Astrophys. J. 465, 487–498 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Observation of Laser-Assisted Auger Decay in Argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2180–2183 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1988 (1)

J. W. Gallagher, C. E. Brion, J. A. R. Samson, and P. W. Langhoff, “Absolute Cross Sections for Molecular Photoabsorption, Partial Photoionization, and Ionic Photofragmentation Processes,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 17, 9–153 (1988).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

L. B. Lucy, “An iterative technique for the rectification of observed distributions,” Astronom. J. 79, 745 (1974).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

Adachi, S.

A. Kosuge, T. Sekikawa, X. Zhou, T. Kanai, S. Adachi, and S. Watanabe, “Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating of Isolated Attosecond Pulses in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 263901 (2006).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

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J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, A. Bouhal, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Cross-correlation measurements of femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 197–200 (1996).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent X-ray generation,” Nat. Photonics 4, 822–832 (2010).
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P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Aliauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Baliunas, O. D. Mcke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuka, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernndez-Garca, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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A. Bouhal, P. Salières, P. Breger, P. Agostini, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Antonetti, R. Constantinescu, and H. G. Muller, “Temporal dependence of high-order harmonics in the presence of strong ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 389–399 (1998).
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J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, A. Bouhal, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Cross-correlation measurements of femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 197–200 (1996).
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L. C. Dinu, H. G. Muller, S. Kazamias, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, P. M. Paul, M. Kovačev, P. Breger, and P. Agostini, “Measurement of the Subcycle Timing of Attosecond XUV Bursts in High-Harmonic Generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 063901 (2003).
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P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
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E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. Le Blanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801 (2000).
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J. M. Schins, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, A. Bouhal, G. Grillon, A. Antonetti, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Cross-correlation measurements of femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 197–200 (1996).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Experimental setup. (b) Original HHG spectrum measured after the Al filter (H2 jet off). (c) HHG spectrum after passing the EUV imaging system (H2 jet off).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Relative densities of H2, H 2 + , and H+ as functions of time calculated by the MO-ADK theory. Blue dashed line: H2 molecule. Green dot-dashed line: H 2 + molecule. Red dotted line: 2H+ ions. Black solid line: fitted ion density nion(t). Gray area: gate pulse intensity profile.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The EUV single-shot profile images at the position of the H2 gas jet. Image A: EUV pulse only. Image B: with H2 gas. Image C: with H2 gas and gate pulse (long-range delay τL = −73.4 fs). Image D: with H2 gas and gate pulse (long-range delay τL = 0 fs). Image E: with H2 gas and gate pulse (long-range delay τL = 93.4 fs). All images are normalized to the peak value of image A.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) the intensity distributions of the transmitted EUV pulse. IA: EUV pulse only. IB: with H2 gas. IC: with H2 gas and gate pulse (delay τ = −73.4 fs). ID: with H2 gas and gate pulse (delay τ = 0 fs). IE: with H2 gas and gate pulse (delay τ = 93.4 fs). (b) Measured transmittances TC = IC/IA, TD = ID/IA, TE = IE/IA, retrieved transmittance Tr, and retrieved EUV temporal envelope (gray area).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Detailed configuration of the EUV beam and the gate beam on the H2 gas jet.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured transmittances as functions of gate pulse delay. The EUV driving pulse duration is 80 fs. Green dashed line: gate pulse long-range delay = −226.8 fs. Red dot-dashed line: gate pulse long-range delay = 0 fs. Blue double-dot-dashed line: gate pulse long-range delay = 226.8 fs. Gray area: retrieved EUV pulse.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Retrieved EUV envelopes with 40-fs driving pulse.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Retrieved EUV envelopes with 80-fs driving pulse.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n i o n ( t ) = 1 [ 1 + exp ( t t i a ) ] 1 ,
I α ( x ) = I α ( x , y ) d y ,
τ = x sin ( θ ) / c .
T trans ( t ) = T max e [ 1 n i o n ( t ) ] β ,
T D ( τ ) = I EUV ( t ) T trans ( t cos θ τ ) d t ,
t C = j t j I EUV ( t j ) j I EUV ( t j ) ,
x C = j x j I ( x j ) j I ( x j ) ,

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