Abstract

Bowtie aperture antennas are known to generate sub-diffraction limited optical spots in the visible and near-infrared frequencies, which can be applied to many areas. Regular bowtie apertures fabricated by FIB suffer from tapered sidewall and rounded corner, which degrade its optical enhancement and localization. In this work, a new fabrication method is demonstrated to manufacture bowtie aperture antennas which can produce optical spots with lateral size smaller than 20 nm. We also employ numerical simulations to compute the near-field distribution on the surface of the bowtie aperture with topography extracted from the fabrication antennas. The near-field distribution measured by s-NSOM agrees well with the simulation and confirms the improved near-field localization of our bowtie aperture. This new fabrication method can be applied to other types of ridged apertures, which promises wide applications of deep sub-diffraction limited optical spots in many areas.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (3)

J. Berthelot, S. S. Aćimović, M. L. Juan, M. P. Kreuzer, J. Renger, and R. Quidant, “Three-dimensional manipulation with scanning near-field optical nanotweezers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 295–299 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kollmann, X. Piao, M. Esmann, S. F. Becker, D. Hou, C. Huynh, L. O. Kautschor, G. Bösker, H. Vieker, A. Beyer, A. Gölzhäuser, N. Park, R. Vogelgesang, M. Silies, and C. Lienau, “Toward plasmonics with nanometer precision: nonlinear optics of helium-ion milled gold nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4778–4784 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Zhou, Y. Li, and X. Xu, “Resolving near-field from high order signals of scattering near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18715–18723 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

S. Park, J. W. Hahn, and J. Y. Lee, “Doubly resonant metallic nanostructure for high conversion efficiency of second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 20(5), 4856–4870 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, H. Jung, Y. Kim, J. Jang, and J. W. Hahn, “Resolution limit in plasmonic lithography for practical applications beyond 2x-nm half pitch,” Adv. Mater. 24(44), OP337–OP344 (2012).
[PubMed]

M. Mivelle, T. S. van Zanten, L. Neumann, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Garcia-Parajo, “Ultrabright bowtie nanoaperture antenna probes studied by single molecule fluorescence,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5972–5978 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

B. C. Stipe, T. C. Strand, C. C. Poon, H. Balamane, T. D. Boone, J. A. Katine, J.-L. Li, V. Rawat, H. Nemoto, A. Hirotsune, O. Hellwig, R. Ruiz, E. Dobisz, D. S. Kercher, N. Robertson, T. R. Albrecht, and B. D. Terris, “Magnetic recording at 1.5 Pb m−2 using an integrated plasmonic antenna,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 484–488 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Y. Ali, W. Hung, and Y. Q. Fu, “A review of focused ion beam sputtering,” International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing. 11(1), 157–170 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Søndergaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. M. Novikov, J. Beermann, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Extraordinary optical transmission enhanced by nanofocusing,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3123–3128 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: a near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(16), 167403 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. A. Ibrahim, M. Mivelle, T. Grosjean, J. T. Allegre, G. W. Burr, and F. I. Baida, “Bowtie-shaped nanoaperture: a modal study,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2448–2450 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Tip-substrate interaction in optical near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 195410 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Wang and X. Xu, “High transmission nanoscale bowtie-shaped aperture probe for near-field optical imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261105 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

L. Wang, S. M. Uppuluri, E. X. Jin, and X. Xu, “Nanolithography using high transmission nanoscale bowtie apertures,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 361–364 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101124 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

K. Şendur, C. Peng, and W. Challener, “Near-field radiation from a ridge waveguide transducer in the vicinity of a solid immersion lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(4), 043901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Obtaining super resolution light spot using surface plasmon assisted sharp ridge nanoaperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111106 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

T. Ishitani, K. Umemura, T. Ohnishi, T. Yaguchi, and T. Kamino, “Improvements in performance of focused ion beam cross-sectioning: aspects of ion-sample interaction,” J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) 53(5), 443–449 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (6)

A. Lugstein, B. Basnar, J. Smoliner, and E. Bertagnolli, “FIB processing of silicon in the nanoscale regime,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(4), 545–548 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. Frey, C. Lehrer, and H. Ryssel, “Nanoscale effects in focused ion beam processing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(7), 1017–1023 (2003).
[Crossref]

X. Shi, L. Hesselink, and R. L. Thornton, “Ultrahigh light transmission through a C-shaped nanoaperture,” Opt. Lett. 28(15), 1320–1322 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Itagi, D. D. Stancil, J. A. Bain, and T. E. Schlesinger, “Ridge waveguide as a near-field optical source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4474 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, A. Itagi, J. A. Bain, D. D. Stancil, T. E. Schlesinger, L. Stebounova, G. C. Walker, and B. B. Akhremitchev, “Imaging of optical field confinement in ridge waveguides fabricated on very-small-aperture laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(16), 3245 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. B. Raschke and C. Lienau, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: Tip–sample coupling in elastic light scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 5089 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Complex optical constants on a subwavelength scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(14), 3029–3032 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

J. Melngailis, “Focused ion beam technology and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 5(2), 469 (1987).
[Crossref]

Acimovic, S. S.

J. Berthelot, S. S. Aćimović, M. L. Juan, M. P. Kreuzer, J. Renger, and R. Quidant, “Three-dimensional manipulation with scanning near-field optical nanotweezers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 295–299 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aizpurua, J.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akhremitchev, B. B.

F. Chen, A. Itagi, J. A. Bain, D. D. Stancil, T. E. Schlesinger, L. Stebounova, G. C. Walker, and B. B. Akhremitchev, “Imaging of optical field confinement in ridge waveguides fabricated on very-small-aperture laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(16), 3245 (2003).
[Crossref]

Albrecht, T. R.

B. C. Stipe, T. C. Strand, C. C. Poon, H. Balamane, T. D. Boone, J. A. Katine, J.-L. Li, V. Rawat, H. Nemoto, A. Hirotsune, O. Hellwig, R. Ruiz, E. Dobisz, D. S. Kercher, N. Robertson, T. R. Albrecht, and B. D. Terris, “Magnetic recording at 1.5 Pb m−2 using an integrated plasmonic antenna,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 484–488 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ali, M. Y.

M. Y. Ali, W. Hung, and Y. Q. Fu, “A review of focused ion beam sputtering,” International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing. 11(1), 157–170 (2010).
[Crossref]

Alkorta, J.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allegre, J. T.

Baida, F. I.

Bain, J. A.

A. V. Itagi, D. D. Stancil, J. A. Bain, and T. E. Schlesinger, “Ridge waveguide as a near-field optical source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4474 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, A. Itagi, J. A. Bain, D. D. Stancil, T. E. Schlesinger, L. Stebounova, G. C. Walker, and B. B. Akhremitchev, “Imaging of optical field confinement in ridge waveguides fabricated on very-small-aperture laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(16), 3245 (2003).
[Crossref]

Balamane, H.

B. C. Stipe, T. C. Strand, C. C. Poon, H. Balamane, T. D. Boone, J. A. Katine, J.-L. Li, V. Rawat, H. Nemoto, A. Hirotsune, O. Hellwig, R. Ruiz, E. Dobisz, D. S. Kercher, N. Robertson, T. R. Albrecht, and B. D. Terris, “Magnetic recording at 1.5 Pb m−2 using an integrated plasmonic antenna,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 484–488 (2010).
[Crossref]

Basnar, B.

A. Lugstein, B. Basnar, J. Smoliner, and E. Bertagnolli, “FIB processing of silicon in the nanoscale regime,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(4), 545–548 (2003).
[Crossref]

Becker, S. F.

H. Kollmann, X. Piao, M. Esmann, S. F. Becker, D. Hou, C. Huynh, L. O. Kautschor, G. Bösker, H. Vieker, A. Beyer, A. Gölzhäuser, N. Park, R. Vogelgesang, M. Silies, and C. Lienau, “Toward plasmonics with nanometer precision: nonlinear optics of helium-ion milled gold nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4778–4784 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beermann, J.

T. Søndergaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. M. Novikov, J. Beermann, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Extraordinary optical transmission enhanced by nanofocusing,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3123–3128 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bertagnolli, E.

A. Lugstein, B. Basnar, J. Smoliner, and E. Bertagnolli, “FIB processing of silicon in the nanoscale regime,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(4), 545–548 (2003).
[Crossref]

Berthelot, J.

J. Berthelot, S. S. Aćimović, M. L. Juan, M. P. Kreuzer, J. Renger, and R. Quidant, “Three-dimensional manipulation with scanning near-field optical nanotweezers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 295–299 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beyer, A.

H. Kollmann, X. Piao, M. Esmann, S. F. Becker, D. Hou, C. Huynh, L. O. Kautschor, G. Bösker, H. Vieker, A. Beyer, A. Gölzhäuser, N. Park, R. Vogelgesang, M. Silies, and C. Lienau, “Toward plasmonics with nanometer precision: nonlinear optics of helium-ion milled gold nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4778–4784 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boone, T. D.

B. C. Stipe, T. C. Strand, C. C. Poon, H. Balamane, T. D. Boone, J. A. Katine, J.-L. Li, V. Rawat, H. Nemoto, A. Hirotsune, O. Hellwig, R. Ruiz, E. Dobisz, D. S. Kercher, N. Robertson, T. R. Albrecht, and B. D. Terris, “Magnetic recording at 1.5 Pb m−2 using an integrated plasmonic antenna,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 484–488 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boreman, G. D.

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: a near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(16), 167403 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bösker, G.

H. Kollmann, X. Piao, M. Esmann, S. F. Becker, D. Hou, C. Huynh, L. O. Kautschor, G. Bösker, H. Vieker, A. Beyer, A. Gölzhäuser, N. Park, R. Vogelgesang, M. Silies, and C. Lienau, “Toward plasmonics with nanometer precision: nonlinear optics of helium-ion milled gold nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4778–4784 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

T. Søndergaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. M. Novikov, J. Beermann, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Extraordinary optical transmission enhanced by nanofocusing,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3123–3128 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burr, G. W.

Challener, W.

K. Şendur, C. Peng, and W. Challener, “Near-field radiation from a ridge waveguide transducer in the vicinity of a solid immersion lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(4), 043901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, F.

F. Chen, A. Itagi, J. A. Bain, D. D. Stancil, T. E. Schlesinger, L. Stebounova, G. C. Walker, and B. B. Akhremitchev, “Imaging of optical field confinement in ridge waveguides fabricated on very-small-aperture laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(16), 3245 (2003).
[Crossref]

Clinton, T. W.

Cui, B.

J. Zhang, M. Irannejad, and B. Cui, “Bowtie nanoantenna with single-digit nanometer gap for Surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS),” Plasmonics 10.1007/s11468-014-9870-5 (2014).
[Crossref]

Devaux, E.

T. Søndergaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. M. Novikov, J. Beermann, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Extraordinary optical transmission enhanced by nanofocusing,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3123–3128 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dobisz, E.

B. C. Stipe, T. C. Strand, C. C. Poon, H. Balamane, T. D. Boone, J. A. Katine, J.-L. Li, V. Rawat, H. Nemoto, A. Hirotsune, O. Hellwig, R. Ruiz, E. Dobisz, D. S. Kercher, N. Robertson, T. R. Albrecht, and B. D. Terris, “Magnetic recording at 1.5 Pb m−2 using an integrated plasmonic antenna,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 484–488 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ebbesen, T. W.

T. Søndergaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. M. Novikov, J. Beermann, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Extraordinary optical transmission enhanced by nanofocusing,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3123–3128 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Esmann, M.

H. Kollmann, X. Piao, M. Esmann, S. F. Becker, D. Hou, C. Huynh, L. O. Kautschor, G. Bösker, H. Vieker, A. Beyer, A. Gölzhäuser, N. Park, R. Vogelgesang, M. Silies, and C. Lienau, “Toward plasmonics with nanometer precision: nonlinear optics of helium-ion milled gold nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4778–4784 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Esteban, R.

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Tip-substrate interaction in optical near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 195410 (2007).
[Crossref]

Frey, L.

L. Frey, C. Lehrer, and H. Ryssel, “Nanoscale effects in focused ion beam processing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(7), 1017–1023 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fu, Y. Q.

M. Y. Ali, W. Hung, and Y. Q. Fu, “A review of focused ion beam sputtering,” International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing. 11(1), 157–170 (2010).
[Crossref]

Garcia-Etxarri, A.

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M. Mivelle, T. S. van Zanten, L. Neumann, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Garcia-Parajo, “Ultrabright bowtie nanoaperture antenna probes studied by single molecule fluorescence,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5972–5978 (2012).
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J. Zhang, M. Irannejad, and B. Cui, “Bowtie nanoantenna with single-digit nanometer gap for Surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS),” Plasmonics 10.1007/s11468-014-9870-5 (2014).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mivelle, T. S. van Zanten, L. Neumann, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Garcia-Parajo, “Ultrabright bowtie nanoaperture antenna probes studied by single molecule fluorescence,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5972–5978 (2012).
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J. Zhang, M. Irannejad, and B. Cui, “Bowtie nanoantenna with single-digit nanometer gap for Surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS),” Plasmonics 10.1007/s11468-014-9870-5 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the fabrication process.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SEM images of one fabricated bowtie aperture (scale bar: 300nm). (a), (b) top view and side view (52deg with respect to the normal of the sample) on Si3N4 side, (c), (d) top view and side view on Au side.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a), (b) schematic of the simulation model. (c)- (f) FDTD simulation results in a 600 × 600 nm2 region. (c), (d) amplitude and phase of Ez, (e), (f) amplitude and phase of Ex.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 s-NSOM results, scan range: 500 nm × 500 nm, scan bar: 200 nm. The amplitude signal is normalized. (a) Schematic of the collection path and far field polarizations. (b) Topography. (c), (d) Amplitude and phase of Ep. (e), (f) Amplitude and phase of Es. The pictures of the right column are cutline curves across the gap of the bowtie aperture in the pictures of the left column.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Near-field localization and enhancement of three types of bowtie apertures

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