Abstract

We demonstrate flexible CdTe/CdS thin-film solar cells in a superstrate configuration with a cell conversion efficiency as high as 10.9%. We deposit a CdS window layer and a CdTe absorber layer on a flexible glass substrate using the chemical bath deposition method and close-spaced sublimation method, respectively. The thin and flexible glass substrates were able to tolerate a high growth temperature and post-growth processes. We repeatedly apply a strain of 0.15% to the fabricated CdTe/CdS solar cells, and this was shown to have a negligible effect on their performances. Our proposed thin films-on-compliant substrate structure, which was prepared by replacing a rigid glass with a bendable one, demonstrated flexible CdTe/CdS p-n junction thin-film solar cells without compromising the cell performance.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Post-growth process for flexible CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells with high specific power

Eunwoo Cho, Yoonmook Kang, Donghwan Kim, and Jihyun Kim
Opt. Express 24(10) A791-A796 (2016)

Post-growth CdCl2 treatment on CdTe thin films grown on graphene layers using a close-spaced sublimation method

Younghun Jung, Gwangseok Yang, Seungju Chun, Donghwan Kim, and Jihyun Kim
Opt. Express 22(S3) A986-A991 (2014)

Bifacial CdS/CdTe thin-film solar cells with copper nanowires as a transparent back contact

Eunkyo Byun, Jaeyoung Seo, Donghwan Kim, and Jihyun Kim
Opt. Express 26(18) 23594-23601 (2018)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. Lungenschmied, G. Dennler, H. Neugebauer, S. N. Sariciftci, M. Glatthaar, T. Meyer, and A. Meyer, “Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 379–384 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Pagliaro, R. Ciriminna, and G. Palmisano, “Flexible Solar Cells,” ChemSusChem 1(11), 880–891 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(30), 5442–5451 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  4. L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2306 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. A. McEvoy, T. Markvart, and L. Castañer, Solar Cells: Materials, Manufacture and Operation, in CdTe Thin-Film PV Modules 2nd ed. (Elsevier, 2013).
  6. J. Poortmans and V. Arkhipov, Thin Film Solar Cells: Fabrication, Characterization and Applications in Cadmium Telluride Thin Film Solar Cells: Characterization, Fabrication, and Modelling (Wiley, 2006).
  7. M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cells efficiency tables (Version 45),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(1), 1–9 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  8. X. Mathew, J. P. Enriquez, A. Romeo, and A. N. Tiwari, “CdTe/CdS solar cells on flexible substrates,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 831–838 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. N. Tiwari, A. Romeo, D. Baetzner, and H. Zogg, “Flexible CdTe Solar Cells on Polymer Films,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 9(3), 211–215 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  10. W. L. Rance, J. M. Burst, D. M. Meysing, C. A. Wolden, M. O. Reese, T. A. Gessert, W. K. Metzger, S. Garner, P. Cimo, and T. M. Barnes, “14%-efficient flexible CdTe solar cells on ultra-thin glass substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143903 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. Wagner, H. Gleskova, I.-C. Cheng, J. C. Sturm, and Z. Suo, “Mechanics of TFT Technology on Flexible Substrates,” inFlexible Flat Panel Display, edited by G. P. Crawford (John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, England, 2005).
  12. W.-O. Seo, Y. Jung, J. Kim, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Chemical bath deposition of cadmium sulfide on graphene-coated flexible glass substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(13), 133902 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  13. W.-O. Seo, Y. H. Koo, B. Kim, B. C. Lee, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Flexible cadmium telluride thin films grown on electron-beam-irradiated graphene/thin glass substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 083902 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  14. K. Durose, P. R. Edwards, and D. P. Halliday, “Materials aspects of CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Cryst. Growth 197(3), 733–742 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  15. Y. Jung, G. Yang, S. Chun, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Post-growth CdCl2 treatment on CdTe thin films grown on graphene layers using a close-spaced sublimation method,” Opt. Express 22(S3), A986–A991 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  16. H. R. Moutinho, M. M. Al-Jassim, D. H. Levi, P. C. Dippo, and L. L. Kazmerski, “Effects of CdCl2 treatment on the recrystallization and electro-optical properties of CdTe thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16(3), 1251–1257 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. D. Major, R. E. Treharne, L. J. Phillips, and K. Durose, “A low-cost non-toxic post-growth activation step for CdTe solar cells,” Nature 511(7509), 334–337 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. J. Lewis, “Material challenge for flexible organic devices,” Mater. Today 9(4), 38–45 (2006).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cells efficiency tables (Version 45),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(1), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

Y. Jung, G. Yang, S. Chun, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Post-growth CdCl2 treatment on CdTe thin films grown on graphene layers using a close-spaced sublimation method,” Opt. Express 22(S3), A986–A991 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. D. Major, R. E. Treharne, L. J. Phillips, and K. Durose, “A low-cost non-toxic post-growth activation step for CdTe solar cells,” Nature 511(7509), 334–337 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Rance, J. M. Burst, D. M. Meysing, C. A. Wolden, M. O. Reese, T. A. Gessert, W. K. Metzger, S. Garner, P. Cimo, and T. M. Barnes, “14%-efficient flexible CdTe solar cells on ultra-thin glass substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143903 (2014).
[Crossref]

W.-O. Seo, Y. Jung, J. Kim, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Chemical bath deposition of cadmium sulfide on graphene-coated flexible glass substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(13), 133902 (2014).
[Crossref]

W.-O. Seo, Y. H. Koo, B. Kim, B. C. Lee, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Flexible cadmium telluride thin films grown on electron-beam-irradiated graphene/thin glass substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 083902 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2306 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(30), 5442–5451 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

M. Pagliaro, R. Ciriminna, and G. Palmisano, “Flexible Solar Cells,” ChemSusChem 1(11), 880–891 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

C. Lungenschmied, G. Dennler, H. Neugebauer, S. N. Sariciftci, M. Glatthaar, T. Meyer, and A. Meyer, “Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 379–384 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

J. Lewis, “Material challenge for flexible organic devices,” Mater. Today 9(4), 38–45 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

X. Mathew, J. P. Enriquez, A. Romeo, and A. N. Tiwari, “CdTe/CdS solar cells on flexible substrates,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 831–838 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

A. N. Tiwari, A. Romeo, D. Baetzner, and H. Zogg, “Flexible CdTe Solar Cells on Polymer Films,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 9(3), 211–215 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

K. Durose, P. R. Edwards, and D. P. Halliday, “Materials aspects of CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Cryst. Growth 197(3), 733–742 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

H. R. Moutinho, M. M. Al-Jassim, D. H. Levi, P. C. Dippo, and L. L. Kazmerski, “Effects of CdCl2 treatment on the recrystallization and electro-optical properties of CdTe thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16(3), 1251–1257 (1998).
[Crossref]

Al-Jassim, M. M.

H. R. Moutinho, M. M. Al-Jassim, D. H. Levi, P. C. Dippo, and L. L. Kazmerski, “Effects of CdCl2 treatment on the recrystallization and electro-optical properties of CdTe thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16(3), 1251–1257 (1998).
[Crossref]

Alstrup, J.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(30), 5442–5451 (2009).
[Crossref]

Baetzner, D.

A. N. Tiwari, A. Romeo, D. Baetzner, and H. Zogg, “Flexible CdTe Solar Cells on Polymer Films,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 9(3), 211–215 (2001).
[Crossref]

Barnes, T. M.

W. L. Rance, J. M. Burst, D. M. Meysing, C. A. Wolden, M. O. Reese, T. A. Gessert, W. K. Metzger, S. Garner, P. Cimo, and T. M. Barnes, “14%-efficient flexible CdTe solar cells on ultra-thin glass substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143903 (2014).
[Crossref]

Blösch, P.

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2306 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buecheler, S.

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2306 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burst, J. M.

W. L. Rance, J. M. Burst, D. M. Meysing, C. A. Wolden, M. O. Reese, T. A. Gessert, W. K. Metzger, S. Garner, P. Cimo, and T. M. Barnes, “14%-efficient flexible CdTe solar cells on ultra-thin glass substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143903 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheah, E.

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2306 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chirila, A.

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2306 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chun, S.

Cimo, P.

W. L. Rance, J. M. Burst, D. M. Meysing, C. A. Wolden, M. O. Reese, T. A. Gessert, W. K. Metzger, S. Garner, P. Cimo, and T. M. Barnes, “14%-efficient flexible CdTe solar cells on ultra-thin glass substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143903 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ciriminna, R.

M. Pagliaro, R. Ciriminna, and G. Palmisano, “Flexible Solar Cells,” ChemSusChem 1(11), 880–891 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dennler, G.

C. Lungenschmied, G. Dennler, H. Neugebauer, S. N. Sariciftci, M. Glatthaar, T. Meyer, and A. Meyer, “Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 379–384 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dippo, P. C.

H. R. Moutinho, M. M. Al-Jassim, D. H. Levi, P. C. Dippo, and L. L. Kazmerski, “Effects of CdCl2 treatment on the recrystallization and electro-optical properties of CdTe thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16(3), 1251–1257 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dunlop, E. D.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cells efficiency tables (Version 45),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(1), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

Durose, K.

J. D. Major, R. E. Treharne, L. J. Phillips, and K. Durose, “A low-cost non-toxic post-growth activation step for CdTe solar cells,” Nature 511(7509), 334–337 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Durose, P. R. Edwards, and D. P. Halliday, “Materials aspects of CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Cryst. Growth 197(3), 733–742 (1999).
[Crossref]

Edwards, P. R.

K. Durose, P. R. Edwards, and D. P. Halliday, “Materials aspects of CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Cryst. Growth 197(3), 733–742 (1999).
[Crossref]

Emery, K.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cells efficiency tables (Version 45),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(1), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

Enriquez, J. P.

X. Mathew, J. P. Enriquez, A. Romeo, and A. N. Tiwari, “CdTe/CdS solar cells on flexible substrates,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 831–838 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fella, C. M.

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2306 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garner, S.

W. L. Rance, J. M. Burst, D. M. Meysing, C. A. Wolden, M. O. Reese, T. A. Gessert, W. K. Metzger, S. Garner, P. Cimo, and T. M. Barnes, “14%-efficient flexible CdTe solar cells on ultra-thin glass substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143903 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gessert, T. A.

W. L. Rance, J. M. Burst, D. M. Meysing, C. A. Wolden, M. O. Reese, T. A. Gessert, W. K. Metzger, S. Garner, P. Cimo, and T. M. Barnes, “14%-efficient flexible CdTe solar cells on ultra-thin glass substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143903 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gevorgyan, S. A.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(30), 5442–5451 (2009).
[Crossref]

Glatthaar, M.

C. Lungenschmied, G. Dennler, H. Neugebauer, S. N. Sariciftci, M. Glatthaar, T. Meyer, and A. Meyer, “Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 379–384 (2007).
[Crossref]

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cells efficiency tables (Version 45),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(1), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gretener, C.

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2306 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hagendorfer, H.

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2306 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halliday, D. P.

K. Durose, P. R. Edwards, and D. P. Halliday, “Materials aspects of CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Cryst. Growth 197(3), 733–742 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hishikawa, Y.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cells efficiency tables (Version 45),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(1), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jäger, T.

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2306 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, Y.

Y. Jung, G. Yang, S. Chun, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Post-growth CdCl2 treatment on CdTe thin films grown on graphene layers using a close-spaced sublimation method,” Opt. Express 22(S3), A986–A991 (2014).
[Crossref]

W.-O. Seo, Y. Jung, J. Kim, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Chemical bath deposition of cadmium sulfide on graphene-coated flexible glass substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(13), 133902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kazmerski, L. L.

H. R. Moutinho, M. M. Al-Jassim, D. H. Levi, P. C. Dippo, and L. L. Kazmerski, “Effects of CdCl2 treatment on the recrystallization and electro-optical properties of CdTe thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16(3), 1251–1257 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kim, B.

W.-O. Seo, Y. H. Koo, B. Kim, B. C. Lee, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Flexible cadmium telluride thin films grown on electron-beam-irradiated graphene/thin glass substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 083902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.

W.-O. Seo, Y. Jung, J. Kim, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Chemical bath deposition of cadmium sulfide on graphene-coated flexible glass substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(13), 133902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Jung, G. Yang, S. Chun, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Post-growth CdCl2 treatment on CdTe thin films grown on graphene layers using a close-spaced sublimation method,” Opt. Express 22(S3), A986–A991 (2014).
[Crossref]

W.-O. Seo, Y. H. Koo, B. Kim, B. C. Lee, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Flexible cadmium telluride thin films grown on electron-beam-irradiated graphene/thin glass substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 083902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

W.-O. Seo, Y. H. Koo, B. Kim, B. C. Lee, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Flexible cadmium telluride thin films grown on electron-beam-irradiated graphene/thin glass substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 083902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Jung, G. Yang, S. Chun, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Post-growth CdCl2 treatment on CdTe thin films grown on graphene layers using a close-spaced sublimation method,” Opt. Express 22(S3), A986–A991 (2014).
[Crossref]

W.-O. Seo, Y. Jung, J. Kim, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Chemical bath deposition of cadmium sulfide on graphene-coated flexible glass substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(13), 133902 (2014).
[Crossref]

W.-O. Seo, Y. Jung, J. Kim, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Chemical bath deposition of cadmium sulfide on graphene-coated flexible glass substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(13), 133902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koo, Y. H.

W.-O. Seo, Y. H. Koo, B. Kim, B. C. Lee, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Flexible cadmium telluride thin films grown on electron-beam-irradiated graphene/thin glass substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 083902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kranz, L.

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2306 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krebs, F. C.

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(30), 5442–5451 (2009).
[Crossref]

La Mattina, F.

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2306 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, B. C.

W.-O. Seo, Y. H. Koo, B. Kim, B. C. Lee, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Flexible cadmium telluride thin films grown on electron-beam-irradiated graphene/thin glass substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 083902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Levi, D. H.

H. R. Moutinho, M. M. Al-Jassim, D. H. Levi, P. C. Dippo, and L. L. Kazmerski, “Effects of CdCl2 treatment on the recrystallization and electro-optical properties of CdTe thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16(3), 1251–1257 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lewis, J.

J. Lewis, “Material challenge for flexible organic devices,” Mater. Today 9(4), 38–45 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lungenschmied, C.

C. Lungenschmied, G. Dennler, H. Neugebauer, S. N. Sariciftci, M. Glatthaar, T. Meyer, and A. Meyer, “Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 379–384 (2007).
[Crossref]

Major, J. D.

J. D. Major, R. E. Treharne, L. J. Phillips, and K. Durose, “A low-cost non-toxic post-growth activation step for CdTe solar cells,” Nature 511(7509), 334–337 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mathew, X.

X. Mathew, J. P. Enriquez, A. Romeo, and A. N. Tiwari, “CdTe/CdS solar cells on flexible substrates,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 831–838 (2004).
[Crossref]

Metzger, W. K.

W. L. Rance, J. M. Burst, D. M. Meysing, C. A. Wolden, M. O. Reese, T. A. Gessert, W. K. Metzger, S. Garner, P. Cimo, and T. M. Barnes, “14%-efficient flexible CdTe solar cells on ultra-thin glass substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143903 (2014).
[Crossref]

Meyer, A.

C. Lungenschmied, G. Dennler, H. Neugebauer, S. N. Sariciftci, M. Glatthaar, T. Meyer, and A. Meyer, “Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 379–384 (2007).
[Crossref]

Meyer, T.

C. Lungenschmied, G. Dennler, H. Neugebauer, S. N. Sariciftci, M. Glatthaar, T. Meyer, and A. Meyer, “Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 379–384 (2007).
[Crossref]

Meysing, D. M.

W. L. Rance, J. M. Burst, D. M. Meysing, C. A. Wolden, M. O. Reese, T. A. Gessert, W. K. Metzger, S. Garner, P. Cimo, and T. M. Barnes, “14%-efficient flexible CdTe solar cells on ultra-thin glass substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143903 (2014).
[Crossref]

Moutinho, H. R.

H. R. Moutinho, M. M. Al-Jassim, D. H. Levi, P. C. Dippo, and L. L. Kazmerski, “Effects of CdCl2 treatment on the recrystallization and electro-optical properties of CdTe thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16(3), 1251–1257 (1998).
[Crossref]

Neugebauer, H.

C. Lungenschmied, G. Dennler, H. Neugebauer, S. N. Sariciftci, M. Glatthaar, T. Meyer, and A. Meyer, “Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 379–384 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nishiwaki, S.

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2306 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pagliaro, M.

M. Pagliaro, R. Ciriminna, and G. Palmisano, “Flexible Solar Cells,” ChemSusChem 1(11), 880–891 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palmisano, G.

M. Pagliaro, R. Ciriminna, and G. Palmisano, “Flexible Solar Cells,” ChemSusChem 1(11), 880–891 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perrenoud, J.

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2306 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phillips, L. J.

J. D. Major, R. E. Treharne, L. J. Phillips, and K. Durose, “A low-cost non-toxic post-growth activation step for CdTe solar cells,” Nature 511(7509), 334–337 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pianezzi, F.

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2306 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rance, W. L.

W. L. Rance, J. M. Burst, D. M. Meysing, C. A. Wolden, M. O. Reese, T. A. Gessert, W. K. Metzger, S. Garner, P. Cimo, and T. M. Barnes, “14%-efficient flexible CdTe solar cells on ultra-thin glass substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143903 (2014).
[Crossref]

Reese, M. O.

W. L. Rance, J. M. Burst, D. M. Meysing, C. A. Wolden, M. O. Reese, T. A. Gessert, W. K. Metzger, S. Garner, P. Cimo, and T. M. Barnes, “14%-efficient flexible CdTe solar cells on ultra-thin glass substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143903 (2014).
[Crossref]

Romeo, A.

X. Mathew, J. P. Enriquez, A. Romeo, and A. N. Tiwari, “CdTe/CdS solar cells on flexible substrates,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 831–838 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. N. Tiwari, A. Romeo, D. Baetzner, and H. Zogg, “Flexible CdTe Solar Cells on Polymer Films,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 9(3), 211–215 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sariciftci, S. N.

C. Lungenschmied, G. Dennler, H. Neugebauer, S. N. Sariciftci, M. Glatthaar, T. Meyer, and A. Meyer, “Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 379–384 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schmitt, R.

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2306 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seo, W.-O.

W.-O. Seo, Y. Jung, J. Kim, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Chemical bath deposition of cadmium sulfide on graphene-coated flexible glass substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(13), 133902 (2014).
[Crossref]

W.-O. Seo, Y. H. Koo, B. Kim, B. C. Lee, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Flexible cadmium telluride thin films grown on electron-beam-irradiated graphene/thin glass substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 083902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tiwari, A. N.

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2306 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Mathew, J. P. Enriquez, A. Romeo, and A. N. Tiwari, “CdTe/CdS solar cells on flexible substrates,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 831–838 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. N. Tiwari, A. Romeo, D. Baetzner, and H. Zogg, “Flexible CdTe Solar Cells on Polymer Films,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 9(3), 211–215 (2001).
[Crossref]

Treharne, R. E.

J. D. Major, R. E. Treharne, L. J. Phillips, and K. Durose, “A low-cost non-toxic post-growth activation step for CdTe solar cells,” Nature 511(7509), 334–337 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uhl, A. R.

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2306 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Warta, W.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cells efficiency tables (Version 45),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(1), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wolden, C. A.

W. L. Rance, J. M. Burst, D. M. Meysing, C. A. Wolden, M. O. Reese, T. A. Gessert, W. K. Metzger, S. Garner, P. Cimo, and T. M. Barnes, “14%-efficient flexible CdTe solar cells on ultra-thin glass substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143903 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, G.

Zogg, H.

A. N. Tiwari, A. Romeo, D. Baetzner, and H. Zogg, “Flexible CdTe Solar Cells on Polymer Films,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 9(3), 211–215 (2001).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

W.-O. Seo, Y. Jung, J. Kim, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Chemical bath deposition of cadmium sulfide on graphene-coated flexible glass substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(13), 133902 (2014).
[Crossref]

W.-O. Seo, Y. H. Koo, B. Kim, B. C. Lee, D. Kim, and J. Kim, “Flexible cadmium telluride thin films grown on electron-beam-irradiated graphene/thin glass substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 083902 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. L. Rance, J. M. Burst, D. M. Meysing, C. A. Wolden, M. O. Reese, T. A. Gessert, W. K. Metzger, S. Garner, P. Cimo, and T. M. Barnes, “14%-efficient flexible CdTe solar cells on ultra-thin glass substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143903 (2014).
[Crossref]

ChemSusChem (1)

M. Pagliaro, R. Ciriminna, and G. Palmisano, “Flexible Solar Cells,” ChemSusChem 1(11), 880–891 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

K. Durose, P. R. Edwards, and D. P. Halliday, “Materials aspects of CdTe/CdS solar cells,” J. Cryst. Growth 197(3), 733–742 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

F. C. Krebs, S. A. Gevorgyan, and J. Alstrup, “A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(30), 5442–5451 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

H. R. Moutinho, M. M. Al-Jassim, D. H. Levi, P. C. Dippo, and L. L. Kazmerski, “Effects of CdCl2 treatment on the recrystallization and electro-optical properties of CdTe thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16(3), 1251–1257 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mater. Today (1)

J. Lewis, “Material challenge for flexible organic devices,” Mater. Today 9(4), 38–45 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

L. Kranz, C. Gretener, J. Perrenoud, R. Schmitt, F. Pianezzi, F. La Mattina, P. Blösch, E. Cheah, A. Chirilă, C. M. Fella, H. Hagendorfer, T. Jäger, S. Nishiwaki, A. R. Uhl, S. Buecheler, and A. N. Tiwari, “Doping of polycrystalline CdTe for high-efficiency solar cells on flexible metal foil,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2306 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

J. D. Major, R. E. Treharne, L. J. Phillips, and K. Durose, “A low-cost non-toxic post-growth activation step for CdTe solar cells,” Nature 511(7509), 334–337 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (2)

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cells efficiency tables (Version 45),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(1), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. N. Tiwari, A. Romeo, D. Baetzner, and H. Zogg, “Flexible CdTe Solar Cells on Polymer Films,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 9(3), 211–215 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sol. Energy (1)

X. Mathew, J. P. Enriquez, A. Romeo, and A. N. Tiwari, “CdTe/CdS solar cells on flexible substrates,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 831–838 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

C. Lungenschmied, G. Dennler, H. Neugebauer, S. N. Sariciftci, M. Glatthaar, T. Meyer, and A. Meyer, “Flexible, long-lived, large-area, organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 379–384 (2007).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

A. McEvoy, T. Markvart, and L. Castañer, Solar Cells: Materials, Manufacture and Operation, in CdTe Thin-Film PV Modules 2nd ed. (Elsevier, 2013).

J. Poortmans and V. Arkhipov, Thin Film Solar Cells: Fabrication, Characterization and Applications in Cadmium Telluride Thin Film Solar Cells: Characterization, Fabrication, and Modelling (Wiley, 2006).

S. Wagner, H. Gleskova, I.-C. Cheng, J. C. Sturm, and Z. Suo, “Mechanics of TFT Technology on Flexible Substrates,” inFlexible Flat Panel Display, edited by G. P. Crawford (John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, England, 2005).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the fabrication procedure illustrating the individual steps. (a) ITO thin films (200 nm)/glass (300 μm), (b) CdS (300 nm)/ITO/thin glass, (c) CdTe (10 μm)/CdS/ITO/thin glass, and (d) Cu/Au (30 nm/120 nm) electrodes/CdTe/CdS/ITO/thin glass.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) PL spectrum of CdS, (b) PL spectrum of CdTe, (c) transmission spectra of the thin glass substrate (black), ITO/thin glass (blue), and CdS/ITO/thin glass (red), and (d) XRD data of a CdTe thin film after the CdCl2 activation process (inset: photograph of the fabricated CdTe/CdS solar cells).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a)The maximum cell efficiency results, (b) ITO sheet resistance before and after a repeated strain test at a tensile strain of 0.15% (inset: photograph of the ITO/glass under a strain of 0.15%), and (c) device efficiencies after the repeated tensile strain (inset: photograph of the CdS/CdTe solar cells under a strain of 0.15%).

Metrics