Abstract

On-chip optical isolators not requiring the use of magneto-optical materials has become a long-standing challenge in integrated optics. Here, we demonstrate that a traditional travelling-wave modulator can effectively function as an optical isolator, when driven under a prescribed modulation condition. By using an off-shelve lithium niobate modulator, we achieve more than 12.5 dB isolation over an 11.3-THz bandwidth at telecommunication wavelengths with a fiber-to-fiber insertion loss of 5.5 dB, by employing only a single radio-frequency drive signal. We also verify that the proposed active isolator can be functional in a laser system to effectively prevent instability due to strong back reflections. Since travelling-wave modulators are common devices in III-V and silicon photonics, our simple but efficient architecture may provide a practical solution to non-reciprocal light routing in photonic integrated circuits.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

2013 (3)

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, H. S. Kim, D. H. Kim, M. C. Onbasli, G. F. Dionne, and C. A. Ross, “Magneto-optical thin films for on-chip monolithic integration of non-reciprocal photonic devices,” Materials 6(11), 5094–5117 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Silicon optical diode with 40 dB nonreciprocal transmission,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1259–1261 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An all-silicon passive optical diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lira, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Electrically driven nonreciprocity induced by interband photonic transition on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ghosh, S. Keyvavinia, W. Van Roy, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Ce:YIG/Silicon-on-Insulator waveguide optical isolator realized by adhesive bonding,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1839–1848 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Fang, Z. Yu, and S. Fan, “Realizing effective magnetic field for photons by controlling the phase of dynamic modulation,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 782–787 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y.-K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2009 (1)

Z. Yu and S. Fan, “Complete optical isolation created by indirect interband photonic transitions,” Nat. Photonics 3(2), 91–94 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood., “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071117 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. R. Zaman, X. Guo, and R. J. Ram, “Semiconductor waveguide isolators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(2), 291–301 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, S. F. Preble, J. T. Robinson, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Inducing photonic transitions between discrete modes in a silicon optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 033904 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

H. Shimizu and Y. Nakano, “Fabrication and characterization of an InGaAsp/InP active waveguide optical isolator with 14.7 dB/mm TE mode nonreciprocal attenuation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 38–43 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Van Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071115 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, and R. Noe, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated in III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 417–421 (2005).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

J. Mork, B. Tromborg, and J. Mark, “Chaos in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 93–108 (1992).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

R. G. Smith, “Use of the acoustooptic light deflector as an optical isolator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 545–546 (1973).
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Ghosh, S. Keyvavinia, W. Van Roy, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Ce:YIG/Silicon-on-Insulator waveguide optical isolator realized by adhesive bonding,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1839–1848 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Van Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bergman, K.

Bhandare, S.

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, and R. Noe, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated in III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 417–421 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bi, L.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, H. S. Kim, D. H. Kim, M. C. Onbasli, G. F. Dionne, and C. A. Ross, “Magneto-optical thin films for on-chip monolithic integration of non-reciprocal photonic devices,” Materials 6(11), 5094–5117 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

Chen, L.

Chen, Y.-K.

Dagens, B.

W. Van Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Decobert, J.

W. Van Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ding, R.

Dionne, G. F.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, H. S. Kim, D. H. Kim, M. C. Onbasli, G. F. Dionne, and C. A. Ross, “Magneto-optical thin films for on-chip monolithic integration of non-reciprocal photonic devices,” Materials 6(11), 5094–5117 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, and D. Vermeulen, “Silicon photonics broadband modulation-based isolator,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4493–4498 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. R. Doerr, N. Dupuis, and L. Zhang, “Optical isolator using two tandem phase modulators,” Opt. Lett. 36(21), 4293–4295 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, P.

P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y.-K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. F. Preble, J. T. Robinson, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Inducing photonic transitions between discrete modes in a silicon optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 033904 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dupuis, N.

Eggleton, B. J.

E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, K. Fang, and S. Fan, “Photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect in photon-phonon interactions,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3225 (2014).
[PubMed]

Eich, M.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fan, L.

L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Silicon optical diode with 40 dB nonreciprocal transmission,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1259–1261 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An all-silicon passive optical diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, K. Fang, and S. Fan, “Photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect in photon-phonon interactions,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3225 (2014).
[PubMed]

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Fang, Z. Yu, and S. Fan, “Realizing effective magnetic field for photons by controlling the phase of dynamic modulation,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 782–787 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Lira, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Electrically driven nonreciprocity induced by interband photonic transition on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yu and S. Fan, “Complete optical isolation created by indirect interband photonic transitions,” Nat. Photonics 3(2), 91–94 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fang, K.

E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, K. Fang, and S. Fan, “Photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect in photon-phonon interactions,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3225 (2014).
[PubMed]

K. Fang, Z. Yu, and S. Fan, “Realizing effective magnetic field for photons by controlling the phase of dynamic modulation,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 782–787 (2012).
[Crossref]

Freude, W.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Galland, C.

Ghosh, S.

Gouezigou, O. L.

W. Van Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

Hochberg, M.

Hsieh, I.

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood., “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hu, J.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, H. S. Kim, D. H. Kim, M. C. Onbasli, G. F. Dionne, and C. A. Ross, “Magneto-optical thin films for on-chip monolithic integration of non-reciprocal photonic devices,” Materials 6(11), 5094–5117 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hwang, J.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ibrahim, S. K.

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, and R. Noe, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated in III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 417–421 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, K.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jalas, D.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jiang, P.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, H. S. Kim, D. H. Kim, M. C. Onbasli, G. F. Dionne, and C. A. Ross, “Magneto-optical thin films for on-chip monolithic integration of non-reciprocal photonic devices,” Materials 6(11), 5094–5117 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Keyvavinia, S.

Kim, D. H.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, H. S. Kim, D. H. Kim, M. C. Onbasli, G. F. Dionne, and C. A. Ross, “Magneto-optical thin films for on-chip monolithic integration of non-reciprocal photonic devices,” Materials 6(11), 5094–5117 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. S.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, H. S. Kim, D. H. Kim, M. C. Onbasli, G. F. Dionne, and C. A. Ross, “Magneto-optical thin films for on-chip monolithic integration of non-reciprocal photonic devices,” Materials 6(11), 5094–5117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kimerling, L. C.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kromer, H.

Lagae, L.

W. Van Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, E.

E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, K. Fang, and S. Fan, “Photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect in photon-phonon interactions,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3225 (2014).
[PubMed]

Li, Q.

Lipson, M.

H. Lira, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Electrically driven nonreciprocity induced by interband photonic transition on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. F. Preble, J. T. Robinson, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Inducing photonic transitions between discrete modes in a silicon optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 033904 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lira, H.

H. Lira, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Electrically driven nonreciprocity induced by interband photonic transition on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Make, D.

W. Van Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Manipatruni, S.

P. Dong, S. F. Preble, J. T. Robinson, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Inducing photonic transitions between discrete modes in a silicon optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 033904 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mark, J.

J. Mork, B. Tromborg, and J. Mark, “Chaos in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 93–108 (1992).
[Crossref]

Melloni, A.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mizumoto, T.

Y. Shoji and T. Mizumoto, “Magneto-optical non-reciprocal devices in silicon photonics,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15(1), 014602 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Ghosh, S. Keyvavinia, W. Van Roy, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Ce:YIG/Silicon-on-Insulator waveguide optical isolator realized by adhesive bonding,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1839–1848 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Tien, T. Mizumoto, P. Pintus, H. Kromer, and J. E. Bowers, “Silicon ring isolators with bonded nonreciprocal magneto-optic garnets,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11740–11745 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood., “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Moeyersoon, B.

W. Van Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mork, J.

J. Mork, B. Tromborg, and J. Mark, “Chaos in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 93–108 (1992).
[Crossref]

Nakano, Y.

Nishimura, S.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niu, B.

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An all-silicon passive optical diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noe, R.

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, and R. Noe, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated in III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 417–421 (2005).
[Crossref]

Onbasli, M. C.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, H. S. Kim, D. H. Kim, M. C. Onbasli, G. F. Dionne, and C. A. Ross, “Magneto-optical thin films for on-chip monolithic integration of non-reciprocal photonic devices,” Materials 6(11), 5094–5117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Osgood, R. M.

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood., “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, B.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petrov, A.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pintus, P.

Popovic, M.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Preble, S. F.

P. Dong, S. F. Preble, J. T. Robinson, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Inducing photonic transitions between discrete modes in a silicon optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 033904 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, M.

L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Silicon optical diode with 40 dB nonreciprocal transmission,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1259–1261 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An all-silicon passive optical diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ram, R. J.

Renner, H.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

Robinson, J. T.

P. Dong, S. F. Preble, J. T. Robinson, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Inducing photonic transitions between discrete modes in a silicon optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 033904 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roelkens, G.

Ross, C. A.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, H. S. Kim, D. H. Kim, M. C. Onbasli, G. F. Dionne, and C. A. Ross, “Magneto-optical thin films for on-chip monolithic integration of non-reciprocal photonic devices,” Materials 6(11), 5094–5117 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sandel, D.

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, and R. Noe, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated in III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 417–421 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shen, H.

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An all-silicon passive optical diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shimizu, H.

Shoji, Y.

Y. Shoji and T. Mizumoto, “Magneto-optical non-reciprocal devices in silicon photonics,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15(1), 014602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood., “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Smith, R. G.

R. G. Smith, “Use of the acoustooptic light deflector as an optical isolator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 545–546 (1973).
[Crossref]

Song, M. H.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takanishi, Y.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takezoe, H.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, K.

Thourhout, D. V.

W. Van Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tien, M. C.

Toyooka, T.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tromborg, B.

J. Mork, B. Tromborg, and J. Mark, “Chaos in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 93–108 (1992).
[Crossref]

Van Parys, W.

W. Van Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Van Roy, W.

Vanheertum, R.

W. Van Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vanwolleghem, M.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Van Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Varghese, L. T.

L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Silicon optical diode with 40 dB nonreciprocal transmission,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1259–1261 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An all-silicon passive optical diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vermeulen, D.

Wang, J.

L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Silicon optical diode with 40 dB nonreciprocal transmission,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1259–1261 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An all-silicon passive optical diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiner, A. M.

L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Silicon optical diode with 40 dB nonreciprocal transmission,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1259–1261 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An all-silicon passive optical diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J. W.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wust, F.

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, and R. Noe, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated in III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 417–421 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xuan, Y.

L. Fan, L. T. Varghese, J. Wang, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Silicon optical diode with 40 dB nonreciprocal transmission,” Opt. Lett. 38(8), 1259–1261 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An all-silicon passive optical diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

Yokoi, H.

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood., “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yu, Z.

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Lira, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Electrically driven nonreciprocity induced by interband photonic transition on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Fang, Z. Yu, and S. Fan, “Realizing effective magnetic field for photons by controlling the phase of dynamic modulation,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 782–787 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Yu and S. Fan, “Complete optical isolation created by indirect interband photonic transitions,” Nat. Photonics 3(2), 91–94 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zaman, T. R.

Zhang, H.

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, and R. Noe, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated in III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 417–421 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

W. Van Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. L. Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood., “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071117 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. G. Smith, “Use of the acoustooptic light deflector as an optical isolator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 545–546 (1973).
[Crossref]

J. Mork, B. Tromborg, and J. Mark, “Chaos in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(1), 93–108 (1992).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, and R. Noe, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated in III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 417–421 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Materials (1)

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, H. S. Kim, D. H. Kim, M. C. Onbasli, G. F. Dionne, and C. A. Ross, “Magneto-optical thin films for on-chip monolithic integration of non-reciprocal photonic devices,” Materials 6(11), 5094–5117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, K. Fang, and S. Fan, “Photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect in photon-phonon interactions,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3225 (2014).
[PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (4)

Z. Yu and S. Fan, “Complete optical isolation created by indirect interband photonic transitions,” Nat. Photonics 3(2), 91–94 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popovic, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is - and what is not - an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Fang, Z. Yu, and S. Fan, “Realizing effective magnetic field for photons by controlling the phase of dynamic modulation,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 782–787 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

H. Lira, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Electrically driven nonreciprocity induced by interband photonic transition on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. F. Preble, J. T. Robinson, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Inducing photonic transitions between discrete modes in a silicon optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 033904 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. (1)

Y. Shoji and T. Mizumoto, “Magneto-optical non-reciprocal devices in silicon photonics,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15(1), 014602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

L. Fan, J. Wang, L. T. Varghese, H. Shen, B. Niu, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “An all-silicon passive optical diode,” Science 335(6067), 447–450 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M. Krause, J. Muller, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Measurement of nonreciprocal stimulated Raman scattering in silicon photonic wires,” in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE 9th International Conference on.Group IV Photonics (GFP) (San Diego, 2012), pp. 6–8.
[Crossref]

B. Saleh and M. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics (John Wiley, 1991).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic and working principle of using a single travelling-wave modulator as an isolator. (a) Working diagram of an MZM-based isolator. The green and red arrows represent forward and backward transmissions. The RF input is at the side of the optical output. A square-wave RF signal actively modulates the MZM. (b) MZM transmission as a function of applied voltage, assuming it is biased at maximum transmission at 0 V. (c) A square-wave voltage with a peak-to-peak of 2Vπ drives the MZM to achieve isolation between forward and backward transmissions. (d) Simulated forward and backward transmissions while the MZM is modulated with the voltage shown in (c). In this simulation, the modulator bandwidth is assumed as 30 GHz. High forward transmission and low backward transmission demonstrate that the device acts as an optical isolator.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Normalized transmission with different bias voltages for a commercial LN modulator at three different wavelengths. (b) Average transmission for the actively modulated isolator for a 90-nm wavelength span in the telecommunication wavelengths. More than 12.5 dB isolation has been achieved over the whole 90-nm wavelength range.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Forward transmission response to active modulation. (a) Superimposed electrical spectra with different RF driving frequencies. While the modulator is driven by a square-wave signal at a particular RF frequency, the electrical spectrum is collected with a center frequency at this frequency with a span of 100 MHz. (b) Peak electrical power as a function of RF driving frequency. The power dips indicate that the matching conditions in Eq. (4) are satisfied so that the active RF driving has minimum modulation on the MZM for the forward transmission.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Time-domain transmission for actively modulated isolator. (a) Forward transmission under different RF driving frequencies. The inset shows the voltage signal applied on the device at 2.75 GHz. (b) Forward and backward transmission under the driving frequency of 2.75 GHz. The discrepancy of the transmissions between forward and backward propagation implies successful isolation.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 BER and eye diagram measurement to verify that, for the transmitted light, the active modulation does not introduce the penalty for communication applications. When the MZM is driven at 2.75 GHz, no observable penalty has been found, compared the red curve (no modulation) with blue curve (2.75 GHz square waves). Under other RF frequencies, significant penalties have been found due to the intensity modulation imposed on the transmitted light.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The MZM-based isolator can block back reflections and restore stable lasing in a DBR laser system. (a) Optical setup. (b) and (d) Time-domain intensity of a laser system with −12 dB and −9 dB reflections (the reflection is referenced to the laser output power). Here, no any active modulation is applied on the MZM. Chaotic intensities indicate that the laser is operating in a very unstable status due to back reflections. (c) and (e) After the RF power is turned on, isolator is functional, so that the light intensities become constant and stable. The isolator hence restores the stable lasing operation.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

φ( t )=g z=0 L V( t L c o ( 1±1 )/2+( ± 1 c o 1 c e )z ) dz
φ( t )g z=0 L V( t L c o ) dz=gLV(t L c o )
φ( t )=g z=0 L V( t z c o z c e ) dz
L c o + L c e =2nT

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