Abstract

Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy is a valuable tool for label-free imaging of biological samples. As a major drawback quantification based on CARS images is compromised by the appearance of a nonresonant background. In this paper we propose and demonstrate a wide-field CARS vibrational phase imaging scheme that allows for nonresonant background suppression. Several CARS images at a few consecutive planes perpendicular to the propagation direction were recorded to reconstruct a phase map utilizing the iteration phase retrieval method. Experimental results verify that the CARS background is efficiently suppressed by the phase imaging approach, as compared to traditional CARS imaging without background correction. The proposed background correction method is robust against environmental disturbance, since the experimental implementation of the suggested detection scheme requires no reference beam.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (1)

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent Nonlinear Optical Imaging: Beyond Fluorescence Microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 62(1), 507–530 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

V. Patel, V. S. Malinovsky, and S. Malinovskaya, “Effects of phase and coupling between the vibrational modes on selective excitation in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 063404 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Zhang and J. M. Rodenburg, “Phase retrieval based on wave-front relay and modulation,” Phys. Rev. B 82(12), 121104 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

C. Müller, T. Buckup, B. von Vacano, and M. Motzkus, “Heterodyne single-beam CARS microscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(7), 809–816 (2009).
[Crossref]

I. Rocha-Mendoza, W. Langbein, P. Watson, and P. Borri, “Differential coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with linearly chirped femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2258–2260 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jurna, J. P. Korterik, C. Otto, J. L. Herek, and H. L. Offerhaus, “Vibrational phase contrast microscopy by use of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(4), 043905 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Akimov, S. Chatzipapadopoulos, T. Meyer, N. Tarcea, B. Dietzek, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Different contrast information obtained from CARS and nonresonant FWM images,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(8), 941–947 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (6)

M. Jurna, J. P. Korterik, C. Otto, J. L. Herek, and H. L. Offerhaus, “Background free CARS imaging by phase sensitive heterodyne CARS,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15863–15869 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 1(1), 883–909 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. von Vacano and M. Motzkus, “Time-resolving molecular vibration for microanalytics: single laser beam nonlinear Raman spectroscopy in simulation and experiment,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10(5), 681–691 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. C. Chen and S. H. Lim, “Optimal laser pulse shaping for interferometric multiplex coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(12), 3653–3661 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bao, F. Zhang, G. Pedrini, and W. Osten, “Phase retrieval using multiple illumination wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 309–311 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. J. Liu, B. Chen, E. R. Li, J. Y. Wang, A. Marcelli, S. W. Wilkins, H. Ming, Y. C. Tian, K. A. Nugent, P. P. Zhu, and Z. Y. Wu, “Phase retrieval in x-ray imaging based on using structured illumination,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023817 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (5)

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4795–4798 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, “Movable Aperture Lensless Transmission Microscopy: A Novel Phase Retrieval Algorithm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 023903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectral interferometry: determination of the real and imaginary components of nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) for vibrational microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29(24), 2923–2925 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, and Y. Silberberg, “Femtosecond phase-and-polarization control for background-free coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(21), 213902 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418(6897), 512–514 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “Time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on Raman free induction decay,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(9), 1505–1507 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

A. Volkmer, J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via Epi-detected Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (E-CARS) microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(2), 023901 (2001).
[Crossref]

J.-X. Cheng, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “Polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26(17), 1341–1343 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akimov, D.

D. Akimov, S. Chatzipapadopoulos, T. Meyer, N. Tarcea, B. Dietzek, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Different contrast information obtained from CARS and nonresonant FWM images,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(8), 941–947 (2009).
[Crossref]

Almoro, P.

Bao, P.

Berto, P.

Bon, P.

P. Berto, D. Gachet, P. Bon, S. Monneret, and H. Rigneault, “Wide-Field Vibrational Phase Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(9), 093902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Book, L. D.

A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “Time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on Raman free induction decay,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(9), 1505–1507 (2002).
[Crossref]

J.-X. Cheng, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “Polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26(17), 1341–1343 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borri, P.

Buckup, T.

C. Müller, T. Buckup, B. von Vacano, and M. Motzkus, “Heterodyne single-beam CARS microscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(7), 809–816 (2009).
[Crossref]

Caster, A. G.

Chatzipapadopoulos, S.

D. Akimov, S. Chatzipapadopoulos, T. Meyer, N. Tarcea, B. Dietzek, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Different contrast information obtained from CARS and nonresonant FWM images,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(8), 941–947 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

Y. J. Liu, B. Chen, E. R. Li, J. Y. Wang, A. Marcelli, S. W. Wilkins, H. Ming, Y. C. Tian, K. A. Nugent, P. P. Zhu, and Z. Y. Wu, “Phase retrieval in x-ray imaging based on using structured illumination,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023817 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, B. C.

B. C. Chen and S. H. Lim, “Optimal laser pulse shaping for interferometric multiplex coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(12), 3653–3661 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, J. X.

A. Volkmer, J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via Epi-detected Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (E-CARS) microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(2), 023901 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cheng, J.-X.

Dietzek, B.

D. Akimov, S. Chatzipapadopoulos, T. Meyer, N. Tarcea, B. Dietzek, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Different contrast information obtained from CARS and nonresonant FWM images,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(8), 941–947 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dudovich, N.

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, and Y. Silberberg, “Femtosecond phase-and-polarization control for background-free coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(21), 213902 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418(6897), 512–514 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evans, C. L.

Faulkner, H. M. L.

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4795–4798 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, “Movable Aperture Lensless Transmission Microscopy: A Novel Phase Retrieval Algorithm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 023903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freudiger, C. W.

W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent Nonlinear Optical Imaging: Beyond Fluorescence Microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 62(1), 507–530 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gachet, D.

P. Berto, D. Gachet, P. Bon, S. Monneret, and H. Rigneault, “Wide-Field Vibrational Phase Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(9), 093902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, P.

Herek, J. L.

M. Jurna, J. P. Korterik, C. Otto, J. L. Herek, and H. L. Offerhaus, “Vibrational phase contrast microscopy by use of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(4), 043905 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jurna, J. P. Korterik, C. Otto, J. L. Herek, and H. L. Offerhaus, “Background free CARS imaging by phase sensitive heterodyne CARS,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15863–15869 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jesacher, A.

Jurna, M.

Korterik, J. P.

Krishnamachari, V. V.

Langbein, W.

Lei, M.

Leone, S. R.

Li, E. R.

Y. J. Liu, B. Chen, E. R. Li, J. Y. Wang, A. Marcelli, S. W. Wilkins, H. Ming, Y. C. Tian, K. A. Nugent, P. P. Zhu, and Z. Y. Wu, “Phase retrieval in x-ray imaging based on using structured illumination,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023817 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lim, S. H.

B. C. Chen and S. H. Lim, “Optimal laser pulse shaping for interferometric multiplex coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(12), 3653–3661 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lim, A. G. Caster, and S. R. Leone, “Fourier transform spectral interferometric coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FTSI-CARS) spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(10), 1332–1334 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y. J.

Y. J. Liu, B. Chen, E. R. Li, J. Y. Wang, A. Marcelli, S. W. Wilkins, H. Ming, Y. C. Tian, K. A. Nugent, P. P. Zhu, and Z. Y. Wu, “Phase retrieval in x-ray imaging based on using structured illumination,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023817 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lu, S.

W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent Nonlinear Optical Imaging: Beyond Fluorescence Microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 62(1), 507–530 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malinovskaya, S.

V. Patel, V. S. Malinovsky, and S. Malinovskaya, “Effects of phase and coupling between the vibrational modes on selective excitation in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 063404 (2010).
[Crossref]

Malinovskaya, S. A.

Malinovsky, V. S.

V. Patel, V. S. Malinovsky, and S. Malinovskaya, “Effects of phase and coupling between the vibrational modes on selective excitation in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 063404 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. A. Malinovskaya and V. S. Malinovsky, “Chirped-pulse adiabatic control in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for imaging of biological structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 707–709 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marcelli, A.

Y. J. Liu, B. Chen, E. R. Li, J. Y. Wang, A. Marcelli, S. W. Wilkins, H. Ming, Y. C. Tian, K. A. Nugent, P. P. Zhu, and Z. Y. Wu, “Phase retrieval in x-ray imaging based on using structured illumination,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023817 (2008).
[Crossref]

Meyer, T.

D. Akimov, S. Chatzipapadopoulos, T. Meyer, N. Tarcea, B. Dietzek, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Different contrast information obtained from CARS and nonresonant FWM images,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(8), 941–947 (2009).
[Crossref]

Min, W.

W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent Nonlinear Optical Imaging: Beyond Fluorescence Microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 62(1), 507–530 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ming, H.

Y. J. Liu, B. Chen, E. R. Li, J. Y. Wang, A. Marcelli, S. W. Wilkins, H. Ming, Y. C. Tian, K. A. Nugent, P. P. Zhu, and Z. Y. Wu, “Phase retrieval in x-ray imaging based on using structured illumination,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023817 (2008).
[Crossref]

Monneret, S.

Motzkus, M.

C. Müller, T. Buckup, B. von Vacano, and M. Motzkus, “Heterodyne single-beam CARS microscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(7), 809–816 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. von Vacano and M. Motzkus, “Time-resolving molecular vibration for microanalytics: single laser beam nonlinear Raman spectroscopy in simulation and experiment,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10(5), 681–691 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müller, C.

C. Müller, T. Buckup, B. von Vacano, and M. Motzkus, “Heterodyne single-beam CARS microscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(7), 809–816 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nugent, K. A.

Y. J. Liu, B. Chen, E. R. Li, J. Y. Wang, A. Marcelli, S. W. Wilkins, H. Ming, Y. C. Tian, K. A. Nugent, P. P. Zhu, and Z. Y. Wu, “Phase retrieval in x-ray imaging based on using structured illumination,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023817 (2008).
[Crossref]

Offerhaus, H. L.

Oron, D.

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, and Y. Silberberg, “Femtosecond phase-and-polarization control for background-free coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(21), 213902 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418(6897), 512–514 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osten, W.

Otto, C.

Patel, V.

V. Patel, V. S. Malinovsky, and S. Malinovskaya, “Effects of phase and coupling between the vibrational modes on selective excitation in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 063404 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pedrini, G.

Popp, J.

D. Akimov, S. Chatzipapadopoulos, T. Meyer, N. Tarcea, B. Dietzek, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Different contrast information obtained from CARS and nonresonant FWM images,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(8), 941–947 (2009).
[Crossref]

Potma, E. O.

Rigneault, H.

Ritsch-Marte, M.

Rocha-Mendoza, I.

Rodenburg, J. M.

F. Zhang and J. M. Rodenburg, “Phase retrieval based on wave-front relay and modulation,” Phys. Rev. B 82(12), 121104 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4795–4798 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, “Movable Aperture Lensless Transmission Microscopy: A Novel Phase Retrieval Algorithm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 023903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roider, C.

Schmitt, M.

D. Akimov, S. Chatzipapadopoulos, T. Meyer, N. Tarcea, B. Dietzek, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Different contrast information obtained from CARS and nonresonant FWM images,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(8), 941–947 (2009).
[Crossref]

Silberberg, Y.

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, and Y. Silberberg, “Femtosecond phase-and-polarization control for background-free coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(21), 213902 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418(6897), 512–514 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tarcea, N.

D. Akimov, S. Chatzipapadopoulos, T. Meyer, N. Tarcea, B. Dietzek, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Different contrast information obtained from CARS and nonresonant FWM images,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(8), 941–947 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tian, Y. C.

Y. J. Liu, B. Chen, E. R. Li, J. Y. Wang, A. Marcelli, S. W. Wilkins, H. Ming, Y. C. Tian, K. A. Nugent, P. P. Zhu, and Z. Y. Wu, “Phase retrieval in x-ray imaging based on using structured illumination,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023817 (2008).
[Crossref]

Volkmer, A.

A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “Time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on Raman free induction decay,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(9), 1505–1507 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Volkmer, J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via Epi-detected Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (E-CARS) microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(2), 023901 (2001).
[Crossref]

von Vacano, B.

C. Müller, T. Buckup, B. von Vacano, and M. Motzkus, “Heterodyne single-beam CARS microscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(7), 809–816 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. von Vacano and M. Motzkus, “Time-resolving molecular vibration for microanalytics: single laser beam nonlinear Raman spectroscopy in simulation and experiment,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10(5), 681–691 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J. Y.

Y. J. Liu, B. Chen, E. R. Li, J. Y. Wang, A. Marcelli, S. W. Wilkins, H. Ming, Y. C. Tian, K. A. Nugent, P. P. Zhu, and Z. Y. Wu, “Phase retrieval in x-ray imaging based on using structured illumination,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023817 (2008).
[Crossref]

Watson, P.

Wilkins, S. W.

Y. J. Liu, B. Chen, E. R. Li, J. Y. Wang, A. Marcelli, S. W. Wilkins, H. Ming, Y. C. Tian, K. A. Nugent, P. P. Zhu, and Z. Y. Wu, “Phase retrieval in x-ray imaging based on using structured illumination,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023817 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, Z. Y.

Y. J. Liu, B. Chen, E. R. Li, J. Y. Wang, A. Marcelli, S. W. Wilkins, H. Ming, Y. C. Tian, K. A. Nugent, P. P. Zhu, and Z. Y. Wu, “Phase retrieval in x-ray imaging based on using structured illumination,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023817 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xie, X. S.

W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent Nonlinear Optical Imaging: Beyond Fluorescence Microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 62(1), 507–530 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 1(1), 883–909 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. O. Potma, C. L. Evans, and X. S. Xie, “Heterodyne coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 241–243 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectral interferometry: determination of the real and imaginary components of nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) for vibrational microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29(24), 2923–2925 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “Time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on Raman free induction decay,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(9), 1505–1507 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Volkmer, J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via Epi-detected Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (E-CARS) microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(2), 023901 (2001).
[Crossref]

J.-X. Cheng, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “Polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26(17), 1341–1343 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

Yao, B.

Ye, T.

Zhang, F.

F. Zhang and J. M. Rodenburg, “Phase retrieval based on wave-front relay and modulation,” Phys. Rev. B 82(12), 121104 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Bao, F. Zhang, G. Pedrini, and W. Osten, “Phase retrieval using multiple illumination wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 309–311 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Zhang, G. Pedrini, and W. Osten, “Phase retrieval of arbitrary complex-valued fields through aperture-plane modulation,” Phys. Rev. A 75(4), 043805 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Zheng, J.

Zhu, P. P.

Y. J. Liu, B. Chen, E. R. Li, J. Y. Wang, A. Marcelli, S. W. Wilkins, H. Ming, Y. C. Tian, K. A. Nugent, P. P. Zhu, and Z. Y. Wu, “Phase retrieval in x-ray imaging based on using structured illumination,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023817 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zuo, C.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) (1)

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 1(1), 883–909 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent Nonlinear Optical Imaging: Beyond Fluorescence Microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 62(1), 507–530 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4795–4798 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “Time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on Raman free induction decay,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(9), 1505–1507 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

B. C. Chen and S. H. Lim, “Optimal laser pulse shaping for interferometric multiplex coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(12), 3653–3661 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (2)

C. Müller, T. Buckup, B. von Vacano, and M. Motzkus, “Heterodyne single-beam CARS microscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(7), 809–816 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Akimov, S. Chatzipapadopoulos, T. Meyer, N. Tarcea, B. Dietzek, M. Schmitt, and J. Popp, “Different contrast information obtained from CARS and nonresonant FWM images,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(8), 941–947 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418(6897), 512–514 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (11)

S. H. Lim, A. G. Caster, and S. R. Leone, “Fourier transform spectral interferometric coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FTSI-CARS) spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(10), 1332–1334 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Malinovskaya and V. S. Malinovsky, “Chirped-pulse adiabatic control in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for imaging of biological structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 707–709 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Rocha-Mendoza, W. Langbein, P. Watson, and P. Borri, “Differential coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with linearly chirped femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2258–2260 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-X. Cheng, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “Polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26(17), 1341–1343 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. O. Potma, C. L. Evans, and X. S. Xie, “Heterodyne coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 241–243 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Berto, A. Jesacher, C. Roider, S. Monneret, H. Rigneault, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Wide-field vibrational phase imaging in an extremely folded box-CARS scattering geometry,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 709–711 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Pedrini, W. Osten, and Y. Zhang, “Wave-front reconstruction from a sequence of interferograms recorded at different planes,” Opt. Lett. 30(8), 833–835 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bao, F. Zhang, G. Pedrini, and W. Osten, “Phase retrieval using multiple illumination wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 309–311 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectral interferometry: determination of the real and imaginary components of nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) for vibrational microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29(24), 2923–2925 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Gao, G. Pedrini, and W. Osten, “Phase retrieval with resolution enhancement by using structured illumination,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5204–5207 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Gao, G. Pedrini, C. Zuo, and W. Osten, “Phase retrieval using spatially modulated illumination,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3615–3618 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

B. von Vacano and M. Motzkus, “Time-resolving molecular vibration for microanalytics: single laser beam nonlinear Raman spectroscopy in simulation and experiment,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10(5), 681–691 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

V. Patel, V. S. Malinovsky, and S. Malinovskaya, “Effects of phase and coupling between the vibrational modes on selective excitation in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 063404 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Liu, B. Chen, E. R. Li, J. Y. Wang, A. Marcelli, S. W. Wilkins, H. Ming, Y. C. Tian, K. A. Nugent, P. P. Zhu, and Z. Y. Wu, “Phase retrieval in x-ray imaging based on using structured illumination,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023817 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Zhang, G. Pedrini, and W. Osten, “Phase retrieval of arbitrary complex-valued fields through aperture-plane modulation,” Phys. Rev. A 75(4), 043805 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

F. Zhang and J. M. Rodenburg, “Phase retrieval based on wave-front relay and modulation,” Phys. Rev. B 82(12), 121104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, “Movable Aperture Lensless Transmission Microscopy: A Novel Phase Retrieval Algorithm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 023903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Volkmer, J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via Epi-detected Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (E-CARS) microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(2), 023901 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. Berto, D. Gachet, P. Bon, S. Monneret, and H. Rigneault, “Wide-Field Vibrational Phase Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(9), 093902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jurna, J. P. Korterik, C. Otto, J. L. Herek, and H. L. Offerhaus, “Vibrational phase contrast microscopy by use of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(4), 043905 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, and Y. Silberberg, “Femtosecond phase-and-polarization control for background-free coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(21), 213902 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of reference-less CARS phase imaging microscopy. Inset shows the mechanism of phase imaging from several intensities Im recorded for different axial planes.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Energy-level diagrams of Raman resonant CARS and nonresonant FWM background at the anti-Stokes frequency. (b) Principle of phase imaging: spatial phase alteration caused by a sample with spatially varying Raman resonant and nonresonant contributions [22].
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Flowchart of the iterative phase imaging.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic setup for CARS phase imaging.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Phase imaging using the iterative phase retrieval (IPR) method. (a) and (c) are 6 of 12 intensities recorded in the resonant and nonresonant mode; (b) retrieved resonant phase image and (d) retrieved nonresonant phase image; (e) retrieved vibrational phase φ CARS R - φ CARS NR ; (f) background-free intensity on the image plane; (g) intensity plot of the cross section outlined by a dashed line in (a) and (f).

Equations (4)

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E CARS NR ( χ 1 NR + χ 2 NR ) E p 2 E s E CARS R ( χ 1 NR + χ 2 NR +Re( χ 1 R )+iIm( χ 1 R ) ) E p 2 E s
φ χ = φ CARS R φ CARS NR =Ang{ E CARS R E CARS NR }=Ang{ χ 1 NR + χ 2 NR +Re( χ 1 R )+iIm( χ 1 R ) χ 1 NR + χ 2 NR }
I backgroundfree I CARS R ( sin φ χ ) 2
O m+1 ( x,y )=IFT{ FT[ O m ]exp[ ikΔz 1 ( λ κ x ) 2 ( λ κ y ) 2 ] }

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