Abstract

The radiative properties of soot aerosols are highly sensitive to the mixing states of black carbon particles and other aerosol components. Light absorption properties are enhanced by the mixing state of soot aerosols. Quantification of the effects of mixing states on the scattering properties of soot aerosol are still not completely resolved, especially for multiple-scattering properties. This study focuses on the effects of the mixing state on the multiple scattering of soot aerosols using the vector radiative transfer model. Two types of soot aerosols with different mixing states such as external mixture soot aerosols and internal mixture soot aerosols are studied. Upward radiance/polarization and hemispheric flux are studied with variable soot aerosol loadings for clear and haze scenarios. Our study showed dramatic changes in upward radiance/polarization due to the effects of the mixing state on the multiple scattering of soot aerosols. The relative difference in upward radiance due to the different mixing states can reach 16%, whereas the relative difference of upward polarization can reach 200%. The effects of the mixing state on the multiple-scattering properties of soot aerosols increase with increasing soot aerosol loading. The effects of the soot aerosol mixing state on upwelling hemispheric flux are much smaller than in upward radiance/polarization, which increase with increasing solar zenith angle. The relative difference in upwelling hemispheric flux due to the different soot aerosol mixing states can reach 18% when the solar zenith angle is 75°. The findings should improve our understanding of the effects of mixing states on the optical properties of soot aerosols and their effects on climate. The mixing mechanism of soot aerosols is of critical importance in evaluating the climate effects of soot aerosols, which should be explicitly included in radiative forcing models and aerosol remote sensing.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

D. W. Mackowski, “A general superposition solution for electromagnetic scattering by multiple spherical domains of optically active media,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 133, 264–270 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (7)

T. Cheng, X. Gu, Y. Wu, H. Chen, and T. Yu, “The optical properties of absorbing aerosols with fractal light absorbing carbon aggregates: Implications for aerosol remote sensing,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 125, 93–104 (2013).

M. Kahnert, T. Nousiainen, and H. Lindqvist, “Models for integrated and differential scattering optical properties of encapsulated light absorbing carbon aggregates,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7974–7993 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Response to comment on “Radiative Absorption Enhancements Due to the Mixing State of Atmospheric Black Carbon”,” Science 339(6118), 393 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Z. Jacobson, “Comment on “Radiative Absorption Enhancements Due to the Mixing State of Atmospheric Black Carbon”,” Science 339(6118), 393 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, O. Boucher, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. China, C. Mazzoleni, K. Gorkowski, A. C. Aiken, and M. K. Dubey, “Morphology and mixing state of individual freshly emitted wildfire carbonaceous particles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2122 (2013), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Mishchenko, G. Videen, N. G. Khlebtsov, and T. Wriedt, “Comprehensive T-Matrix Reference Database: A 2012–2013 Update,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 123, 145–152 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

M. Kahnert, T. Nousiainen, H. Lindqvist, and M. Ebert, “Optical properties of light absorbing carbon aggregates mixed with sulfate: assessment of different model geometries for climate forcing calculations,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10042–10058 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

D. W. Mackowski and M. I. Mishchenko, “A multiple sphere T-matrix Fortran code for use on parallel computer clusters,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 112(13), 2182–2192 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Tritscher, Z. Jurányi, M. Martin, R. Chirico, M. Gysel, M. F. Heringa, P. F. DeCarlo, B. Sierau, A. S. H. Prévôt, E. Weingartner, and U. Baltensperger, “Changes of hygroscopicity and morphology during ageing of diesel light absorbing carbon,” Environ. Res. Lett. 6, 034026 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Coz and C. Leck, “Morphology and state of mixture of atmospheric light absorbing carbon aggregates during the winter season over Southern Asia–a quantitative approach,” Tell. B 63, 107–116 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

M. Kahnert, “Modelling the optical and radiative properties of freshly emitted light absorbing carbon within an atmospheric chemical transport model,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(3), 1403–1416 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Adachi, S. H. Chung, and P. R. Buseck, “Shapes of light absorbing carbon aerosol particles and implications for their effects on climate,” J. Geophy. Res.: Atmos. 115, D15206 (2010).

2009 (1)

A. F. Khalizov, H. Xue, L. Wang, J. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “Enhanced light absorption and scattering by carbon light absorbing carbon aerosol internally mixed with sulfuric acid,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 1066–1074 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (7)

K. Adachi and P. R. Buseck, “Internally mixed light absorbing carbon, sulfates, and organic matter in aerosol particles from Mexico City,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 6469–6481 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Zhang, A. F. Khalizov, J. Pagels, D. Zhang, H. Xue, and P. H. McMurry, “Variability in morphology, hygroscopicity, and optical properties of soot aerosols during atmospheric processing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(30), 10291–10296 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Ramanathan and G. Carmichael, “Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon,” Nat. Geosci. 1(4), 221–227 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Worringen, M. Ebert, T. Trautmann, S. Weinbruch, and G. Helas, “Optical properties of internally mixed ammonium sulfate and soot particles--a study of individual aerosol particles and ambient aerosol populations,” Appl. Opt. 47(21), 3835–3845 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Shiraiwa, Y. Kondo, N. Moteki, N. Takegawa, L. K. Sahu, A. Takami, S. Hatakeyama, S. Yonemura, and D. R. Blake, “Radiative impact of mixing state of black carbon aerosol in Asian outflow,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D24210 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. P. Schwarz, J. R. Spackman, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, U. Lohmann, P. Stier, L. A. Watts, D. S. Thomson, D. A. Lack, L. Pfister, M. J. Mahoney, D. Baumgardner, J. C. Wilson, and J. M. Reeves, “Coatings and their enhancement of black carbon light absorption in the tropical atmosphere,” J. Geophy. Res.: Atmos. 113, D03203 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, J. R. Spackman, L. A. Watts, D. S. Thomson, D. W. Fahey, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, J. S. Holloway, M. Trainer, G. J. Frost, T. Baynard, D. A. Lack, J. A. de Gouw, C. Warneke, and L. A. Del Negro, “Measurement of the mixing state, mass, and optical size of individual black carbon particles in urban and biomass burning emissions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(13), L13810 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

N. Moteki and Y. Kondo, “Effects of mixing state on black carbon measurements by laser-induced incandescence,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 41(4), 398–417 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

T. C. Bond, G. Habib, and R. W. Bergstrom, “Limitations in the enhancement of visible light absorption due to mixing state,” J. Geophy. Res.: Atmos. 111, D20211(2006).
[Crossref]

T. C. Bond and R. W. Bergstrom, “Light absorption by carbonaceous particles: An investigative review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 40(1), 27–67 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (4)

N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, J. Haywood, and M. S. Reddy, “Global estimate of aerosol direct radiative forcing from satellite measurements,” Nature 438(7071), 1138–1141 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Johnson, B. Zuberi, L. T. Molina, M. J. Molina, M. J. Iedema, J. P. Cowin, D. J. Gaspar, C. Wang, and A. Laskin, “Processing of light absorbing carbon in an urban environment: case study from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3033–3043 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, O. Möhler, K.-H. Naumann, H. Saathoff, R. Wagner, U. Schurath, and B. Wehner, “Absorption amplification of black carbon internally mixed with secondary organic aerosol,” J. Geophy. Res.: Atmos. 110, D19204 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Liu and M. I. Mishchenko, “Effects of aggregation on scattering and radiative properties of light absorbing carbon aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D11211 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

M. I. Mishchenko, L. Liu, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, “Scattering and radiative properties of semi-external versus external mixtures of different aerosol types,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 88(1-3), 139–147 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. Andrews, P. J. Sheridan, M. Fiebig, A. McComiskey, J. A. Ogren, P. Arnott, D. Covert, R. Elleman, R. Gasparini, D. Collins, H. Jonsson, B. Schmid, and J. Wang, “Comparison of methods for deriving aerosol asymmetry parameter,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05S04 (2004), doi:.
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

J. Li, M. Pósfai, P. V. Hobbs, and P. R. Buseck, “Individual aerosol particles from biomass burning in southern Africa: 2, Compositions and aging of inorganic particles,” J. Geophy. Res.: Atmos. 108, 8484 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Wentzel, H. Gorzawski, K. H. Naumann, H. Saathoff, and S. Weinbruch, “Transmission electron microscopical and aerosol dynamical characterization of soot aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 34(10), 1347–1370 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. H. Chung and J. H. Seinfeld, “Global distribution and climate forcing of carbonaceous aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 107(D19), D19 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

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1998 (2)

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K. Adachi, S. H. Chung, and P. R. Buseck, “Shapes of light absorbing carbon aerosol particles and implications for their effects on climate,” J. Geophy. Res.: Atmos. 115, D15206 (2010).

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S. China, C. Mazzoleni, K. Gorkowski, A. C. Aiken, and M. K. Dubey, “Morphology and mixing state of individual freshly emitted wildfire carbonaceous particles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2122 (2013), doi:.
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V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Andersons, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, “Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D22), 28371–28398 (2001).
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V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Andersons, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, “Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D22), 28371–28398 (2001).
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T. Tritscher, Z. Jurányi, M. Martin, R. Chirico, M. Gysel, M. F. Heringa, P. F. DeCarlo, B. Sierau, A. S. H. Prévôt, E. Weingartner, and U. Baltensperger, “Changes of hygroscopicity and morphology during ageing of diesel light absorbing carbon,” Environ. Res. Lett. 6, 034026 (2011).
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C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Response to comment on “Radiative Absorption Enhancements Due to the Mixing State of Atmospheric Black Carbon”,” Science 339(6118), 393 (2013).
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J. P. Schwarz, J. R. Spackman, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, U. Lohmann, P. Stier, L. A. Watts, D. S. Thomson, D. A. Lack, L. Pfister, M. J. Mahoney, D. Baumgardner, J. C. Wilson, and J. M. Reeves, “Coatings and their enhancement of black carbon light absorption in the tropical atmosphere,” J. Geophy. Res.: Atmos. 113, D03203 (2008).
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T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, O. Boucher, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
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Bergstrom, R. W.

T. C. Bond, G. Habib, and R. W. Bergstrom, “Limitations in the enhancement of visible light absorption due to mixing state,” J. Geophy. Res.: Atmos. 111, D20211(2006).
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T. C. Bond and R. W. Bergstrom, “Light absorption by carbonaceous particles: An investigative review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 40(1), 27–67 (2006).
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Berntsen, T.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, O. Boucher, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
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Blake, D. R.

M. Shiraiwa, Y. Kondo, N. Moteki, N. Takegawa, L. K. Sahu, A. Takami, S. Hatakeyama, S. Yonemura, and D. R. Blake, “Radiative impact of mixing state of black carbon aerosol in Asian outflow,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D24210 (2008).
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Bond, T. C.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, O. Boucher, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
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T. C. Bond, G. Habib, and R. W. Bergstrom, “Limitations in the enhancement of visible light absorption due to mixing state,” J. Geophy. Res.: Atmos. 111, D20211(2006).
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T. C. Bond and R. W. Bergstrom, “Light absorption by carbonaceous particles: An investigative review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 40(1), 27–67 (2006).
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Boucher, O.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, O. Boucher, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
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N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, J. Haywood, and M. S. Reddy, “Global estimate of aerosol direct radiative forcing from satellite measurements,” Nature 438(7071), 1138–1141 (2005).
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Burtscher, H.

E. Weingartner, H. Burtscher, and U. Baltensperger, “Hygroscopic properties of carbon and diesel soot particles,” Atmos. Environ. 31(15), 2311–2327 (1997).
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Buseck, P. R.

K. Adachi, S. H. Chung, and P. R. Buseck, “Shapes of light absorbing carbon aerosol particles and implications for their effects on climate,” J. Geophy. Res.: Atmos. 115, D15206 (2010).

K. Adachi and P. R. Buseck, “Internally mixed light absorbing carbon, sulfates, and organic matter in aerosol particles from Mexico City,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 6469–6481 (2008).
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J. Li, M. Pósfai, P. V. Hobbs, and P. R. Buseck, “Individual aerosol particles from biomass burning in southern Africa: 2, Compositions and aging of inorganic particles,” J. Geophy. Res.: Atmos. 108, 8484 (2003).
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Cantrell, W.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Andersons, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, “Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D22), 28371–28398 (2001).
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Cappa, C. D.

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Response to comment on “Radiative Absorption Enhancements Due to the Mixing State of Atmospheric Black Carbon”,” Science 339(6118), 393 (2013).
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C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
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Carmichael, G.

V. Ramanathan and G. Carmichael, “Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon,” Nat. Geosci. 1(4), 221–227 (2008).
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Cass, G. R.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Andersons, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, “Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D22), 28371–28398 (2001).
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Chang, H.

H. Chang and T. T. Charalampopoulos, “Determination of the wavelength dependence of refractive indices of flame light absorbing carbon,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 430, 577–591 (1990).
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Charalampopoulos, T. T.

H. Chang and T. T. Charalampopoulos, “Determination of the wavelength dependence of refractive indices of flame light absorbing carbon,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 430, 577–591 (1990).
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Chen, H.

T. Cheng, X. Gu, Y. Wu, H. Chen, and T. Yu, “The optical properties of absorbing aerosols with fractal light absorbing carbon aggregates: Implications for aerosol remote sensing,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 125, 93–104 (2013).

Cheng, T.

T. Cheng, X. Gu, Y. Wu, H. Chen, and T. Yu, “The optical properties of absorbing aerosols with fractal light absorbing carbon aggregates: Implications for aerosol remote sensing,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 125, 93–104 (2013).

China, S.

S. China, C. Mazzoleni, K. Gorkowski, A. C. Aiken, and M. K. Dubey, “Morphology and mixing state of individual freshly emitted wildfire carbonaceous particles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2122 (2013), doi:.
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Chirico, R.

T. Tritscher, Z. Jurányi, M. Martin, R. Chirico, M. Gysel, M. F. Heringa, P. F. DeCarlo, B. Sierau, A. S. H. Prévôt, E. Weingartner, and U. Baltensperger, “Changes of hygroscopicity and morphology during ageing of diesel light absorbing carbon,” Environ. Res. Lett. 6, 034026 (2011).
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Chung, C. E.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Andersons, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, “Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D22), 28371–28398 (2001).
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Chung, S. H.

K. Adachi, S. H. Chung, and P. R. Buseck, “Shapes of light absorbing carbon aerosol particles and implications for their effects on climate,” J. Geophy. Res.: Atmos. 115, D15206 (2010).

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Clarke, A. D.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Andersons, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, “Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D22), 28371–28398 (2001).
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Coakley, J. A.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Andersons, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, “Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D22), 28371–28398 (2001).
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Collins, D.

E. Andrews, P. J. Sheridan, M. Fiebig, A. McComiskey, J. A. Ogren, P. Arnott, D. Covert, R. Elleman, R. Gasparini, D. Collins, H. Jonsson, B. Schmid, and J. Wang, “Comparison of methods for deriving aerosol asymmetry parameter,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05S04 (2004), doi:.
[Crossref]

Collins, W. D.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Andersons, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, “Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D22), 28371–28398 (2001).
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M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, O. Möhler, K.-H. Naumann, H. Saathoff, R. Wagner, U. Schurath, and B. Wehner, “Absorption amplification of black carbon internally mixed with secondary organic aerosol,” J. Geophy. Res.: Atmos. 110, D19204 (2005).
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L. Liu and M. I. Mishchenko, “Effects of aggregation on scattering and radiative properties of light absorbing carbon aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D11211 (2005).
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M. I. Mishchenko, L. Liu, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, “Scattering and radiative properties of semi-external versus external mixtures of different aerosol types,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 88(1-3), 139–147 (2004).
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V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Andersons, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, “Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D22), 28371–28398 (2001).
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D. W. Mackowski, “A general superposition solution for electromagnetic scattering by multiple spherical domains of optically active media,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 133, 264–270 (2014).
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D. W. Mackowski and M. I. Mishchenko, “A multiple sphere T-matrix Fortran code for use on parallel computer clusters,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 112(13), 2182–2192 (2011).
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J. P. Schwarz, J. R. Spackman, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, U. Lohmann, P. Stier, L. A. Watts, D. S. Thomson, D. A. Lack, L. Pfister, M. J. Mahoney, D. Baumgardner, J. C. Wilson, and J. M. Reeves, “Coatings and their enhancement of black carbon light absorption in the tropical atmosphere,” J. Geophy. Res.: Atmos. 113, D03203 (2008).
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T. Tritscher, Z. Jurányi, M. Martin, R. Chirico, M. Gysel, M. F. Heringa, P. F. DeCarlo, B. Sierau, A. S. H. Prévôt, E. Weingartner, and U. Baltensperger, “Changes of hygroscopicity and morphology during ageing of diesel light absorbing carbon,” Environ. Res. Lett. 6, 034026 (2011).
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Massoli, P.

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Response to comment on “Radiative Absorption Enhancements Due to the Mixing State of Atmospheric Black Carbon”,” Science 339(6118), 393 (2013).
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C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
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S. China, C. Mazzoleni, K. Gorkowski, A. C. Aiken, and M. K. Dubey, “Morphology and mixing state of individual freshly emitted wildfire carbonaceous particles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2122 (2013), doi:.
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V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Andersons, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, “Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D22), 28371–28398 (2001).
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R. Zhang, A. F. Khalizov, J. Pagels, D. Zhang, H. Xue, and P. H. McMurry, “Variability in morphology, hygroscopicity, and optical properties of soot aerosols during atmospheric processing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(30), 10291–10296 (2008).
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Mellon, D.

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Response to comment on “Radiative Absorption Enhancements Due to the Mixing State of Atmospheric Black Carbon”,” Science 339(6118), 393 (2013).
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C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
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D. W. Mackowski and M. I. Mishchenko, “A multiple sphere T-matrix Fortran code for use on parallel computer clusters,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 112(13), 2182–2192 (2011).
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L. Liu and M. I. Mishchenko, “Effects of aggregation on scattering and radiative properties of light absorbing carbon aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D11211 (2005).
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M. I. Mishchenko, L. Liu, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, “Scattering and radiative properties of semi-external versus external mixtures of different aerosol types,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 88(1-3), 139–147 (2004).
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V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Andersons, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, “Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D22), 28371–28398 (2001).
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Möhler, O.

M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, O. Möhler, K.-H. Naumann, H. Saathoff, R. Wagner, U. Schurath, and B. Wehner, “Absorption amplification of black carbon internally mixed with secondary organic aerosol,” J. Geophy. Res.: Atmos. 110, D19204 (2005).
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N. Moteki and Y. Kondo, “Effects of mixing state on black carbon measurements by laser-induced incandescence,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 41(4), 398–417 (2007).
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M. Wentzel, H. Gorzawski, K. H. Naumann, H. Saathoff, and S. Weinbruch, “Transmission electron microscopical and aerosol dynamical characterization of soot aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 34(10), 1347–1370 (2003).
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Naumann, K.-H.

M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, O. Möhler, K.-H. Naumann, H. Saathoff, R. Wagner, U. Schurath, and B. Wehner, “Absorption amplification of black carbon internally mixed with secondary organic aerosol,” J. Geophy. Res.: Atmos. 110, D19204 (2005).
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Novakov, T.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Andersons, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, “Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D22), 28371–28398 (2001).
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Nuaaman, I.

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Response to comment on “Radiative Absorption Enhancements Due to the Mixing State of Atmospheric Black Carbon”,” Science 339(6118), 393 (2013).
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C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
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Ogren, J. A.

E. Andrews, P. J. Sheridan, M. Fiebig, A. McComiskey, J. A. Ogren, P. Arnott, D. Covert, R. Elleman, R. Gasparini, D. Collins, H. Jonsson, B. Schmid, and J. Wang, “Comparison of methods for deriving aerosol asymmetry parameter,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D05S04 (2004), doi:.
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V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Andersons, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, “Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D22), 28371–28398 (2001).
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Olfert, J. S.

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Response to comment on “Radiative Absorption Enhancements Due to the Mixing State of Atmospheric Black Carbon”,” Science 339(6118), 393 (2013).
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C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
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Onasch, T. B.

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Response to comment on “Radiative Absorption Enhancements Due to the Mixing State of Atmospheric Black Carbon”,” Science 339(6118), 393 (2013).
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C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
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Pagels, J.

R. Zhang, A. F. Khalizov, J. Pagels, D. Zhang, H. Xue, and P. H. McMurry, “Variability in morphology, hygroscopicity, and optical properties of soot aerosols during atmospheric processing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(30), 10291–10296 (2008).
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Peischl, J.

J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, J. R. Spackman, L. A. Watts, D. S. Thomson, D. W. Fahey, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, J. S. Holloway, M. Trainer, G. J. Frost, T. Baynard, D. A. Lack, J. A. de Gouw, C. Warneke, and L. A. Del Negro, “Measurement of the mixing state, mass, and optical size of individual black carbon particles in urban and biomass burning emissions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(13), L13810 (2008).
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Petäjä, T.

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Response to comment on “Radiative Absorption Enhancements Due to the Mixing State of Atmospheric Black Carbon”,” Science 339(6118), 393 (2013).
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C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
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Pfister, L.

J. P. Schwarz, J. R. Spackman, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, U. Lohmann, P. Stier, L. A. Watts, D. S. Thomson, D. A. Lack, L. Pfister, M. J. Mahoney, D. Baumgardner, J. C. Wilson, and J. M. Reeves, “Coatings and their enhancement of black carbon light absorption in the tropical atmosphere,” J. Geophy. Res.: Atmos. 113, D03203 (2008).
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Podgorny, I. A.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Andersons, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, “Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D22), 28371–28398 (2001).
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Pósfai, M.

J. Li, M. Pósfai, P. V. Hobbs, and P. R. Buseck, “Individual aerosol particles from biomass burning in southern Africa: 2, Compositions and aging of inorganic particles,” J. Geophy. Res.: Atmos. 108, 8484 (2003).
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Prather, K.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Andersons, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, “Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D22), 28371–28398 (2001).
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Prévôt, A. S. H.

T. Tritscher, Z. Jurányi, M. Martin, R. Chirico, M. Gysel, M. F. Heringa, P. F. DeCarlo, B. Sierau, A. S. H. Prévôt, E. Weingartner, and U. Baltensperger, “Changes of hygroscopicity and morphology during ageing of diesel light absorbing carbon,” Environ. Res. Lett. 6, 034026 (2011).
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Priestley, K.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Andersons, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, “Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D22), 28371–28398 (2001).
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T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, O. Boucher, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
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C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Response to comment on “Radiative Absorption Enhancements Due to the Mixing State of Atmospheric Black Carbon”,” Science 339(6118), 393 (2013).
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M. Shiraiwa, Y. Kondo, N. Moteki, N. Takegawa, L. K. Sahu, A. Takami, S. Hatakeyama, S. Yonemura, and D. R. Blake, “Radiative impact of mixing state of black carbon aerosol in Asian outflow,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D24210 (2008).
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M. Shiraiwa, Y. Kondo, N. Moteki, N. Takegawa, L. K. Sahu, A. Takami, S. Hatakeyama, S. Yonemura, and D. R. Blake, “Radiative impact of mixing state of black carbon aerosol in Asian outflow,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D24210 (2008).
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J. P. Schwarz, J. R. Spackman, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, U. Lohmann, P. Stier, L. A. Watts, D. S. Thomson, D. A. Lack, L. Pfister, M. J. Mahoney, D. Baumgardner, J. C. Wilson, and J. M. Reeves, “Coatings and their enhancement of black carbon light absorption in the tropical atmosphere,” J. Geophy. Res.: Atmos. 113, D03203 (2008).
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J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, J. R. Spackman, L. A. Watts, D. S. Thomson, D. W. Fahey, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, J. S. Holloway, M. Trainer, G. J. Frost, T. Baynard, D. A. Lack, J. A. de Gouw, C. Warneke, and L. A. Del Negro, “Measurement of the mixing state, mass, and optical size of individual black carbon particles in urban and biomass burning emissions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(13), L13810 (2008).
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Trainer, M.

J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, J. R. Spackman, L. A. Watts, D. S. Thomson, D. W. Fahey, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, J. S. Holloway, M. Trainer, G. J. Frost, T. Baynard, D. A. Lack, J. A. de Gouw, C. Warneke, and L. A. Del Negro, “Measurement of the mixing state, mass, and optical size of individual black carbon particles in urban and biomass burning emissions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(13), L13810 (2008).
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M. I. Mishchenko, G. Videen, N. G. Khlebtsov, and T. Wriedt, “Comprehensive T-Matrix Reference Database: A 2012–2013 Update,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 123, 145–152 (2013).
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M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, O. Möhler, K.-H. Naumann, H. Saathoff, R. Wagner, U. Schurath, and B. Wehner, “Absorption amplification of black carbon internally mixed with secondary organic aerosol,” J. Geophy. Res.: Atmos. 110, D19204 (2005).
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K. S. Johnson, B. Zuberi, L. T. Molina, M. J. Molina, M. J. Iedema, J. P. Cowin, D. J. Gaspar, C. Wang, and A. Laskin, “Processing of light absorbing carbon in an urban environment: case study from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3033–3043 (2005).
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A. F. Khalizov, H. Xue, L. Wang, J. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “Enhanced light absorption and scattering by carbon light absorbing carbon aerosol internally mixed with sulfuric acid,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 1066–1074 (2009).
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T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, O. Boucher, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
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T. Tritscher, Z. Jurányi, M. Martin, R. Chirico, M. Gysel, M. F. Heringa, P. F. DeCarlo, B. Sierau, A. S. H. Prévôt, E. Weingartner, and U. Baltensperger, “Changes of hygroscopicity and morphology during ageing of diesel light absorbing carbon,” Environ. Res. Lett. 6, 034026 (2011).
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M. Wentzel, H. Gorzawski, K. H. Naumann, H. Saathoff, and S. Weinbruch, “Transmission electron microscopical and aerosol dynamical characterization of soot aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 34(10), 1347–1370 (2003).
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J. P. Schwarz, J. R. Spackman, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, U. Lohmann, P. Stier, L. A. Watts, D. S. Thomson, D. A. Lack, L. Pfister, M. J. Mahoney, D. Baumgardner, J. C. Wilson, and J. M. Reeves, “Coatings and their enhancement of black carbon light absorption in the tropical atmosphere,” J. Geophy. Res.: Atmos. 113, D03203 (2008).
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Worsnop, D. R.

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Response to comment on “Radiative Absorption Enhancements Due to the Mixing State of Atmospheric Black Carbon”,” Science 339(6118), 393 (2013).
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C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
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Wriedt, T.

M. I. Mishchenko, G. Videen, N. G. Khlebtsov, and T. Wriedt, “Comprehensive T-Matrix Reference Database: A 2012–2013 Update,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 123, 145–152 (2013).
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Wu, Y.

T. Cheng, X. Gu, Y. Wu, H. Chen, and T. Yu, “The optical properties of absorbing aerosols with fractal light absorbing carbon aggregates: Implications for aerosol remote sensing,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 125, 93–104 (2013).

Xue, H.

A. F. Khalizov, H. Xue, L. Wang, J. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “Enhanced light absorption and scattering by carbon light absorbing carbon aerosol internally mixed with sulfuric acid,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 1066–1074 (2009).
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R. Zhang, A. F. Khalizov, J. Pagels, D. Zhang, H. Xue, and P. H. McMurry, “Variability in morphology, hygroscopicity, and optical properties of soot aerosols during atmospheric processing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(30), 10291–10296 (2008).
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Yonemura, S.

M. Shiraiwa, Y. Kondo, N. Moteki, N. Takegawa, L. K. Sahu, A. Takami, S. Hatakeyama, S. Yonemura, and D. R. Blake, “Radiative impact of mixing state of black carbon aerosol in Asian outflow,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D24210 (2008).
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Yu, T.

T. Cheng, X. Gu, Y. Wu, H. Chen, and T. Yu, “The optical properties of absorbing aerosols with fractal light absorbing carbon aggregates: Implications for aerosol remote sensing,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 125, 93–104 (2013).

Zaveri, R. A.

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Response to comment on “Radiative Absorption Enhancements Due to the Mixing State of Atmospheric Black Carbon”,” Science 339(6118), 393 (2013).
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C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
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Zender, C. S.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, O. Boucher, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
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Zhang, D.

R. Zhang, A. F. Khalizov, J. Pagels, D. Zhang, H. Xue, and P. H. McMurry, “Variability in morphology, hygroscopicity, and optical properties of soot aerosols during atmospheric processing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(30), 10291–10296 (2008).
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Zhang, H.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, O. Boucher, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
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Zhang, R.

A. F. Khalizov, H. Xue, L. Wang, J. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “Enhanced light absorption and scattering by carbon light absorbing carbon aerosol internally mixed with sulfuric acid,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 1066–1074 (2009).
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R. Zhang, A. F. Khalizov, J. Pagels, D. Zhang, H. Xue, and P. H. McMurry, “Variability in morphology, hygroscopicity, and optical properties of soot aerosols during atmospheric processing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(30), 10291–10296 (2008).
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Zhang, S.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, O. Boucher, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(11), 5380–5552 (2013).
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Zheng, J.

A. F. Khalizov, H. Xue, L. Wang, J. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “Enhanced light absorption and scattering by carbon light absorbing carbon aerosol internally mixed with sulfuric acid,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 1066–1074 (2009).
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K. S. Johnson, B. Zuberi, L. T. Molina, M. J. Molina, M. J. Iedema, J. P. Cowin, D. J. Gaspar, C. Wang, and A. Laskin, “Processing of light absorbing carbon in an urban environment: case study from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3033–3043 (2005).
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E. Weingartner, H. Burtscher, and U. Baltensperger, “Hygroscopic properties of carbon and diesel soot particles,” Atmos. Environ. 31(15), 2311–2327 (1997).
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T. Tritscher, Z. Jurányi, M. Martin, R. Chirico, M. Gysel, M. F. Heringa, P. F. DeCarlo, B. Sierau, A. S. H. Prévôt, E. Weingartner, and U. Baltensperger, “Changes of hygroscopicity and morphology during ageing of diesel light absorbing carbon,” Environ. Res. Lett. 6, 034026 (2011).
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J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, J. R. Spackman, L. A. Watts, D. S. Thomson, D. W. Fahey, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, J. S. Holloway, M. Trainer, G. J. Frost, T. Baynard, D. A. Lack, J. A. de Gouw, C. Warneke, and L. A. Del Negro, “Measurement of the mixing state, mass, and optical size of individual black carbon particles in urban and biomass burning emissions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(13), L13810 (2008).
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M. Wentzel, H. Gorzawski, K. H. Naumann, H. Saathoff, and S. Weinbruch, “Transmission electron microscopical and aerosol dynamical characterization of soot aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 34(10), 1347–1370 (2003).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic image of the two mixing states of soot aerosols: (Left) external mixture soot aerosol models, (right) internal mixture aerosol models. Only two aerosol components are taken into account. Black is the black carbon, and gray is the sulfate.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Effects of soot aerosol mixing state on the Mueller matrix elements at 440 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Effects of soot aerosol mixing state on the Mueller matrix elements at 870 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Effects of soot aerosol mixing state on the extinction cross section and single-scattering albedo, units of extinction cross section is μm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Polar plot (radius: view zenith angle; angle: relative azimuthal angle) of relative differences of TOA upward radiance simulated for different mixing state soot aerosol particles with variable soot aerosol loadings for clear (left) and haze scenarios (right) at a wavelength of 0.670μm. The external mixed aerosol optical depth is 0.129 for clear scenarios and 0.645 for haze scenarios. The solar zenith angle is 45°, and the Lambertian surface albedo is 0.02.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Same as Fig. 5, but for the Lambertian surface albedo is 0.5.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 As in Fig. 5, but relative differences in TOA upward polarization simulated for different mixing state of soot aerosol particles with variable soot aerosol loadings for a clear atmosphere.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 As in Fig. 7, but for a Lambertian surface albedo of 0.5.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Effects of the soot aerosol mixing state on the upwelling hemispheric flux for different solar zenith angles with variable soot aerosol loadings for clear (left) and haze scenarios (right) at a wavelength of 0.670μm. The external mixed aerosol optical depth is 0.129 for clear scenarios and 0.645 for haze scenarios. The Lambertian surface albedo is 0.02. The units of flux is W/ (m*m)/ μm.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 As in Fig. 9, but with a Lambertian surface albedo of 0.5. The units of flux is W/ (m*m)/ μm.

Equations (6)

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Ns=k0 ( Rg a ) Df
R g 2 = 1 N s i=1 N s r i 2
F( Θ ) = 0 F BC ( Θ ) σ BC,sca ( a )n( a )da + 0 F Sulfate ( Θ ) σ Sulfate,sca ( b )N( b )db 0 σ BC,sca ( a )n( a )da + 0 σ Sulfate,sca ( b )N( b )db
ω = 0 σ BC,sca ( a )n( a )da + 0 σ Sulfate,sca ( b )N( b )db 0 σ BC,ext ( a )n( a )da + 0 σ Sulfate,ext ( b )N( b )db
F( Θ ) = 0 F Internal(BC+Sulfate) ( Θ ) σ Internal(BC+Sulfate),sca ( c )m( c )dc 0 σ Internal(BC+Sulfate),sca ( c )m( c )dc
ω = 0 σ Internal(BC+Sulfate),sca ( c )m( c )dc 0 σ Internal(BC+Sulfate),ext ( c )m( c )dc

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