Abstract

We report the improved light output power in gallium nitride-based green flip-chip light-emitting diodes (FCLEDs) employed with inverted tetrahedron-pyramidal micropatterned polydimethylsiloxane (ITPM PDMS) films as an encapsulation and protection layer. The micropatterns are transferred into the surface of PDMS films from the sapphire substrate master molds with two-dimensional periodic hexagonal TPM arrays by a soft imprint lithography method. The ITPM PDMS film laminated on the sapphire dramatically enhances the diffuse transmittance (TD) in a wavelength (λ) range of 400-650 nm, exhibiting the larger TD value of ~53% at λ = 525 nm, (cf., TD ~1% for planar sapphire). By introducing the ITPM PDMS film on the outer surface of sapphire in FCLEDs, the light output power is enhanced, indicating the increment percentage of ~11.1% at 500 mA of injection current compared to the reference FCLED without the ITPM PDMS film, together with better electroluminescence intensity and far-field radiation pattern.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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2015 (4)

J. W. Leem, M. Choi, and J. S. Yu, “Multifunctional microstructured polymer films for boosting solar power generation of silicon-based photovoltaic modules,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(4), 2349–2358 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Leem, X. Y. Guan, M. Choi, and J. S. Yu, “Broadband and omnidirectional highly-transparent coverglasses coated with biomimetic moth-eye nanopatterned polymer films for solar photovoltaic system applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 134, 45–53 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Choi, J. W. Leem, and J. S. Yu, “Antireflective gradient-refractive-index material distributed microstructures with high haze and superhydrophilicity for silicon-based optoelectronic applications,” RSC Adv. 5(32), 25616–25624 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, D. C. Kim, J. Kim, S. K. Jeon, and J. S. Yu, “Optical, spectral, and thermal characteristics of InGaN/GaN green flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 104, 20–24 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

C. Y. Liu, K. J. Chen, D. W. Lin, C. Y. Lee, C. C. Lin, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, G. C. Chi, C. Y. Chang, and H. C. Kuo, “Improvement of emission uniformity by using micro-cone patterned PDMS film,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4516–4522 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Leem, S. Kim, S. H. Lee, J. A. Rogers, E. Kim, and J. S. Yu, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using hydrophobic antireflective inverted moth-eye nanopatterned PDMS films,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(8), 1301315 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. H. Li, C. Feng, and H. W. Choi, “Analysis of micro-lens integrated flip-chip InGaN light-emitting diodes by confocal microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051107 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 317–323 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature 497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, J. W. Leem, and J. S. Yu, “Transmittance enhancement of sapphires with antireflective subwavelength grating patterned UV polymer surface structures by soft lithography,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29298–29303 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Reversible full-color generation with patterned yellow electrochromic polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(4), 1180–1184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

J. Lee, J. Wu, J. H. Ryu, Z. Liu, M. Meitl, Y. W. Zhang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable semiconductor technologies with high areal coverages and strain-limiting behavior: Demonstration in high-efficiency dual-junction GaInP/GaAs photovoltaics,” Small 8(12), 1851–1856 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. K. Lee, D. H. Joo, M. S. Kim, and J. S. Yu, “Improved light extraction of InGaN/GaN blue LEDs by GaOOH NRAs using a thin ATO seed layer,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 458 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jung, X. Wang, S. H. Kim, F. Ren, J. Kim, and S. J. Pearton, “A facile method for flexible GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL 6(11), 421–423 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093110 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

L. Kuna, A. Haase, C. Sommer, E. Zinterl, J. R. Krenn, F. P. Wenzl, P. Pachler, P. Hartmann, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Improvement of light extraction from high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes by femtosecond laser direct structuring of the sapphire backside surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 074507 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1840–1842 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

S. H. Huang, R. H. Horng, K. S. Wen, Y. F. Lin, K. W. Yen, and D. S. Wuu, “Improved light extraction of nitride-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes via sapphire shaping and texturing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2623–2625 (2006).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(22), 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 281(5379), 961–965 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, K.

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1840–1842 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bhuvana, T.

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Reversible full-color generation with patterned yellow electrochromic polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(4), 1180–1184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, C. Y.

Chen, K. J.

Chen, Y.

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1840–1842 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chi, G. C.

Chien, S. H.

Choi, E. S.

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Choi, H. W.

K. H. Li, C. Feng, and H. W. Choi, “Analysis of micro-lens integrated flip-chip InGaN light-emitting diodes by confocal microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choi, K. J.

Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature 497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, M.

J. W. Leem, X. Y. Guan, M. Choi, and J. S. Yu, “Broadband and omnidirectional highly-transparent coverglasses coated with biomimetic moth-eye nanopatterned polymer films for solar photovoltaic system applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 134, 45–53 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Choi, J. W. Leem, and J. S. Yu, “Antireflective gradient-refractive-index material distributed microstructures with high haze and superhydrophilicity for silicon-based optoelectronic applications,” RSC Adv. 5(32), 25616–25624 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. W. Leem, M. Choi, and J. S. Yu, “Multifunctional microstructured polymer films for boosting solar power generation of silicon-based photovoltaic modules,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(4), 2349–2358 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crozier, K. B.

Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature 497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, T.

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1840–1842 (2007).
[Crossref]

Feng, C.

K. H. Li, C. Feng, and H. W. Choi, “Analysis of micro-lens integrated flip-chip InGaN light-emitting diodes by confocal microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gardner, N. F.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(22), 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

Guan, X. Y.

J. W. Leem, X. Y. Guan, M. Choi, and J. S. Yu, “Broadband and omnidirectional highly-transparent coverglasses coated with biomimetic moth-eye nanopatterned polymer films for solar photovoltaic system applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 134, 45–53 (2015).
[Crossref]

Haase, A.

L. Kuna, A. Haase, C. Sommer, E. Zinterl, J. R. Krenn, F. P. Wenzl, P. Pachler, P. Hartmann, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Improvement of light extraction from high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes by femtosecond laser direct structuring of the sapphire backside surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 074507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, P.

L. Kuna, A. Haase, C. Sommer, E. Zinterl, J. R. Krenn, F. P. Wenzl, P. Pachler, P. Hartmann, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Improvement of light extraction from high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes by femtosecond laser direct structuring of the sapphire backside surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 074507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Horng, R. H.

S. H. Huang, R. H. Horng, K. S. Wen, Y. F. Lin, K. W. Yen, and D. S. Wuu, “Improved light extraction of nitride-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes via sapphire shaping and texturing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2623–2625 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huang, S. H.

S. H. Huang, R. H. Horng, K. S. Wen, Y. F. Lin, K. W. Yen, and D. S. Wuu, “Improved light extraction of nitride-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes via sapphire shaping and texturing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2623–2625 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature 497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, J. Wu, J. H. Ryu, Z. Liu, M. Meitl, Y. W. Zhang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable semiconductor technologies with high areal coverages and strain-limiting behavior: Demonstration in high-efficiency dual-junction GaInP/GaAs photovoltaics,” Small 8(12), 1851–1856 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jang, S. J.

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jeon, S. K.

S. H. Lee, D. C. Kim, J. Kim, S. K. Jeon, and J. S. Yu, “Optical, spectral, and thermal characteristics of InGaN/GaN green flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 104, 20–24 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ji, H.

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1840–1842 (2007).
[Crossref]

Joo, D. H.

H. K. Lee, D. H. Joo, M. S. Kim, and J. S. Yu, “Improved light extraction of InGaN/GaN blue LEDs by GaOOH NRAs using a thin ATO seed layer,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 458 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, I.

Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature 497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, Y.

Y. Jung, X. Wang, S. H. Kim, F. Ren, J. Kim, and S. J. Pearton, “A facile method for flexible GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL 6(11), 421–423 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kang, X. N.

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1840–1842 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kern, R. S.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(22), 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kim, B.

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Reversible full-color generation with patterned yellow electrochromic polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(4), 1180–1184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, D. C.

S. H. Lee, D. C. Kim, J. Kim, S. K. Jeon, and J. S. Yu, “Optical, spectral, and thermal characteristics of InGaN/GaN green flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 104, 20–24 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, E.

J. W. Leem, S. Kim, S. H. Lee, J. A. Rogers, E. Kim, and J. S. Yu, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using hydrophobic antireflective inverted moth-eye nanopatterned PDMS films,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(8), 1301315 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Reversible full-color generation with patterned yellow electrochromic polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(4), 1180–1184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

S. H. Lee, D. C. Kim, J. Kim, S. K. Jeon, and J. S. Yu, “Optical, spectral, and thermal characteristics of InGaN/GaN green flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 104, 20–24 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Jung, X. Wang, S. H. Kim, F. Ren, J. Kim, and S. J. Pearton, “A facile method for flexible GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL 6(11), 421–423 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. S.

H. K. Lee, D. H. Joo, M. S. Kim, and J. S. Yu, “Improved light extraction of InGaN/GaN blue LEDs by GaOOH NRAs using a thin ATO seed layer,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 458 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, R. H.

Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature 497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

J. W. Leem, S. Kim, S. H. Lee, J. A. Rogers, E. Kim, and J. S. Yu, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using hydrophobic antireflective inverted moth-eye nanopatterned PDMS films,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(8), 1301315 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. H.

Y. Jung, X. Wang, S. H. Kim, F. Ren, J. Kim, and S. J. Pearton, “A facile method for flexible GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL 6(11), 421–423 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ko, Y. H.

Krames, M. R.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(22), 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

Krenn, J. R.

L. Kuna, A. Haase, C. Sommer, E. Zinterl, J. R. Krenn, F. P. Wenzl, P. Pachler, P. Hartmann, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Improvement of light extraction from high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes by femtosecond laser direct structuring of the sapphire backside surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 074507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kuna, L.

L. Kuna, A. Haase, C. Sommer, E. Zinterl, J. R. Krenn, F. P. Wenzl, P. Pachler, P. Hartmann, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Improvement of light extraction from high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes by femtosecond laser direct structuring of the sapphire backside surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 074507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

Lee, C. Y.

Lee, H. K.

H. K. Lee, D. H. Joo, M. S. Kim, and J. S. Yu, “Improved light extraction of InGaN/GaN blue LEDs by GaOOH NRAs using a thin ATO seed layer,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 458 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

J. Lee, J. Wu, J. H. Ryu, Z. Liu, M. Meitl, Y. W. Zhang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable semiconductor technologies with high areal coverages and strain-limiting behavior: Demonstration in high-efficiency dual-junction GaInP/GaAs photovoltaics,” Small 8(12), 1851–1856 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. H.

S. H. Lee, D. C. Kim, J. Kim, S. K. Jeon, and J. S. Yu, “Optical, spectral, and thermal characteristics of InGaN/GaN green flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 104, 20–24 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. W. Leem, S. Kim, S. H. Lee, J. A. Rogers, E. Kim, and J. S. Yu, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using hydrophobic antireflective inverted moth-eye nanopatterned PDMS films,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(8), 1301315 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, J. W. Leem, and J. S. Yu, “Transmittance enhancement of sapphires with antireflective subwavelength grating patterned UV polymer surface structures by soft lithography,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29298–29303 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. T.

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Leem, J. W.

J. W. Leem, X. Y. Guan, M. Choi, and J. S. Yu, “Broadband and omnidirectional highly-transparent coverglasses coated with biomimetic moth-eye nanopatterned polymer films for solar photovoltaic system applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 134, 45–53 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. W. Leem, M. Choi, and J. S. Yu, “Multifunctional microstructured polymer films for boosting solar power generation of silicon-based photovoltaic modules,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(4), 2349–2358 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Choi, J. W. Leem, and J. S. Yu, “Antireflective gradient-refractive-index material distributed microstructures with high haze and superhydrophilicity for silicon-based optoelectronic applications,” RSC Adv. 5(32), 25616–25624 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. W. Leem, S. Kim, S. H. Lee, J. A. Rogers, E. Kim, and J. S. Yu, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using hydrophobic antireflective inverted moth-eye nanopatterned PDMS films,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(8), 1301315 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, J. W. Leem, and J. S. Yu, “Transmittance enhancement of sapphires with antireflective subwavelength grating patterned UV polymer surface structures by soft lithography,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29298–29303 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leising, G.

L. Kuna, A. Haase, C. Sommer, E. Zinterl, J. R. Krenn, F. P. Wenzl, P. Pachler, P. Hartmann, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Improvement of light extraction from high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes by femtosecond laser direct structuring of the sapphire backside surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 074507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, K. H.

K. H. Li, C. Feng, and H. W. Choi, “Analysis of micro-lens integrated flip-chip InGaN light-emitting diodes by confocal microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, R.

Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature 497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C. C.

Lin, D. W.

Lin, Y. F.

S. H. Huang, R. H. Horng, K. S. Wen, Y. F. Lin, K. W. Yen, and D. S. Wuu, “Improved light extraction of nitride-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes via sapphire shaping and texturing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2623–2625 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liu, C. Y.

Liu, G.

P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 317–323 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature 497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, J. Wu, J. H. Ryu, Z. Liu, M. Meitl, Y. W. Zhang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable semiconductor technologies with high areal coverages and strain-limiting behavior: Demonstration in high-efficiency dual-junction GaInP/GaAs photovoltaics,” Small 8(12), 1851–1856 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, C.

Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature 497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ludowise, M. J.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(22), 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

Malyarchuk, V.

Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature 497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meitl, M.

J. Lee, J. Wu, J. H. Ryu, Z. Liu, M. Meitl, Y. W. Zhang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable semiconductor technologies with high areal coverages and strain-limiting behavior: Demonstration in high-efficiency dual-junction GaInP/GaAs photovoltaics,” Small 8(12), 1851–1856 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 281(5379), 961–965 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Shea, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(22), 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pachler, P.

L. Kuna, A. Haase, C. Sommer, E. Zinterl, J. R. Krenn, F. P. Wenzl, P. Pachler, P. Hartmann, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Improvement of light extraction from high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes by femtosecond laser direct structuring of the sapphire backside surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 074507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, C. Y.

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, G. C.

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, H.

Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature 497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pearton, S. J.

Y. Jung, X. Wang, S. H. Kim, F. Ren, J. Kim, and S. J. Pearton, “A facile method for flexible GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL 6(11), 421–423 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ren, F.

Y. Jung, X. Wang, S. H. Kim, F. Ren, J. Kim, and S. J. Pearton, “A facile method for flexible GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL 6(11), 421–423 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rogers, J. A.

J. W. Leem, S. Kim, S. H. Lee, J. A. Rogers, E. Kim, and J. S. Yu, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using hydrophobic antireflective inverted moth-eye nanopatterned PDMS films,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(8), 1301315 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature 497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, J. Wu, J. H. Ryu, Z. Liu, M. Meitl, Y. W. Zhang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable semiconductor technologies with high areal coverages and strain-limiting behavior: Demonstration in high-efficiency dual-junction GaInP/GaAs photovoltaics,” Small 8(12), 1851–1856 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ryu, J. H.

J. Lee, J. Wu, J. H. Ryu, Z. Liu, M. Meitl, Y. W. Zhang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable semiconductor technologies with high areal coverages and strain-limiting behavior: Demonstration in high-efficiency dual-junction GaInP/GaAs photovoltaics,” Small 8(12), 1851–1856 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shih, M. H.

Shin, H.

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Reversible full-color generation with patterned yellow electrochromic polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(4), 1180–1184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sommer, C.

L. Kuna, A. Haase, C. Sommer, E. Zinterl, J. R. Krenn, F. P. Wenzl, P. Pachler, P. Hartmann, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Improvement of light extraction from high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes by femtosecond laser direct structuring of the sapphire backside surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 074507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Song, Y. M.

Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature 497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Steigerwald, D. A.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(22), 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

Stockman, S. A.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(22), 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tansu, N.

P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 317–323 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tasch, S.

L. Kuna, A. Haase, C. Sommer, E. Zinterl, J. R. Krenn, F. P. Wenzl, P. Pachler, P. Hartmann, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Improvement of light extraction from high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes by femtosecond laser direct structuring of the sapphire backside surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 074507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Y. Jung, X. Wang, S. H. Kim, F. Ren, J. Kim, and S. J. Pearton, “A facile method for flexible GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL 6(11), 421–423 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wen, K. S.

S. H. Huang, R. H. Horng, K. S. Wen, Y. F. Lin, K. W. Yen, and D. S. Wuu, “Improved light extraction of nitride-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes via sapphire shaping and texturing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2623–2625 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wenzl, F. P.

L. Kuna, A. Haase, C. Sommer, E. Zinterl, J. R. Krenn, F. P. Wenzl, P. Pachler, P. Hartmann, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Improvement of light extraction from high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes by femtosecond laser direct structuring of the sapphire backside surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 074507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(22), 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

J. Lee, J. Wu, J. H. Ryu, Z. Liu, M. Meitl, Y. W. Zhang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable semiconductor technologies with high areal coverages and strain-limiting behavior: Demonstration in high-efficiency dual-junction GaInP/GaAs photovoltaics,” Small 8(12), 1851–1856 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wuu, D. S.

S. H. Huang, R. H. Horng, K. S. Wen, Y. F. Lin, K. W. Yen, and D. S. Wuu, “Improved light extraction of nitride-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes via sapphire shaping and texturing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2623–2625 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xiao, J.

Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature 497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, Y.

Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature 497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiong, C.

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1840–1842 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Reversible full-color generation with patterned yellow electrochromic polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(4), 1180–1184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yen, K. W.

S. H. Huang, R. H. Horng, K. S. Wen, Y. F. Lin, K. W. Yen, and D. S. Wuu, “Improved light extraction of nitride-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes via sapphire shaping and texturing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2623–2625 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yu, J. S.

M. Choi, J. W. Leem, and J. S. Yu, “Antireflective gradient-refractive-index material distributed microstructures with high haze and superhydrophilicity for silicon-based optoelectronic applications,” RSC Adv. 5(32), 25616–25624 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. W. Leem, X. Y. Guan, M. Choi, and J. S. Yu, “Broadband and omnidirectional highly-transparent coverglasses coated with biomimetic moth-eye nanopatterned polymer films for solar photovoltaic system applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 134, 45–53 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. W. Leem, M. Choi, and J. S. Yu, “Multifunctional microstructured polymer films for boosting solar power generation of silicon-based photovoltaic modules,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(4), 2349–2358 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, D. C. Kim, J. Kim, S. K. Jeon, and J. S. Yu, “Optical, spectral, and thermal characteristics of InGaN/GaN green flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 104, 20–24 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. W. Leem, S. Kim, S. H. Lee, J. A. Rogers, E. Kim, and J. S. Yu, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using hydrophobic antireflective inverted moth-eye nanopatterned PDMS films,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(8), 1301315 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, J. W. Leem, and J. S. Yu, “Transmittance enhancement of sapphires with antireflective subwavelength grating patterned UV polymer surface structures by soft lithography,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29298–29303 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. K. Lee, D. H. Joo, M. S. Kim, and J. S. Yu, “Improved light extraction of InGaN/GaN blue LEDs by GaOOH NRAs using a thin ATO seed layer,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 458 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Ko and J. S. Yu, “Highly transparent sapphire micro-grating structures with large diffuse light scattering,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15574–15583 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1840–1842 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G. Y.

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1840–1842 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 317–323 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y. W.

J. Lee, J. Wu, J. H. Ryu, Z. Liu, M. Meitl, Y. W. Zhang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable semiconductor technologies with high areal coverages and strain-limiting behavior: Demonstration in high-efficiency dual-junction GaInP/GaAs photovoltaics,” Small 8(12), 1851–1856 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, P.

P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 317–323 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zinterl, E.

L. Kuna, A. Haase, C. Sommer, E. Zinterl, J. R. Krenn, F. P. Wenzl, P. Pachler, P. Hartmann, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Improvement of light extraction from high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes by femtosecond laser direct structuring of the sapphire backside surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 074507 (2008).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

J. W. Leem, M. Choi, and J. S. Yu, “Multifunctional microstructured polymer films for boosting solar power generation of silicon-based photovoltaic modules,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(4), 2349–2358 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Energy Mater. (1)

J. W. Leem, S. Kim, S. H. Lee, J. A. Rogers, E. Kim, and J. S. Yu, “Efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells using hydrophobic antireflective inverted moth-eye nanopatterned PDMS films,” Adv. Energy Mater. 4(8), 1301315 (2014).
[Crossref]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

T. Bhuvana, B. Kim, X. Yang, H. Shin, and E. Kim, “Reversible full-color generation with patterned yellow electrochromic polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52(4), 1180–1184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093110 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(22), 3379–3381 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. H. Li, C. Feng, and H. W. Choi, “Analysis of micro-lens integrated flip-chip InGaN light-emitting diodes by confocal microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051107 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

S. H. Huang, R. H. Horng, K. S. Wen, Y. F. Lin, K. W. Yen, and D. S. Wuu, “Improved light extraction of nitride-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes via sapphire shaping and texturing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2623–2625 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Bao, X. N. Kang, B. Zhang, T. Dai, C. Xiong, H. Ji, G. Y. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of light extraction from patterned polymer encapsulated GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by imprinting,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(22), 1840–1842 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Kuna, A. Haase, C. Sommer, E. Zinterl, J. R. Krenn, F. P. Wenzl, P. Pachler, P. Hartmann, S. Tasch, and G. Leising, “Improvement of light extraction from high-power flip-chip light-emitting diodes by femtosecond laser direct structuring of the sapphire backside surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 074507 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 317–323 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

H. K. Lee, D. H. Joo, M. S. Kim, and J. S. Yu, “Improved light extraction of InGaN/GaN blue LEDs by GaOOH NRAs using a thin ATO seed layer,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 458 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

Y. M. Song, Y. Xie, V. Malyarchuk, J. Xiao, I. Jung, K. J. Choi, Z. Liu, H. Park, C. Lu, R. H. Kim, R. Li, K. B. Crozier, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye,” Nature 497(7447), 95–99 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Status Solidi RRL (1)

Y. Jung, X. Wang, S. H. Kim, F. Ren, J. Kim, and S. J. Pearton, “A facile method for flexible GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi RRL 6(11), 421–423 (2012).
[Crossref]

RSC Adv. (1)

M. Choi, J. W. Leem, and J. S. Yu, “Antireflective gradient-refractive-index material distributed microstructures with high haze and superhydrophilicity for silicon-based optoelectronic applications,” RSC Adv. 5(32), 25616–25624 (2015).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 281(5379), 961–965 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Small (1)

J. Lee, J. Wu, J. H. Ryu, Z. Liu, M. Meitl, Y. W. Zhang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “Stretchable semiconductor technologies with high areal coverages and strain-limiting behavior: Demonstration in high-efficiency dual-junction GaInP/GaAs photovoltaics,” Small 8(12), 1851–1856 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

J. W. Leem, X. Y. Guan, M. Choi, and J. S. Yu, “Broadband and omnidirectional highly-transparent coverglasses coated with biomimetic moth-eye nanopatterned polymer films for solar photovoltaic system applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 134, 45–53 (2015).
[Crossref]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

S. H. Lee, D. C. Kim, J. Kim, S. K. Jeon, and J. S. Yu, “Optical, spectral, and thermal characteristics of InGaN/GaN green flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 104, 20–24 (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Addison Wesley, 2002).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic illustration of the process steps for the fabrication of ITPM PDMS films from TPM PSSs by the SIL method.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Top- and side-view SEM images of (a) the TPM PSS master mold and (b) the fabricated ITPM PDMS film.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Measured diffuse transmittance spectra of the planar sapphire (black symbol-line) and the ITPM PDMS/sapphire (red symbol-line) and (b) contour plots of Ey distributions calculated by the FDTD for the incident light propagating from the corresponding samples to air at λ = 525 nm. The inset of (a) shows the light diffraction phenomenon of the corresponding samples by using a green laser.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) EL spectra at IIn = 350 mA and (b) L-I-V curves for GaN-based green FCLEDs with and without the ITPM PDMS layer under CW mode at 298 K. The emission images at IIn = 1 mA and the measured angular far-field radiation distributions at IIn = 350 mA of the corresponding devices are also shown in the insets of (a) and (b), respectively.

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