Abstract

An all-optical method is proposed for the measurement of the spectral phase of isolated attosecond pulses. The technique is based on the generation of extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) radiation in a gas by the combination of an attosecond pulse and a strong infrared (IR) pulse with controlled electric field. By using a full quantum simulation, we demonstrate that, for particular temporal delays between the two pulses, the IR field can drive back to the parent ions the photoelectrons generated by the attosecond pulse, thus leading to the generation of XUV photons. It is found that the generated XUV spectrum is notably sensitive to the chirp of the attosecond pulse, which can then be reliably retrieved. A classical quantum-path analysis is further used to quantitatively explain the main features exhibited in the XUV emission.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Shaped multi-cycle two-color laser field for generating an intense isolated XUV pulse toward 100 attoseconds

Qingbin Zhang, Lixin He, Pengfei Lan, and Peixiang Lu
Opt. Express 22(11) 13213-13233 (2014)

Infrared-laser-induced ultrafast modulation on the spectrum of an extreme-ultraviolet attosecond pulse

Jinxing Xue, Candong Liu, Yinghui Zheng, Zhinan Zeng, Ruxin Li, and Zhizhan Xu
Opt. Express 26(7) 9243-9253 (2018)

Optimization of temporal gate by two-color chirped lasers for the generation of isolated attosecond pulse in soft X rays

Liwei He, Guanglu Yuan, Kan Wang, Weijie Hua, Chao Yu, and Cheng Jin
Photon. Res. 7(12) 1407-1415 (2019)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Nisoli and G. Sansone, “New frontiers in attosecond science,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 33(1), 17–59 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Chini, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “The generation, characterization and applications of broadband isolated attosecond pulses,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 178–186 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. T. Kim, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Manipulating quantum paths for novel attosecond measurement methods,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 187–194 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  5. F. Lépine, M. Y. Ivanov, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond molecular dynamics: fact or fiction?” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 195–204 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. F. Krausz and M. I. Stockman, “Attosecond metrology: from electron capture to future signal processing,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 205–213 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. A. Scrinzi, M. Geissler, and T. Brabec, “Attosecond cross correlation technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(3), 412–415 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. A. D. Bandrauk, S. Chelkowski, and N. H. Shon, “How to measure the duration of subfemtosecond xuv laser pulses using asymmetric photoionization,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 041802 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  11. F. Quéré, J. Itatani, G. L. Yudin, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond spectral shearing interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(7), 073902 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 011401 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Chini, S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, and Z. Chang, “Characterizing ultrabroadband attosecond lasers,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13006–13016 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. C. Liu, M. Reduzzi, A. Trabattoni, A. Sunilkumar, A. Dubrouil, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, and G. Sansone, “Carrier-envelope phase effects of a single attosecond pulse in two-color photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(12), 123901 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. Dimauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. K. Varjú, Y. Mairesse, P. Agostini, P. Breger, B. Carré, L. J. Frasinski, E. Gustafsson, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Reconstruction of attosecond pulse trains using an adiabatic phase expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 243901 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 781–786 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  19. N. Dudovich, J. Levesque, O. Smirnova, D. Zeidler, D. Comtois, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond temporal gating with elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 253903 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, S. E. Kirkwood, E. Frumker, G. Gariepy, A. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Manipulation of quantum paths for space-time characterization of attosecond pulses,” Nat. Phys. 9(3), 159–163 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  21. M. H. Xu, L. Y. Peng, Z. Zhang, Q. Gong, X. M. Tong, E. A. Pronin, and A. F. Starace, “Attosecond streaking in the low-energy region as a probe of rescattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(18), 183001 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. P. Johnsson, R. López-Martens, S. Kazamias, J. Mauritsson, C. Valentin, T. Remetter, K. Varjú, M. B. Gaarde, Y. Mairesse, H. Wabnitz, P. Salières, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, and A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet dynamics in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013001 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, T. Remetter, A. L’Huillier, and K. J. Schafer, “Attosecond control of ionization by wave-packet interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(23), 233001 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. P. Rivière, O. Uhden, U. Saalmann, and J. M. Rost, “Strong field dynamics with ultrashort electron wave packet replicas,” New J. Phys. 11(5), 053011 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  25. P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, B. Gramkow, S. De, B. De Paola, K. P. Singh, W. Cao, M. Magrakvelidze, D. Ray, I. Bocharova, H. Mashiko, A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. Litvinyuk, and C. L. Cocke, “IR-assisted ionization of helium by attosecond extreme ultraviolet radiation,” New J. Phys. 12(1), 013008 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  26. M. B. Gaarde, C. Buth, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Transient absorption and reshaping of ultrafast XUV light by laser-dressed helium,” Phys. Rev. A 83(1), 013419 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  27. T. Nakajima and E. Cormier, “Effects of the carrier-envelope phase of chirped laser pulses in the multiphoton ionization regime,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2879–2881 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. C. Liu, Z. Zeng, R. Li, Z. Xu, and M. Nisoli, “Attosecond photoionization for reconstruction of bound-electron wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A 90(1), 013403 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  29. X. M. Tong and C. D. Lin, “Empirical formula for static field ionization rates of atoms and molecules by lasers in the barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(15), 2593–2600 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  30. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. K. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and K. L. Krause, Super-intense laser-atom physics, NATO Advanced Study Institute Series B 316, 95–110 (1993).
  32. K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(2), 023003 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61(6), 063801 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  34. C. Liu, R. Li, Z. Zeng, Y. Zheng, P. Liu, and Z. Xu, “Nonadiabatic propagation effect for generating isolated sub-100 as pulses in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2618–2620 (2010).
    [PubMed]
  35. J.-H. Kim and C. H. Nam, “Plasma-induced frequency chirp of intense femtosecond lasers and its role in shaping high-order harmonic spectral lines,” Phys. Rev. A 65(3), 033801 (2002).
    [Crossref]

2014 (5)

M. Chini, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “The generation, characterization and applications of broadband isolated attosecond pulses,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 178–186 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. T. Kim, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Manipulating quantum paths for novel attosecond measurement methods,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 187–194 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Lépine, M. Y. Ivanov, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond molecular dynamics: fact or fiction?” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 195–204 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Krausz and M. I. Stockman, “Attosecond metrology: from electron capture to future signal processing,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 205–213 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, Z. Zeng, R. Li, Z. Xu, and M. Nisoli, “Attosecond photoionization for reconstruction of bound-electron wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A 90(1), 013403 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

C. Liu, M. Reduzzi, A. Trabattoni, A. Sunilkumar, A. Dubrouil, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, and G. Sansone, “Carrier-envelope phase effects of a single attosecond pulse in two-color photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(12), 123901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, S. E. Kirkwood, E. Frumker, G. Gariepy, A. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Manipulation of quantum paths for space-time characterization of attosecond pulses,” Nat. Phys. 9(3), 159–163 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

M. H. Xu, L. Y. Peng, Z. Zhang, Q. Gong, X. M. Tong, E. A. Pronin, and A. F. Starace, “Attosecond streaking in the low-energy region as a probe of rescattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(18), 183001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. B. Gaarde, C. Buth, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Transient absorption and reshaping of ultrafast XUV light by laser-dressed helium,” Phys. Rev. A 83(1), 013419 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

C. Liu, R. Li, Z. Zeng, Y. Zheng, P. Liu, and Z. Xu, “Nonadiabatic propagation effect for generating isolated sub-100 as pulses in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2618–2620 (2010).
[PubMed]

P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, B. Gramkow, S. De, B. De Paola, K. P. Singh, W. Cao, M. Magrakvelidze, D. Ray, I. Bocharova, H. Mashiko, A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. Litvinyuk, and C. L. Cocke, “IR-assisted ionization of helium by attosecond extreme ultraviolet radiation,” New J. Phys. 12(1), 013008 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Chini, S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, and Z. Chang, “Characterizing ultrabroadband attosecond lasers,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13006–13016 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Nisoli and G. Sansone, “New frontiers in attosecond science,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 33(1), 17–59 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Rivière, O. Uhden, U. Saalmann, and J. M. Rost, “Strong field dynamics with ultrashort electron wave packet replicas,” New J. Phys. 11(5), 053011 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, T. Remetter, A. L’Huillier, and K. J. Schafer, “Attosecond control of ionization by wave-packet interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(23), 233001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Nakajima and E. Cormier, “Effects of the carrier-envelope phase of chirped laser pulses in the multiphoton ionization regime,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2879–2881 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[Crossref]

N. Dudovich, J. Levesque, O. Smirnova, D. Zeidler, D. Comtois, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond temporal gating with elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 253903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

P. Johnsson, R. López-Martens, S. Kazamias, J. Mauritsson, C. Valentin, T. Remetter, K. Varjú, M. B. Gaarde, Y. Mairesse, H. Wabnitz, P. Salières, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, and A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet dynamics in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 011401 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. Dimauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Varjú, Y. Mairesse, P. Agostini, P. Breger, B. Carré, L. J. Frasinski, E. Gustafsson, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Reconstruction of attosecond pulse trains using an adiabatic phase expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 243901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. M. Tong and C. D. Lin, “Empirical formula for static field ionization rates of atoms and molecules by lasers in the barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(15), 2593–2600 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(2), 023003 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

A. D. Bandrauk, S. Chelkowski, and N. H. Shon, “How to measure the duration of subfemtosecond xuv laser pulses using asymmetric photoionization,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 041802 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Quéré, J. Itatani, G. L. Yudin, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond spectral shearing interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(7), 073902 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Kim and C. H. Nam, “Plasma-induced frequency chirp of intense femtosecond lasers and its role in shaping high-order harmonic spectral lines,” Phys. Rev. A 65(3), 033801 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Scrinzi, M. Geissler, and T. Brabec, “Attosecond cross correlation technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(3), 412–415 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and K. L. Krause, Super-intense laser-atom physics, NATO Advanced Study Institute Series B 316, 95–110 (1993).

Agostini, P.

K. Varjú, Y. Mairesse, P. Agostini, P. Breger, B. Carré, L. J. Frasinski, E. Gustafsson, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Reconstruction of attosecond pulse trains using an adiabatic phase expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 243901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Auge, F.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balcou, P.

P. Johnsson, R. López-Martens, S. Kazamias, J. Mauritsson, C. Valentin, T. Remetter, K. Varjú, M. B. Gaarde, Y. Mairesse, H. Wabnitz, P. Salières, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, and A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet dynamics in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bandrauk, A. D.

A. D. Bandrauk, S. Chelkowski, and N. H. Shon, “How to measure the duration of subfemtosecond xuv laser pulses using asymmetric photoionization,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 041802 (2003).
[Crossref]

Biegert, J.

K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(2), 023003 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bocharova, I.

P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, B. Gramkow, S. De, B. De Paola, K. P. Singh, W. Cao, M. Magrakvelidze, D. Ray, I. Bocharova, H. Mashiko, A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. Litvinyuk, and C. L. Cocke, “IR-assisted ionization of helium by attosecond extreme ultraviolet radiation,” New J. Phys. 12(1), 013008 (2010).
[Crossref]

Brabec, T.

A. Scrinzi, M. Geissler, and T. Brabec, “Attosecond cross correlation technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(3), 412–415 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breger, P.

K. Varjú, Y. Mairesse, P. Agostini, P. Breger, B. Carré, L. J. Frasinski, E. Gustafsson, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Reconstruction of attosecond pulse trains using an adiabatic phase expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 243901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruzzese, R.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Buth, C.

M. B. Gaarde, C. Buth, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Transient absorption and reshaping of ultrafast XUV light by laser-dressed helium,” Phys. Rev. A 83(1), 013419 (2011).
[Crossref]

Calegari, F.

C. Liu, M. Reduzzi, A. Trabattoni, A. Sunilkumar, A. Dubrouil, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, and G. Sansone, “Carrier-envelope phase effects of a single attosecond pulse in two-color photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(12), 123901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, W.

P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, B. Gramkow, S. De, B. De Paola, K. P. Singh, W. Cao, M. Magrakvelidze, D. Ray, I. Bocharova, H. Mashiko, A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. Litvinyuk, and C. L. Cocke, “IR-assisted ionization of helium by attosecond extreme ultraviolet radiation,” New J. Phys. 12(1), 013008 (2010).
[Crossref]

Carré, B.

K. Varjú, Y. Mairesse, P. Agostini, P. Breger, B. Carré, L. J. Frasinski, E. Gustafsson, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Reconstruction of attosecond pulse trains using an adiabatic phase expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 243901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ceccherini, P.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cerullo, G.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chang, Z.

M. Chini, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “The generation, characterization and applications of broadband isolated attosecond pulses,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 178–186 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Chini, S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, and Z. Chang, “Characterizing ultrabroadband attosecond lasers,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13006–13016 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chelkowski, S.

A. D. Bandrauk, S. Chelkowski, and N. H. Shon, “How to measure the duration of subfemtosecond xuv laser pulses using asymmetric photoionization,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 041802 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chini, M.

M. Chini, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “The generation, characterization and applications of broadband isolated attosecond pulses,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 178–186 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Chini, S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, and Z. Chang, “Characterizing ultrabroadband attosecond lasers,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13006–13016 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cocke, C. L.

P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, B. Gramkow, S. De, B. De Paola, K. P. Singh, W. Cao, M. Magrakvelidze, D. Ray, I. Bocharova, H. Mashiko, A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. Litvinyuk, and C. L. Cocke, “IR-assisted ionization of helium by attosecond extreme ultraviolet radiation,” New J. Phys. 12(1), 013008 (2010).
[Crossref]

Comtois, D.

N. Dudovich, J. Levesque, O. Smirnova, D. Zeidler, D. Comtois, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond temporal gating with elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 253903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

K. T. Kim, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Manipulating quantum paths for novel attosecond measurement methods,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 187–194 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, S. E. Kirkwood, E. Frumker, G. Gariepy, A. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Manipulation of quantum paths for space-time characterization of attosecond pulses,” Nat. Phys. 9(3), 159–163 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Dudovich, J. Levesque, O. Smirnova, D. Zeidler, D. Comtois, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond temporal gating with elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 253903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Quéré, J. Itatani, G. L. Yudin, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond spectral shearing interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(7), 073902 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cormier, E.

T. Nakajima and E. Cormier, “Effects of the carrier-envelope phase of chirped laser pulses in the multiphoton ionization regime,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2879–2881 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. Dimauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corner, L.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. Dimauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De, S.

P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, B. Gramkow, S. De, B. De Paola, K. P. Singh, W. Cao, M. Magrakvelidze, D. Ray, I. Bocharova, H. Mashiko, A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. Litvinyuk, and C. L. Cocke, “IR-assisted ionization of helium by attosecond extreme ultraviolet radiation,” New J. Phys. 12(1), 013008 (2010).
[Crossref]

de Lisio, C.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

De Paola, B.

P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, B. Gramkow, S. De, B. De Paola, K. P. Singh, W. Cao, M. Magrakvelidze, D. Ray, I. Bocharova, H. Mashiko, A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. Litvinyuk, and C. L. Cocke, “IR-assisted ionization of helium by attosecond extreme ultraviolet radiation,” New J. Phys. 12(1), 013008 (2010).
[Crossref]

De Silvestri, S.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dimauro, L. F.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. Dimauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drescher, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubrouil, A.

C. Liu, M. Reduzzi, A. Trabattoni, A. Sunilkumar, A. Dubrouil, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, and G. Sansone, “Carrier-envelope phase effects of a single attosecond pulse in two-color photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(12), 123901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dudovich, N.

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[Crossref]

N. Dudovich, J. Levesque, O. Smirnova, D. Zeidler, D. Comtois, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond temporal gating with elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 253903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frasinski, L. J.

K. Varjú, Y. Mairesse, P. Agostini, P. Breger, B. Carré, L. J. Frasinski, E. Gustafsson, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Reconstruction of attosecond pulse trains using an adiabatic phase expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 243901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frumker, E.

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, S. E. Kirkwood, E. Frumker, G. Gariepy, A. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Manipulation of quantum paths for space-time characterization of attosecond pulses,” Nat. Phys. 9(3), 159–163 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gaarde, M. B.

M. B. Gaarde, C. Buth, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Transient absorption and reshaping of ultrafast XUV light by laser-dressed helium,” Phys. Rev. A 83(1), 013419 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Johnsson, R. López-Martens, S. Kazamias, J. Mauritsson, C. Valentin, T. Remetter, K. Varjú, M. B. Gaarde, Y. Mairesse, H. Wabnitz, P. Salières, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, and A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet dynamics in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(2), 023003 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gagnon, E.

P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, B. Gramkow, S. De, B. De Paola, K. P. Singh, W. Cao, M. Magrakvelidze, D. Ray, I. Bocharova, H. Mashiko, A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. Litvinyuk, and C. L. Cocke, “IR-assisted ionization of helium by attosecond extreme ultraviolet radiation,” New J. Phys. 12(1), 013008 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gariepy, G.

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, S. E. Kirkwood, E. Frumker, G. Gariepy, A. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Manipulation of quantum paths for space-time characterization of attosecond pulses,” Nat. Phys. 9(3), 159–163 (2013).
[Crossref]

Geissler, M.

A. Scrinzi, M. Geissler, and T. Brabec, “Attosecond cross correlation technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(3), 412–415 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gilbertson, S.

Gong, Q.

M. H. Xu, L. Y. Peng, Z. Zhang, Q. Gong, X. M. Tong, E. A. Pronin, and A. F. Starace, “Attosecond streaking in the low-energy region as a probe of rescattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(18), 183001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gramkow, B.

P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, B. Gramkow, S. De, B. De Paola, K. P. Singh, W. Cao, M. Magrakvelidze, D. Ray, I. Bocharova, H. Mashiko, A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. Litvinyuk, and C. L. Cocke, “IR-assisted ionization of helium by attosecond extreme ultraviolet radiation,” New J. Phys. 12(1), 013008 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gustafsson, E.

K. Varjú, Y. Mairesse, P. Agostini, P. Breger, B. Carré, L. J. Frasinski, E. Gustafsson, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Reconstruction of attosecond pulse trains using an adiabatic phase expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 243901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heinrich, A.

K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(2), 023003 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heinzmann, U.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Itatani, J.

F. Quéré, J. Itatani, G. L. Yudin, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond spectral shearing interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(7), 073902 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, M. Y.

F. Lépine, M. Y. Ivanov, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond molecular dynamics: fact or fiction?” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 195–204 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[Crossref]

N. Dudovich, J. Levesque, O. Smirnova, D. Zeidler, D. Comtois, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond temporal gating with elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 253903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M. Yu.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnsson, P.

P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, T. Remetter, A. L’Huillier, and K. J. Schafer, “Attosecond control of ionization by wave-packet interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(23), 233001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Johnsson, R. López-Martens, S. Kazamias, J. Mauritsson, C. Valentin, T. Remetter, K. Varjú, M. B. Gaarde, Y. Mairesse, H. Wabnitz, P. Salières, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, and A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet dynamics in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Varjú, Y. Mairesse, P. Agostini, P. Breger, B. Carré, L. J. Frasinski, E. Gustafsson, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Reconstruction of attosecond pulse trains using an adiabatic phase expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 243901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, B. Gramkow, S. De, B. De Paola, K. P. Singh, W. Cao, M. Magrakvelidze, D. Ray, I. Bocharova, H. Mashiko, A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. Litvinyuk, and C. L. Cocke, “IR-assisted ionization of helium by attosecond extreme ultraviolet radiation,” New J. Phys. 12(1), 013008 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kazamias, S.

P. Johnsson, R. López-Martens, S. Kazamias, J. Mauritsson, C. Valentin, T. Remetter, K. Varjú, M. B. Gaarde, Y. Mairesse, H. Wabnitz, P. Salières, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, and A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet dynamics in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keller, U.

K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(2), 023003 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khan, S. D.

Kienberger, R.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.-H.

J.-H. Kim and C. H. Nam, “Plasma-induced frequency chirp of intense femtosecond lasers and its role in shaping high-order harmonic spectral lines,” Phys. Rev. A 65(3), 033801 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. T.

K. T. Kim, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Manipulating quantum paths for novel attosecond measurement methods,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 187–194 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, S. E. Kirkwood, E. Frumker, G. Gariepy, A. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Manipulation of quantum paths for space-time characterization of attosecond pulses,” Nat. Phys. 9(3), 159–163 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kirkwood, S. E.

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, S. E. Kirkwood, E. Frumker, G. Gariepy, A. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Manipulation of quantum paths for space-time characterization of attosecond pulses,” Nat. Phys. 9(3), 159–163 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kosik, E. M.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. Dimauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krause, K. L.

K. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and K. L. Krause, Super-intense laser-atom physics, NATO Advanced Study Institute Series B 316, 95–110 (1993).

Krausz, F.

F. Krausz and M. I. Stockman, “Attosecond metrology: from electron capture to future signal processing,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 205–213 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kulander, K.

K. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and K. L. Krause, Super-intense laser-atom physics, NATO Advanced Study Institute Series B 316, 95–110 (1993).

L’Huillier, A.

P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, T. Remetter, A. L’Huillier, and K. J. Schafer, “Attosecond control of ionization by wave-packet interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(23), 233001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Johnsson, R. López-Martens, S. Kazamias, J. Mauritsson, C. Valentin, T. Remetter, K. Varjú, M. B. Gaarde, Y. Mairesse, H. Wabnitz, P. Salières, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, and A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet dynamics in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Varjú, Y. Mairesse, P. Agostini, P. Breger, B. Carré, L. J. Frasinski, E. Gustafsson, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Reconstruction of attosecond pulse trains using an adiabatic phase expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 243901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lépine, F.

F. Lépine, M. Y. Ivanov, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond molecular dynamics: fact or fiction?” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 195–204 (2014).
[Crossref]

Levesque, J.

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[Crossref]

N. Dudovich, J. Levesque, O. Smirnova, D. Zeidler, D. Comtois, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond temporal gating with elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 253903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, R.

C. Liu, Z. Zeng, R. Li, Z. Xu, and M. Nisoli, “Attosecond photoionization for reconstruction of bound-electron wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A 90(1), 013403 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, R. Li, Z. Zeng, Y. Zheng, P. Liu, and Z. Xu, “Nonadiabatic propagation effect for generating isolated sub-100 as pulses in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2618–2620 (2010).
[PubMed]

Lin, C. D.

X. M. Tong and C. D. Lin, “Empirical formula for static field ionization rates of atoms and molecules by lasers in the barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(15), 2593–2600 (2005).
[Crossref]

Litvinyuk, I.

P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, B. Gramkow, S. De, B. De Paola, K. P. Singh, W. Cao, M. Magrakvelidze, D. Ray, I. Bocharova, H. Mashiko, A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. Litvinyuk, and C. L. Cocke, “IR-assisted ionization of helium by attosecond extreme ultraviolet radiation,” New J. Phys. 12(1), 013008 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.

C. Liu, Z. Zeng, R. Li, Z. Xu, and M. Nisoli, “Attosecond photoionization for reconstruction of bound-electron wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A 90(1), 013403 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, M. Reduzzi, A. Trabattoni, A. Sunilkumar, A. Dubrouil, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, and G. Sansone, “Carrier-envelope phase effects of a single attosecond pulse in two-color photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(12), 123901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Liu, R. Li, Z. Zeng, Y. Zheng, P. Liu, and Z. Xu, “Nonadiabatic propagation effect for generating isolated sub-100 as pulses in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2618–2620 (2010).
[PubMed]

Liu, P.

López-Martens, R.

P. Johnsson, R. López-Martens, S. Kazamias, J. Mauritsson, C. Valentin, T. Remetter, K. Varjú, M. B. Gaarde, Y. Mairesse, H. Wabnitz, P. Salières, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, and A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet dynamics in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Magrakvelidze, M.

P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, B. Gramkow, S. De, B. De Paola, K. P. Singh, W. Cao, M. Magrakvelidze, D. Ray, I. Bocharova, H. Mashiko, A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. Litvinyuk, and C. L. Cocke, “IR-assisted ionization of helium by attosecond extreme ultraviolet radiation,” New J. Phys. 12(1), 013008 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mairesse, Y.

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Johnsson, R. López-Martens, S. Kazamias, J. Mauritsson, C. Valentin, T. Remetter, K. Varjú, M. B. Gaarde, Y. Mairesse, H. Wabnitz, P. Salières, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, and A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet dynamics in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Varjú, Y. Mairesse, P. Agostini, P. Breger, B. Carré, L. J. Frasinski, E. Gustafsson, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Reconstruction of attosecond pulse trains using an adiabatic phase expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 243901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 011401 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mashiko, H.

P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, B. Gramkow, S. De, B. De Paola, K. P. Singh, W. Cao, M. Magrakvelidze, D. Ray, I. Bocharova, H. Mashiko, A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. Litvinyuk, and C. L. Cocke, “IR-assisted ionization of helium by attosecond extreme ultraviolet radiation,” New J. Phys. 12(1), 013008 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mauritsson, J.

P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, T. Remetter, A. L’Huillier, and K. J. Schafer, “Attosecond control of ionization by wave-packet interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(23), 233001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Johnsson, R. López-Martens, S. Kazamias, J. Mauritsson, C. Valentin, T. Remetter, K. Varjú, M. B. Gaarde, Y. Mairesse, H. Wabnitz, P. Salières, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, and A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet dynamics in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Varjú, Y. Mairesse, P. Agostini, P. Breger, B. Carré, L. J. Frasinski, E. Gustafsson, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Reconstruction of attosecond pulse trains using an adiabatic phase expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 243901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Merdji, H.

K. Varjú, Y. Mairesse, P. Agostini, P. Breger, B. Carré, L. J. Frasinski, E. Gustafsson, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Reconstruction of attosecond pulse trains using an adiabatic phase expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 243901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milosevic, N.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Monchicourt, P.

K. Varjú, Y. Mairesse, P. Agostini, P. Breger, B. Carré, L. J. Frasinski, E. Gustafsson, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Reconstruction of attosecond pulse trains using an adiabatic phase expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 243901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muller, H. G.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mullot, G.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, B. Gramkow, S. De, B. De Paola, K. P. Singh, W. Cao, M. Magrakvelidze, D. Ray, I. Bocharova, H. Mashiko, A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. Litvinyuk, and C. L. Cocke, “IR-assisted ionization of helium by attosecond extreme ultraviolet radiation,” New J. Phys. 12(1), 013008 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nakajima, T.

Nam, C. H.

J.-H. Kim and C. H. Nam, “Plasma-induced frequency chirp of intense femtosecond lasers and its role in shaping high-order harmonic spectral lines,” Phys. Rev. A 65(3), 033801 (2002).
[Crossref]

Naumov, A.

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, S. E. Kirkwood, E. Frumker, G. Gariepy, A. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Manipulation of quantum paths for space-time characterization of attosecond pulses,” Nat. Phys. 9(3), 159–163 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nisoli, M.

C. Liu, Z. Zeng, R. Li, Z. Xu, and M. Nisoli, “Attosecond photoionization for reconstruction of bound-electron wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A 90(1), 013403 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, M. Reduzzi, A. Trabattoni, A. Sunilkumar, A. Dubrouil, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, and G. Sansone, “Carrier-envelope phase effects of a single attosecond pulse in two-color photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(12), 123901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli and G. Sansone, “New frontiers in attosecond science,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 33(1), 17–59 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Paul, P. M.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, L. Y.

M. H. Xu, L. Y. Peng, Z. Zhang, Q. Gong, X. M. Tong, E. A. Pronin, and A. F. Starace, “Attosecond streaking in the low-energy region as a probe of rescattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(18), 183001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poletto, L.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Priori, E.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Pronin, E. A.

M. H. Xu, L. Y. Peng, Z. Zhang, Q. Gong, X. M. Tong, E. A. Pronin, and A. F. Starace, “Attosecond streaking in the low-energy region as a probe of rescattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(18), 183001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quéré, F.

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 011401 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Quéré, J. Itatani, G. L. Yudin, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond spectral shearing interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(7), 073902 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ranitovic, P.

P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, B. Gramkow, S. De, B. De Paola, K. P. Singh, W. Cao, M. Magrakvelidze, D. Ray, I. Bocharova, H. Mashiko, A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. Litvinyuk, and C. L. Cocke, “IR-assisted ionization of helium by attosecond extreme ultraviolet radiation,” New J. Phys. 12(1), 013008 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ray, D.

P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, B. Gramkow, S. De, B. De Paola, K. P. Singh, W. Cao, M. Magrakvelidze, D. Ray, I. Bocharova, H. Mashiko, A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. Litvinyuk, and C. L. Cocke, “IR-assisted ionization of helium by attosecond extreme ultraviolet radiation,” New J. Phys. 12(1), 013008 (2010).
[Crossref]

Reduzzi, M.

C. Liu, M. Reduzzi, A. Trabattoni, A. Sunilkumar, A. Dubrouil, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, and G. Sansone, “Carrier-envelope phase effects of a single attosecond pulse in two-color photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(12), 123901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reider, G. A.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Remetter, T.

P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, T. Remetter, A. L’Huillier, and K. J. Schafer, “Attosecond control of ionization by wave-packet interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(23), 233001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Johnsson, R. López-Martens, S. Kazamias, J. Mauritsson, C. Valentin, T. Remetter, K. Varjú, M. B. Gaarde, Y. Mairesse, H. Wabnitz, P. Salières, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, and A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet dynamics in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rivière, P.

P. Rivière, O. Uhden, U. Saalmann, and J. M. Rost, “Strong field dynamics with ultrashort electron wave packet replicas,” New J. Phys. 11(5), 053011 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rost, J. M.

P. Rivière, O. Uhden, U. Saalmann, and J. M. Rost, “Strong field dynamics with ultrashort electron wave packet replicas,” New J. Phys. 11(5), 053011 (2009).
[Crossref]

Saalmann, U.

P. Rivière, O. Uhden, U. Saalmann, and J. M. Rost, “Strong field dynamics with ultrashort electron wave packet replicas,” New J. Phys. 11(5), 053011 (2009).
[Crossref]

Salières, P.

P. Johnsson, R. López-Martens, S. Kazamias, J. Mauritsson, C. Valentin, T. Remetter, K. Varjú, M. B. Gaarde, Y. Mairesse, H. Wabnitz, P. Salières, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, and A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet dynamics in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Varjú, Y. Mairesse, P. Agostini, P. Breger, B. Carré, L. J. Frasinski, E. Gustafsson, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Reconstruction of attosecond pulse trains using an adiabatic phase expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 243901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sandhu, A.

P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, B. Gramkow, S. De, B. De Paola, K. P. Singh, W. Cao, M. Magrakvelidze, D. Ray, I. Bocharova, H. Mashiko, A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. Litvinyuk, and C. L. Cocke, “IR-assisted ionization of helium by attosecond extreme ultraviolet radiation,” New J. Phys. 12(1), 013008 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sansone, G.

C. Liu, M. Reduzzi, A. Trabattoni, A. Sunilkumar, A. Dubrouil, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, and G. Sansone, “Carrier-envelope phase effects of a single attosecond pulse in two-color photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(12), 123901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli and G. Sansone, “New frontiers in attosecond science,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 33(1), 17–59 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schafer, K. J.

M. B. Gaarde, C. Buth, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Transient absorption and reshaping of ultrafast XUV light by laser-dressed helium,” Phys. Rev. A 83(1), 013419 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, T. Remetter, A. L’Huillier, and K. J. Schafer, “Attosecond control of ionization by wave-packet interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(23), 233001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Johnsson, R. López-Martens, S. Kazamias, J. Mauritsson, C. Valentin, T. Remetter, K. Varjú, M. B. Gaarde, Y. Mairesse, H. Wabnitz, P. Salières, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, and A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet dynamics in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(2), 023003 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and K. L. Krause, Super-intense laser-atom physics, NATO Advanced Study Institute Series B 316, 95–110 (1993).

Scrinzi, A.

A. Scrinzi, M. Geissler, and T. Brabec, “Attosecond cross correlation technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(3), 412–415 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shiner, A. D.

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, S. E. Kirkwood, E. Frumker, G. Gariepy, A. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Manipulation of quantum paths for space-time characterization of attosecond pulses,” Nat. Phys. 9(3), 159–163 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shon, N. H.

A. D. Bandrauk, S. Chelkowski, and N. H. Shon, “How to measure the duration of subfemtosecond xuv laser pulses using asymmetric photoionization,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 041802 (2003).
[Crossref]

Singh, K. P.

P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, B. Gramkow, S. De, B. De Paola, K. P. Singh, W. Cao, M. Magrakvelidze, D. Ray, I. Bocharova, H. Mashiko, A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. Litvinyuk, and C. L. Cocke, “IR-assisted ionization of helium by attosecond extreme ultraviolet radiation,” New J. Phys. 12(1), 013008 (2010).
[Crossref]

Smirnova, O.

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[Crossref]

N. Dudovich, J. Levesque, O. Smirnova, D. Zeidler, D. Comtois, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond temporal gating with elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 253903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spielmann, C.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Starace, A. F.

M. H. Xu, L. Y. Peng, Z. Zhang, Q. Gong, X. M. Tong, E. A. Pronin, and A. F. Starace, “Attosecond streaking in the low-energy region as a probe of rescattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(18), 183001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stockman, M. I.

F. Krausz and M. I. Stockman, “Attosecond metrology: from electron capture to future signal processing,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 205–213 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sunilkumar, A.

C. Liu, M. Reduzzi, A. Trabattoni, A. Sunilkumar, A. Dubrouil, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, and G. Sansone, “Carrier-envelope phase effects of a single attosecond pulse in two-color photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(12), 123901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tate, J. L.

M. B. Gaarde, C. Buth, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Transient absorption and reshaping of ultrafast XUV light by laser-dressed helium,” Phys. Rev. A 83(1), 013419 (2011).
[Crossref]

Toma, E. S.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tong, X. M.

M. H. Xu, L. Y. Peng, Z. Zhang, Q. Gong, X. M. Tong, E. A. Pronin, and A. F. Starace, “Attosecond streaking in the low-energy region as a probe of rescattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(18), 183001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, B. Gramkow, S. De, B. De Paola, K. P. Singh, W. Cao, M. Magrakvelidze, D. Ray, I. Bocharova, H. Mashiko, A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. Litvinyuk, and C. L. Cocke, “IR-assisted ionization of helium by attosecond extreme ultraviolet radiation,” New J. Phys. 12(1), 013008 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. M. Tong and C. D. Lin, “Empirical formula for static field ionization rates of atoms and molecules by lasers in the barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(15), 2593–2600 (2005).
[Crossref]

Trabattoni, A.

C. Liu, M. Reduzzi, A. Trabattoni, A. Sunilkumar, A. Dubrouil, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, and G. Sansone, “Carrier-envelope phase effects of a single attosecond pulse in two-color photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(12), 123901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uhden, O.

P. Rivière, O. Uhden, U. Saalmann, and J. M. Rost, “Strong field dynamics with ultrashort electron wave packet replicas,” New J. Phys. 11(5), 053011 (2009).
[Crossref]

Valentin, C.

P. Johnsson, R. López-Martens, S. Kazamias, J. Mauritsson, C. Valentin, T. Remetter, K. Varjú, M. B. Gaarde, Y. Mairesse, H. Wabnitz, P. Salières, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, and A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet dynamics in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Varjú, K.

P. Johnsson, R. López-Martens, S. Kazamias, J. Mauritsson, C. Valentin, T. Remetter, K. Varjú, M. B. Gaarde, Y. Mairesse, H. Wabnitz, P. Salières, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, and A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet dynamics in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Varjú, Y. Mairesse, P. Agostini, P. Breger, B. Carré, L. J. Frasinski, E. Gustafsson, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Reconstruction of attosecond pulse trains using an adiabatic phase expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 243901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

K. T. Kim, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Manipulating quantum paths for novel attosecond measurement methods,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 187–194 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, S. E. Kirkwood, E. Frumker, G. Gariepy, A. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Manipulation of quantum paths for space-time characterization of attosecond pulses,” Nat. Phys. 9(3), 159–163 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Dudovich, J. Levesque, O. Smirnova, D. Zeidler, D. Comtois, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond temporal gating with elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 253903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[Crossref]

Villoresi, P.

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

F. Lépine, M. Y. Ivanov, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond molecular dynamics: fact or fiction?” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 195–204 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wabnitz, H.

P. Johnsson, R. López-Martens, S. Kazamias, J. Mauritsson, C. Valentin, T. Remetter, K. Varjú, M. B. Gaarde, Y. Mairesse, H. Wabnitz, P. Salières, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, and A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet dynamics in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walmsley, I. A.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. Dimauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wyatt, A. S.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. Dimauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, M. H.

M. H. Xu, L. Y. Peng, Z. Zhang, Q. Gong, X. M. Tong, E. A. Pronin, and A. F. Starace, “Attosecond streaking in the low-energy region as a probe of rescattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(18), 183001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

C. Liu, Z. Zeng, R. Li, Z. Xu, and M. Nisoli, “Attosecond photoionization for reconstruction of bound-electron wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A 90(1), 013403 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, R. Li, Z. Zeng, Y. Zheng, P. Liu, and Z. Xu, “Nonadiabatic propagation effect for generating isolated sub-100 as pulses in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2618–2620 (2010).
[PubMed]

Yudin, G. L.

F. Quéré, J. Itatani, G. L. Yudin, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond spectral shearing interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(7), 073902 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeidler, D.

N. Dudovich, J. Levesque, O. Smirnova, D. Zeidler, D. Comtois, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond temporal gating with elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 253903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, Z.

C. Liu, Z. Zeng, R. Li, Z. Xu, and M. Nisoli, “Attosecond photoionization for reconstruction of bound-electron wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A 90(1), 013403 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, R. Li, Z. Zeng, Y. Zheng, P. Liu, and Z. Xu, “Nonadiabatic propagation effect for generating isolated sub-100 as pulses in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2618–2620 (2010).
[PubMed]

Zhang, C.

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, S. E. Kirkwood, E. Frumker, G. Gariepy, A. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Manipulation of quantum paths for space-time characterization of attosecond pulses,” Nat. Phys. 9(3), 159–163 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

M. H. Xu, L. Y. Peng, Z. Zhang, Q. Gong, X. M. Tong, E. A. Pronin, and A. F. Starace, “Attosecond streaking in the low-energy region as a probe of rescattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(18), 183001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, K.

M. Chini, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “The generation, characterization and applications of broadband isolated attosecond pulses,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 178–186 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y.

J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

X. M. Tong and C. D. Lin, “Empirical formula for static field ionization rates of atoms and molecules by lasers in the barrier-suppression regime,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38(15), 2593–2600 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (4)

M. Chini, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “The generation, characterization and applications of broadband isolated attosecond pulses,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 178–186 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. T. Kim, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Manipulating quantum paths for novel attosecond measurement methods,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 187–194 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Lépine, M. Y. Ivanov, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Attosecond molecular dynamics: fact or fiction?” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 195–204 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Krausz and M. I. Stockman, “Attosecond metrology: from electron capture to future signal processing,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 205–213 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (2)

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, S. E. Kirkwood, E. Frumker, G. Gariepy, A. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Manipulation of quantum paths for space-time characterization of attosecond pulses,” Nat. Phys. 9(3), 159–163 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[Crossref]

NATO Advanced Study Institute Series B (1)

K. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and K. L. Krause, Super-intense laser-atom physics, NATO Advanced Study Institute Series B 316, 95–110 (1993).

Nature (1)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (2)

P. Rivière, O. Uhden, U. Saalmann, and J. M. Rost, “Strong field dynamics with ultrashort electron wave packet replicas,” New J. Phys. 11(5), 053011 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Ranitovic, X. M. Tong, B. Gramkow, S. De, B. De Paola, K. P. Singh, W. Cao, M. Magrakvelidze, D. Ray, I. Bocharova, H. Mashiko, A. Sandhu, E. Gagnon, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, I. Litvinyuk, and C. L. Cocke, “IR-assisted ionization of helium by attosecond extreme ultraviolet radiation,” New J. Phys. 12(1), 013008 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (6)

E. Priori, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, P. Ceccherini, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, and C. de Lisio, “Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. A 61(6), 063801 (2000).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Kim and C. H. Nam, “Plasma-induced frequency chirp of intense femtosecond lasers and its role in shaping high-order harmonic spectral lines,” Phys. Rev. A 65(3), 033801 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. B. Gaarde, C. Buth, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Transient absorption and reshaping of ultrafast XUV light by laser-dressed helium,” Phys. Rev. A 83(1), 013419 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, Z. Zeng, R. Li, Z. Xu, and M. Nisoli, “Attosecond photoionization for reconstruction of bound-electron wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A 90(1), 013403 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. D. Bandrauk, S. Chelkowski, and N. H. Shon, “How to measure the duration of subfemtosecond xuv laser pulses using asymmetric photoionization,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 041802 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 011401 (2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (12)

C. Liu, M. Reduzzi, A. Trabattoni, A. Sunilkumar, A. Dubrouil, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, and G. Sansone, “Carrier-envelope phase effects of a single attosecond pulse in two-color photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(12), 123901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S. Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. Dimauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Varjú, Y. Mairesse, P. Agostini, P. Breger, B. Carré, L. J. Frasinski, E. Gustafsson, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, H. Merdji, P. Monchicourt, A. L’Huillier, and P. Salières, “Reconstruction of attosecond pulse trains using an adiabatic phase expansion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(24), 243901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Xu, L. Y. Peng, Z. Zhang, Q. Gong, X. M. Tong, E. A. Pronin, and A. F. Starace, “Attosecond streaking in the low-energy region as a probe of rescattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(18), 183001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Johnsson, R. López-Martens, S. Kazamias, J. Mauritsson, C. Valentin, T. Remetter, K. Varjú, M. B. Gaarde, Y. Mairesse, H. Wabnitz, P. Salières, P. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, and A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet dynamics in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, T. Remetter, A. L’Huillier, and K. J. Schafer, “Attosecond control of ionization by wave-packet interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(23), 233001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Quéré, J. Itatani, G. L. Yudin, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond spectral shearing interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(7), 073902 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dudovich, J. Levesque, O. Smirnova, D. Zeidler, D. Comtois, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond temporal gating with elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 253903 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Heinrich, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Strong field quantum path control using attosecond pulse trains,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(2), 023003 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Scrinzi, M. Geissler, and T. Brabec, “Attosecond cross correlation technique,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(3), 412–415 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Nisoli and G. Sansone, “New frontiers in attosecond science,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 33(1), 17–59 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 XUV spectrum generated in helium by the combination of an IR pulse and an isolated attosecond pulse, vs. the temporal delay between the two pulses, calculated by using the full quantum simulations described in the text. The yellow-dashed line is the vector potential of the IR pulse. The parameters of the attosecond pulse used in the simulations are the following: peak intensity I0 = 1012 W/cm2, transform-limited duration τ = 260 as, central photon energy ω0 = 36 eV, chirp rate ξ = 0, and CEP φ0 = 0. The parameters of the IR pulse used in the simulations are the following: peak intensity I1 = 6 × 1013 W/cm2, duration of 5 fs, and central photon energy ω1 = 1.63 eV (corresponding to a central wavelength of 760 nm).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Comparison of the XUV spectra calculated for the 36-eV (red-solid) and 50-eV (blue-dashed) isolated attosecond pulses at the fixed XUV-IR delay td = −400 as. Other parameters are the same as in Fig. 1.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Temporal intensity profile (red-dashed) of pulse trains corresponding to the RES (20-28 eV), together with the electric field of the IR pulse (blue-dashed-dot) and the XUV pulse (wine-solid) at the XUV-IR delay td = −400 as. Other parameters are the same as in Fig. 1.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Classical electron trajectories characterized by a pair of release time and recollision time. Blue dots and red cycles represent the positive and negative initial velocity used in the classical electron trajectory analysis, respectively. The XUV and IR pulse parameters are the same as in Fig. 1.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Comparison of the XUV spectrum calculated at the fixed XUV-IR delay td = −400 as for three different chirp rates of the XUV pulse: ξ = 0, (ii) ξ = 2, and (iii) ξ = −2. Inset is a zoom of the spectra in the region between 20 and 30 eV. (b) Singe-atom RES versus chirp rates of the XUV pulse at the fixed XUV-IR delay td = −400 as. (c) Macroscopic on-axis RES versus chirp rates of the XUV pulse at the fixed XUV-IR delay td = −400 as. Other parameters are the same as in Fig. 1.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The RES generated in helium by the combination of a chirped IR pulse and an isolated attosecond pulse, vs. the temporal delay between the two pulses. The yellow-dashed line is the vector potential of the chirped IR pulse. The chirp rate of the IR pulse is set to 1, leading to a broadening of the pulse duration from 5 fs to 7 fs. Other simulation parameters are the same as in Fig. 1.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Singe-atom RES versus the intensity of the chirp-free IR pulse at the fixed XUV-IR delay td = −400 as. Other simulation parameters are the same as in Fig. 1.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 RES generation efficiency as a function of the XUV pulse intensity, calculated at the fixed XUV-IR delay td = −400 as. Other simulation parameters are the same as in Fig. 1. The point corresponding to the XUV intensity used in Fig. 1 is shown as a red filled circle.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Comparison of the RES calculated at the fixed XUV-IR delay td = −400 as for three different chirp rates of the XUV pulse: ξ = 0, ξ = 2, and ξ = −2. The parameters used in the simulations are the following. XUV pulse: transform-limited duration τ = 60 as, central photon energy ω0 = 150 eV. IR pulse: peak intensity 6 × 1014 W/cm2, duration 12 fs, photon energy ω1 = 0.69 eV (wavelength 1800 nm).
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Comparison of the original RES (red line) extracted from Fig. 2 and the RES (green line) calculated from Beer’s law upon taking into account the absorption effect.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A XUV (t)=i 1 ω 0 I 0 1+ ξ 2 exp[i( ω 0 t+ φ 0 )2ln2 t 2 τ 2 (1iξ) ],
A IR (t)= A 1 cos 2 [2arccos( 2 1/4 )t/ T 1 ]sin( ω 1 t+ φ 1 ),
V(r)= 1.0 + 1.231 e 0.662r 1.325 r e 1.236r 0.231 e 0.48r r .
[ v 0 A IR ( t 0 )]( t f t 0 )+ t 0 t f A IR (t') dt'=0 ,
A XUV (f) (z,t)= A XUV (tz/c) 1+ (z/ z 0 ) 2 exp[iarctan(z/ z 0 )] ,

Metrics