Abstract

We demonstrate fine-pitch periodic poling of bulk Rb-doped KTiOPO4 using a coercive field grating induced by ion-exchange. These samples were used for quasi phase matched (QPM) second harmonic generation at 795 nm with a normalized conversion efficiency of 1.7% W−1cm−1. Additionally, the ion-exchange introduced a refractive index change over the sample thickness resulting in a phasematching wavelength shift of 0.21 nm, adding extra tunability to the QPM device.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. D. Bierlein and H. Vanherzeele, “Potassium titanyl phosphate: properties and new applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6(4), 622–633 (1989).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  3. Q. Chen and W. P. Risk, “Periodic poling of KTiOPO4 using an applied electric field,” Electron. Lett. 30(18), 1516–1517 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  4. P. A. Morris, A. Ferretti, J. D. Bierlein, and G. M. Loiacono, “Reduction of the ionic conductivity of flux grown KTiOPO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 109(1–4), 361–366 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  5. C. Canalias, J. Hirohashi, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Polarization-switching characteristics of flux-grown KTiOPO4 and RbTiOPO4 at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 124105 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  6. Q. Jiang, P. A. Thomas, K. B. Hutton, and R. C. C. Ward, “Rb-doped potassium titanyl phosphate for periodic ferroelectric domain inversion,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(5), 2717–2723 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Wang, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “High-efficiency frequency converters with periodically-poled Rb-doped KTiOPO4,” Opt. Mater. 30(4), 594–599 (2007).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. A. Zukauskas, N. Thilmann, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, and C. Canalias, “5 mm thick periodically poled Rb-doped KTP for high energy optical parametric frequency conversion,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(2), 201–206 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. Canalias and V. Pasiskevicius, “Mirrorless optical parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 459–462 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. Zukauskas, G. Strömqvist, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, M. Fokine, and C. Canalias, “Fabrication of submicrometer quasi-phase- matched devices in KTP and RKTP [ Invited ],” Opt. Mater. Express 1(7), 1319–1325 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, and W. Y. Hsu, “Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(18), 1216–1218 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  13. W. P. Risk and S. D. Lau, “Periodic electric field poling of KTiOPO 4 using chemical patterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 3999–4001 (1996).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  19. H. Vanherzeele and J. D. Bierlein, “Magnitude of the nonlinear-optical coefficients of KTiOPO(4),” Opt. Lett. 17(14), 982–984 (1992).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. W. Wiechmann, T. Fukui, H. Masuda, and S. Kubota, “Refractive-index temperature derivatives of potassium titanyl phosphate,” Opt. Lett. 18(15), 1208–1210 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. M. G. Roelofs, A. Suna, W. Bindloss, and J. D. Bierlein, “Characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4 by second harmonic spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(9), 4999–5006 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  23. J. D. Bierlein, W. Bindloss, F. Laurell, and J. D. Lee, “Segmented Waveguiding having Selected Bragg Reflection Characteristics,” U.S. patent 5243676 (1993) and U.S. Patent 5393561 (1995).

2013 (1)

2011 (2)

2007 (2)

C. Canalias and V. Pasiskevicius, “Mirrorless optical parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 459–462 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “High-efficiency frequency converters with periodically-poled Rb-doped KTiOPO4,” Opt. Mater. 30(4), 594–599 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

C. Canalias, J. Hirohashi, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Polarization-switching characteristics of flux-grown KTiOPO4 and RbTiOPO4 at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 124105 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

Q. Jiang, P. A. Thomas, K. B. Hutton, and R. C. C. Ward, “Rb-doped potassium titanyl phosphate for periodic ferroelectric domain inversion,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(5), 2717–2723 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

G. Rosenman, K. Garb, A. Skliar, M. Oron, D. Eger, and M. Katz, “Domain broadening in quasi-phase-matched nonlinear optical devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 865–867 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

J. Gehler, W. Karthe, C. Wachter, A. Brauer, A. Rasch, and M. Rottschalk, “ARROW’s in KTiOPO4,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9(4), 470–472 (1997).
[Crossref]

H. Karlsson and F. Laurell, “Electric field poling of flux grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(24), 3474–3476 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

W. P. Risk and S. D. Lau, “Periodic electric field poling of KTiOPO 4 using chemical patterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 3999–4001 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

Q. Chen and W. P. Risk, “Periodic poling of KTiOPO4 using an applied electric field,” Electron. Lett. 30(18), 1516–1517 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. G. Roelofs, A. Suna, W. Bindloss, and J. D. Bierlein, “Characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4 by second harmonic spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(9), 4999–5006 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

1992 (2)

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, W. Bindloss, H. Hsiung, A. Suna, and J. D. Bierlein, “Detection of ferroelectric domain reversal in KTiOPO4 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(10), 4664–4670 (1992).
[Crossref]

H. Vanherzeele and J. D. Bierlein, “Magnitude of the nonlinear-optical coefficients of KTiOPO(4),” Opt. Lett. 17(14), 982–984 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

M. G. Roelofs, P. A. Morris, and J. D. Bierlein, “Ion exchange of Rb, Ba, and Sr in KTiOPO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(2), 720–728 (1991).
[Crossref]

P. A. Morris, A. Ferretti, J. D. Bierlein, and G. M. Loiacono, “Reduction of the ionic conductivity of flux grown KTiOPO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 109(1–4), 361–366 (1991).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

1987 (2)

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, and W. Y. Hsu, “Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(18), 1216–1218 (1987).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Fan, C. E. Huang, B. Q. Hu, R. C. Eckardt, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, and R. S. Feigelson, “Second harmonic generation and accurate index of refraction measurements in flux-grown KTiOPO(4),” Appl. Opt. 26(12), 2390–2394 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bierlein, J. D.

M. G. Roelofs, A. Suna, W. Bindloss, and J. D. Bierlein, “Characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4 by second harmonic spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(9), 4999–5006 (1994).
[Crossref]

H. Vanherzeele and J. D. Bierlein, “Magnitude of the nonlinear-optical coefficients of KTiOPO(4),” Opt. Lett. 17(14), 982–984 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, W. Bindloss, H. Hsiung, A. Suna, and J. D. Bierlein, “Detection of ferroelectric domain reversal in KTiOPO4 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(10), 4664–4670 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. G. Roelofs, P. A. Morris, and J. D. Bierlein, “Ion exchange of Rb, Ba, and Sr in KTiOPO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(2), 720–728 (1991).
[Crossref]

P. A. Morris, A. Ferretti, J. D. Bierlein, and G. M. Loiacono, “Reduction of the ionic conductivity of flux grown KTiOPO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 109(1–4), 361–366 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. D. Bierlein and H. Vanherzeele, “Potassium titanyl phosphate: properties and new applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6(4), 622–633 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, and W. Y. Hsu, “Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(18), 1216–1218 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bindloss, W.

M. G. Roelofs, A. Suna, W. Bindloss, and J. D. Bierlein, “Characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4 by second harmonic spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(9), 4999–5006 (1994).
[Crossref]

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, W. Bindloss, H. Hsiung, A. Suna, and J. D. Bierlein, “Detection of ferroelectric domain reversal in KTiOPO4 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(10), 4664–4670 (1992).
[Crossref]

Brauer, A.

J. Gehler, W. Karthe, C. Wachter, A. Brauer, A. Rasch, and M. Rottschalk, “ARROW’s in KTiOPO4,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9(4), 470–472 (1997).
[Crossref]

Brixner, L. H.

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, and W. Y. Hsu, “Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(18), 1216–1218 (1987).
[Crossref]

Byer, R. L.

Canalias, C.

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen and W. P. Risk, “Periodic poling of KTiOPO4 using an applied electric field,” Electron. Lett. 30(18), 1516–1517 (1994).
[Crossref]

Eckardt, R. C.

Eger, D.

G. Rosenman, K. Garb, A. Skliar, M. Oron, D. Eger, and M. Katz, “Domain broadening in quasi-phase-matched nonlinear optical devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 865–867 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fan, T. Y.

Fan, Y. X.

Feigelson, R. S.

Ferretti, A.

P. A. Morris, A. Ferretti, J. D. Bierlein, and G. M. Loiacono, “Reduction of the ionic conductivity of flux grown KTiOPO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 109(1–4), 361–366 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, and W. Y. Hsu, “Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(18), 1216–1218 (1987).
[Crossref]

Fokine, M.

Fukui, T.

Garb, K.

G. Rosenman, K. Garb, A. Skliar, M. Oron, D. Eger, and M. Katz, “Domain broadening in quasi-phase-matched nonlinear optical devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 865–867 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gehler, J.

J. Gehler, W. Karthe, C. Wachter, A. Brauer, A. Rasch, and M. Rottschalk, “ARROW’s in KTiOPO4,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9(4), 470–472 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hirohashi, J.

C. Canalias, J. Hirohashi, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Polarization-switching characteristics of flux-grown KTiOPO4 and RbTiOPO4 at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 124105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hsiung, H.

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, W. Bindloss, H. Hsiung, A. Suna, and J. D. Bierlein, “Detection of ferroelectric domain reversal in KTiOPO4 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(10), 4664–4670 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hsu, W. Y.

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, and W. Y. Hsu, “Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(18), 1216–1218 (1987).
[Crossref]

Hu, B. Q.

Huang, C. E.

Hutton, K. B.

Q. Jiang, P. A. Thomas, K. B. Hutton, and R. C. C. Ward, “Rb-doped potassium titanyl phosphate for periodic ferroelectric domain inversion,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(5), 2717–2723 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Q.

Q. Jiang, P. A. Thomas, K. B. Hutton, and R. C. C. Ward, “Rb-doped potassium titanyl phosphate for periodic ferroelectric domain inversion,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(5), 2717–2723 (2002).
[Crossref]

Karlsson, H.

H. Karlsson and F. Laurell, “Electric field poling of flux grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(24), 3474–3476 (1997).
[Crossref]

Karthe, W.

J. Gehler, W. Karthe, C. Wachter, A. Brauer, A. Rasch, and M. Rottschalk, “ARROW’s in KTiOPO4,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9(4), 470–472 (1997).
[Crossref]

Katz, M.

G. Rosenman, K. Garb, A. Skliar, M. Oron, D. Eger, and M. Katz, “Domain broadening in quasi-phase-matched nonlinear optical devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 865–867 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kubota, S.

Lau, S. D.

W. P. Risk and S. D. Lau, “Periodic electric field poling of KTiOPO 4 using chemical patterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 3999–4001 (1996).
[Crossref]

Laurell, F.

A. Zukauskas, N. Thilmann, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, and C. Canalias, “5 mm thick periodically poled Rb-doped KTP for high energy optical parametric frequency conversion,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(2), 201–206 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Zukauskas, G. Strömqvist, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, M. Fokine, and C. Canalias, “Fabrication of submicrometer quasi-phase- matched devices in KTP and RKTP [ Invited ],” Opt. Mater. Express 1(7), 1319–1325 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “High-efficiency frequency converters with periodically-poled Rb-doped KTiOPO4,” Opt. Mater. 30(4), 594–599 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Canalias, J. Hirohashi, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Polarization-switching characteristics of flux-grown KTiOPO4 and RbTiOPO4 at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 124105 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Karlsson and F. Laurell, “Electric field poling of flux grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(24), 3474–3476 (1997).
[Crossref]

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, W. Bindloss, H. Hsiung, A. Suna, and J. D. Bierlein, “Detection of ferroelectric domain reversal in KTiOPO4 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(10), 4664–4670 (1992).
[Crossref]

Loiacono, G. M.

P. A. Morris, A. Ferretti, J. D. Bierlein, and G. M. Loiacono, “Reduction of the ionic conductivity of flux grown KTiOPO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 109(1–4), 361–366 (1991).
[Crossref]

Masuda, H.

Morris, P. A.

M. G. Roelofs, P. A. Morris, and J. D. Bierlein, “Ion exchange of Rb, Ba, and Sr in KTiOPO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(2), 720–728 (1991).
[Crossref]

P. A. Morris, A. Ferretti, J. D. Bierlein, and G. M. Loiacono, “Reduction of the ionic conductivity of flux grown KTiOPO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 109(1–4), 361–366 (1991).
[Crossref]

Oron, M.

G. Rosenman, K. Garb, A. Skliar, M. Oron, D. Eger, and M. Katz, “Domain broadening in quasi-phase-matched nonlinear optical devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 865–867 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pasiskevicius, V.

A. Zukauskas, V. Pasiskevicius, and C. Canalias, “Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled bulk Rb-doped KTiOPO₄ below 400 nm at high peak-intensities,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1395–1403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Zukauskas, G. Strömqvist, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, M. Fokine, and C. Canalias, “Fabrication of submicrometer quasi-phase- matched devices in KTP and RKTP [ Invited ],” Opt. Mater. Express 1(7), 1319–1325 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Zukauskas, N. Thilmann, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, and C. Canalias, “5 mm thick periodically poled Rb-doped KTP for high energy optical parametric frequency conversion,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(2), 201–206 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “High-efficiency frequency converters with periodically-poled Rb-doped KTiOPO4,” Opt. Mater. 30(4), 594–599 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Canalias and V. Pasiskevicius, “Mirrorless optical parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 459–462 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Canalias, J. Hirohashi, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Polarization-switching characteristics of flux-grown KTiOPO4 and RbTiOPO4 at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 124105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rasch, A.

J. Gehler, W. Karthe, C. Wachter, A. Brauer, A. Rasch, and M. Rottschalk, “ARROW’s in KTiOPO4,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9(4), 470–472 (1997).
[Crossref]

Risk, W. P.

W. P. Risk and S. D. Lau, “Periodic electric field poling of KTiOPO 4 using chemical patterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 3999–4001 (1996).
[Crossref]

Q. Chen and W. P. Risk, “Periodic poling of KTiOPO4 using an applied electric field,” Electron. Lett. 30(18), 1516–1517 (1994).
[Crossref]

Roelofs, M. G.

M. G. Roelofs, A. Suna, W. Bindloss, and J. D. Bierlein, “Characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4 by second harmonic spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(9), 4999–5006 (1994).
[Crossref]

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, W. Bindloss, H. Hsiung, A. Suna, and J. D. Bierlein, “Detection of ferroelectric domain reversal in KTiOPO4 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(10), 4664–4670 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. G. Roelofs, P. A. Morris, and J. D. Bierlein, “Ion exchange of Rb, Ba, and Sr in KTiOPO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(2), 720–728 (1991).
[Crossref]

Rosenman, G.

G. Rosenman, K. Garb, A. Skliar, M. Oron, D. Eger, and M. Katz, “Domain broadening in quasi-phase-matched nonlinear optical devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 865–867 (1998).
[Crossref]

Rottschalk, M.

J. Gehler, W. Karthe, C. Wachter, A. Brauer, A. Rasch, and M. Rottschalk, “ARROW’s in KTiOPO4,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9(4), 470–472 (1997).
[Crossref]

Skliar, A.

G. Rosenman, K. Garb, A. Skliar, M. Oron, D. Eger, and M. Katz, “Domain broadening in quasi-phase-matched nonlinear optical devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 865–867 (1998).
[Crossref]

Strömqvist, G.

Suna, A.

M. G. Roelofs, A. Suna, W. Bindloss, and J. D. Bierlein, “Characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4 by second harmonic spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(9), 4999–5006 (1994).
[Crossref]

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, W. Bindloss, H. Hsiung, A. Suna, and J. D. Bierlein, “Detection of ferroelectric domain reversal in KTiOPO4 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(10), 4664–4670 (1992).
[Crossref]

Thilmann, N.

Thomas, P. A.

Q. Jiang, P. A. Thomas, K. B. Hutton, and R. C. C. Ward, “Rb-doped potassium titanyl phosphate for periodic ferroelectric domain inversion,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(5), 2717–2723 (2002).
[Crossref]

Vanherzeele, H.

Wachter, C.

J. Gehler, W. Karthe, C. Wachter, A. Brauer, A. Rasch, and M. Rottschalk, “ARROW’s in KTiOPO4,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9(4), 470–472 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “High-efficiency frequency converters with periodically-poled Rb-doped KTiOPO4,” Opt. Mater. 30(4), 594–599 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ward, R. C. C.

Q. Jiang, P. A. Thomas, K. B. Hutton, and R. C. C. Ward, “Rb-doped potassium titanyl phosphate for periodic ferroelectric domain inversion,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(5), 2717–2723 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wiechmann, W.

Zukauskas, A.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, and W. Y. Hsu, “Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(18), 1216–1218 (1987).
[Crossref]

W. P. Risk and S. D. Lau, “Periodic electric field poling of KTiOPO 4 using chemical patterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 3999–4001 (1996).
[Crossref]

G. Rosenman, K. Garb, A. Skliar, M. Oron, D. Eger, and M. Katz, “Domain broadening in quasi-phase-matched nonlinear optical devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 865–867 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. Karlsson and F. Laurell, “Electric field poling of flux grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(24), 3474–3476 (1997).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Q. Chen and W. P. Risk, “Periodic poling of KTiOPO4 using an applied electric field,” Electron. Lett. 30(18), 1516–1517 (1994).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Gehler, W. Karthe, C. Wachter, A. Brauer, A. Rasch, and M. Rottschalk, “ARROW’s in KTiOPO4,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9(4), 470–472 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

M. G. Roelofs, P. A. Morris, and J. D. Bierlein, “Ion exchange of Rb, Ba, and Sr in KTiOPO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(2), 720–728 (1991).
[Crossref]

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, W. Bindloss, H. Hsiung, A. Suna, and J. D. Bierlein, “Detection of ferroelectric domain reversal in KTiOPO4 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(10), 4664–4670 (1992).
[Crossref]

C. Canalias, J. Hirohashi, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Polarization-switching characteristics of flux-grown KTiOPO4 and RbTiOPO4 at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 124105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Q. Jiang, P. A. Thomas, K. B. Hutton, and R. C. C. Ward, “Rb-doped potassium titanyl phosphate for periodic ferroelectric domain inversion,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(5), 2717–2723 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. G. Roelofs, A. Suna, W. Bindloss, and J. D. Bierlein, “Characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4 by second harmonic spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(9), 4999–5006 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

P. A. Morris, A. Ferretti, J. D. Bierlein, and G. M. Loiacono, “Reduction of the ionic conductivity of flux grown KTiOPO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 109(1–4), 361–366 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. Canalias and V. Pasiskevicius, “Mirrorless optical parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 459–462 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

S. Wang, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “High-efficiency frequency converters with periodically-poled Rb-doped KTiOPO4,” Opt. Mater. 30(4), 594–599 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Other (2)

N. F. Mott and R. W. Gurney, Electronic Processes in Ionic Crystals (Oxford University Press, 1940).

J. D. Bierlein, W. Bindloss, F. Laurell, and J. D. Lee, “Segmented Waveguiding having Selected Bragg Reflection Characteristics,” U.S. patent 5243676 (1993) and U.S. Patent 5393561 (1995).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Rb- and K-concentration measured from the ion-exchanged surface for a RKTP sample exchanged in the “Rb-rich” melt for 4 h at 375 °C. The Rb profile (solid curve) is fitted to an erfc(z/d) with an 1/e depth, d = 14 µm. The accuracy in concentration of the measurement is better than 2% for both species.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Applied electric field (black, right axis) and corresponding current curves for a virgin (green) crystal, and for samples exchanged with the Rb-rich (red), half-Rb-K (purple) and the Rb-poor (blue) melts, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Changes in Ec and σion with exchange time relative to unexchanged samples for the “Rb-rich” recipe.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Optical micrograph of the ion-exchange grating as seen through the y-face and c-face (inset) of the crystal. Both photos have the same scale.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Ferroelectric domain structure after chemical etching on the former (a) c-- and (b) c+-face of the periodically poled RKTP crystal.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a). Measurement of the phase matching wavelength over the sample thickness at constant temperature. (b) SHG phasematching temperature curves at two locations along the polar axis with constant fundamental wavelength.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Melt compositions used for ion-exchange, σion, Ec and ion-exchange depth for each melt composition when ion-exchange was performed at 375 °C for 4 h.

Equations (2)

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n(z)= n s erfc( z d )
D 2+ +V ' K 2 K + .

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