Abstract

We proposed and designed a compact unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based on metal/insulator/metal (MIM) plasmonic waveguides for ultrafast optical signal processing. The MZI was fabricated by a lithography technique and we provide, for the first time experimental evaluation of the transmission performance of the MZI using MIM PWGs. The experimental results were in good agreement with the numerical simulations. The proposed structure could be considered as a key device for on-chip optical integrated circuits.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (1)

2015 (3)

2014 (2)

V. E. Babicheva, S. V. Zhukovsky, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Bismuth ferrite as low-loss switchable material for plasmonic waveguide modulator,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28890–28897 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Phase modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8320–8330 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gosciniak and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Performance of thermo-optic components based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1803 (2013), doi:.
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

V. E. Babicheva and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Plasmonic modulator optimized by patterning of active layer and tuning permittivity,” Opt. Commun. 285(24), 5500–5507 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

R. P. Dwivedi, H.-S. Lee, J.-H. Song, S. An, and E.-H. Lee, “Plasmonic modulator utilizing three parallel metal–dielectric–metal waveguide directional coupler and elasto-optic effects,” Opt. Commun. 284(5), 1418–1423 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

2006 (3)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. F. P. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, “Adiabatic and nonadiabatic nanofocusing of plasmons by tapered gap plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041111 (2006).
[Crossref]

Z. Han, L. Liu, and E. Forsberg, “Ultra-compact directional couplers and mach-zehnder interferometers employing surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 690–695 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, “Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 261114 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Bends and splitters in metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131102 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, Z. Han, and S. He, “Novel surface plasmon waveguide for high integration,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6645–6650 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1967 (1)

J. D. Zook, “D, Chen, and G. N. Otto, “Temperature dependence and model of the electro-optic effect in LiNb3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 159–161 (1967).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation 14(3), 302–307 (1966).
[Crossref]

Alloatti, L.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

An, S.

R. P. Dwivedi, H.-S. Lee, J.-H. Song, S. An, and E.-H. Lee, “Plasmonic modulator utilizing three parallel metal–dielectric–metal waveguide directional coupler and elasto-optic effects,” Opt. Commun. 284(5), 1418–1423 (2011).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: A Metal-Oxide-Si Field Effect Plasmonic Modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babicheva, V. E.

V. E. Babicheva, S. V. Zhukovsky, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Bismuth ferrite as low-loss switchable material for plasmonic waveguide modulator,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28890–28897 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. E. Babicheva and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Plasmonic modulator optimized by patterning of active layer and tuning permittivity,” Opt. Commun. 285(24), 5500–5507 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baeuerle, B.

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators—Scaling Highest Speed Photonics to the Microscale,” Proceedings of the IEEE2016, pp. 1–18.
[Crossref]

Bai, P.

Boltasseva, A.

Bonjour, R.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators—Scaling Highest Speed Photonics to the Microscale,” Proceedings of the IEEE2016, pp. 1–18.
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

J. Gosciniak and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Performance of thermo-optic components based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1803 (2013), doi:.
[Crossref]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

Chen, B.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dalton, L. R.

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators—Scaling Highest Speed Photonics to the Microscale,” Proceedings of the IEEE2016, pp. 1–18.
[Crossref]

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diest, K.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: A Metal-Oxide-Si Field Effect Plasmonic Modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dinu, R.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: A Metal-Oxide-Si Field Effect Plasmonic Modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Djurisic, A. B.

Dordevic, N.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators—Scaling Highest Speed Photonics to the Microscale,” Proceedings of the IEEE2016, pp. 1–18.
[Crossref]

Ducry, F.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dwivedi, R. P.

R. P. Dwivedi, H.-S. Lee, J.-H. Song, S. An, and E.-H. Lee, “Plasmonic modulator utilizing three parallel metal–dielectric–metal waveguide directional coupler and elasto-optic effects,” Opt. Commun. 284(5), 1418–1423 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elazar, J. M.

Elder, D. L.

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators—Scaling Highest Speed Photonics to the Microscale,” Proceedings of the IEEE2016, pp. 1–18.
[Crossref]

Elezzabi, A. Y.

Emboras, A.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators—Scaling Highest Speed Photonics to the Microscale,” Proceedings of the IEEE2016, pp. 1–18.
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

Fedoryshyn, Y.

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

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W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
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A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators—Scaling Highest Speed Photonics to the Microscale,” Proceedings of the IEEE2016, pp. 1–18.
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W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators—Scaling Highest Speed Photonics to the Microscale,” Proceedings of the IEEE2016, pp. 1–18.
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A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators—Scaling Highest Speed Photonics to the Microscale,” Proceedings of the IEEE2016, pp. 1–18.
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W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators—Scaling Highest Speed Photonics to the Microscale,” Proceedings of the IEEE2016, pp. 1–18.
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
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C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators—Scaling Highest Speed Photonics to the Microscale,” Proceedings of the IEEE2016, pp. 1–18.
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Mason, D. R.

Matsuzaki, Y.

Y. Matsuzaki, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and M. Nakagaki, “Characteristics of gap plasmon waveguide with stub structures,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16314–16325 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, “Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 261114 (2005).
[Crossref]

Melikyan, A.

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Miller, D. A. B.

Min, C.

Mousel, P.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators—Scaling Highest Speed Photonics to the Microscale,” Proceedings of the IEEE2016, pp. 1–18.
[Crossref]

Muehlbrandt, S.

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Muslija, A.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nakagaki, M.

Niegemann, J.

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ogawa, T.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, “Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 261114 (2005).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, T.

Y. Matsuzaki, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and M. Nakagaki, “Characteristics of gap plasmon waveguide with stub structures,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16314–16325 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, “Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 261114 (2005).
[Crossref]

Palmer, R.

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pile, D. F. P.

D. F. P. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, “Adiabatic and nonadiabatic nanofocusing of plasmons by tapered gap plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041111 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, “Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 261114 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pu, M.

Rakic, A. D.

Salamin, Y.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators—Scaling Highest Speed Photonics to the Microscale,” Proceedings of the IEEE2016, pp. 1–18.
[Crossref]

Schindler, P. C.

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V. M.

Sommer, M.

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Song, J.-H.

R. P. Dwivedi, H.-S. Lee, J.-H. Song, S. An, and E.-H. Lee, “Plasmonic modulator utilizing three parallel metal–dielectric–metal waveguide directional coupler and elasto-optic effects,” Opt. Commun. 284(5), 1418–1423 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: A Metal-Oxide-Si Field Effect Plasmonic Modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van, V.

Van Thourhout, D.

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vernon, K. C.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, “Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 261114 (2005).
[Crossref]

Veronis, G.

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

Wei, X.-C.

Wolf, S.

Xin, X.

Yamaguchi, K.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, “Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 261114 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yao, N.

Yee, K. S.

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation 14(3), 302–307 (1966).
[Crossref]

Yu, Z.

Zhao, Z.

Zhu, S.

Zhukovsky, S. V.

Zook, J. D.

J. D. Zook, “D, Chen, and G. N. Otto, “Temperature dependence and model of the electro-optic effect in LiNb3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 159–161 (1967).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. D. Zook, “D, Chen, and G. N. Otto, “Temperature dependence and model of the electro-optic effect in LiNb3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 159–161 (1967).
[Crossref]

D. F. P. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, “Adiabatic and nonadiabatic nanofocusing of plasmons by tapered gap plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041111 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Bends and splitters in metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131102 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, “Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 261114 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEEE Antennas and Propagation (1)

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation 14(3), 302–307 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nano Lett. (1)

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: A Metal-Oxide-Si Field Effect Plasmonic Modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (3)

Z. Han, L. Liu, and E. Forsberg, “Ultra-compact directional couplers and mach-zehnder interferometers employing surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 690–695 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. P. Dwivedi, H.-S. Lee, J.-H. Song, S. An, and E.-H. Lee, “Plasmonic modulator utilizing three parallel metal–dielectric–metal waveguide directional coupler and elasto-optic effects,” Opt. Commun. 284(5), 1418–1423 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. E. Babicheva and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Plasmonic modulator optimized by patterning of active layer and tuning permittivity,” Opt. Commun. 285(24), 5500–5507 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (9)

D. R. Mason, D. K. Gramotnev, and K. S. Kim, “Wavelength-dependent transmission through sharp 90 degrees bends in sub-wavelength metallic slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16139–16145 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bai, M.-X. Gu, X.-C. Wei, and E.-P. Li, “Electrical detection of plasmonic waves using an ultra-compact structure via a nanocavity,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24349–24357 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, Z. Han, and S. He, “Novel surface plasmon waveguide for high integration,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6645–6650 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Phase modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8320–8330 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Min and G. Veronis, “Theoretical investigation of fabrication-related disorders on the properties of subwavelength metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20939–20948 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. E. Babicheva, S. V. Zhukovsky, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Bismuth ferrite as low-loss switchable material for plasmonic waveguide modulator,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28890–28897 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pu, N. Yao, C. Hu, X. Xin, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Directional coupler and nonlinear Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21030–21037 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Matsuzaki, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and M. Nakagaki, “Characteristics of gap plasmon waveguide with stub structures,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16314–16325 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sci. Rep. (1)

J. Gosciniak and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Performance of thermo-optic components based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1803 (2013), doi:.
[Crossref]

Science (1)

M. L. Brongersma and V. M. Shalaev, “Applied physics. The case for plasmonics,” Science 328(5977), 440–441 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Plasmonic nanoguides and circuits (Pan Stanford Publishing Pte. Ltd., 2009), Chap. 1.

Y.-D. Wu, S.-R. Hong, and T.-T. Shih, “New all-optical switch based on the local nonlinear plasmonic mach-zehnder interferometer waveguides,” PIERS Proceedings, Sweden, Aug. 12–15, 452–454 (2013).

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators—Scaling Highest Speed Photonics to the Microscale,” Proceedings of the IEEE2016, pp. 1–18.
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A typical schematic diagram of the MZI based on MIM PWGs used in the FDTD simulations. (d0 = d1 = d2 = 100 nm, d3 = 100 nm, 200nm, 300 nm).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Transmittance spectra of proposed unbalanced MZI by numerically analysis. (b) Transmittance spectra of path length difference of 400nm, 600nm and 800nm deduced by the analytical solution.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Fabrication process of the unbalanced MZI based on MIM PWGs. (a) The pattern of the Ag film (100 nm) and the PSSNa film have been formed by Electron beam (EB) lithography. (b) The pattern of the Ag film (300 nm) has been formed overlay exposure of EB lithography. (c) The PSSNa film has been coated by a spin coating method. (b) The Ag film (72 nm) has been deposited by the thermal evaporation of silver at incident angles 45° and −45°, respectively. (e) In/output ports have been fabricated using FIB milling.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 SEM images of the fabricated unbalanced MZI. (a) SEM bird-view picture. (b) A cross section of the fabricated structure produced through FIB milling from A to B.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 A schematic diagram of the experimental setup for in/output light observation.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 CCD images of the unbalanced MZI. (a) The irradiation of halogen lamp. (b) Illumination of TM polarized light at the input port. (c) Illumination of TE polarized light at the input port.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Closed diamonds show the experimental results of normalized light intensity in output port of the unbalanced MZI. Open circles show the numerical simulated results of transmittance in the MZI.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Numerical analysis of the transmittance spectra as a function of the thickness d0 of PSSNa.

Equations (1)

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ΔLN λ SPP + λ SPP /2,N=1, 2, 3,

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