Abstract

Low-power consumption directly-modulated lasers are a key device for on-chip optical interconnection. We fabricated a GaInAsP/InP membrane DFB laser that exhibited a low-threshold current of 0.21 mA and single-mode operation with a sub-mode suppression ratio of 47 dB at a bias current of 2 mA. A high modulation efficiency of 11 GHz/mA1/2 was obtained. A 10 Gbit/s direct modulation using a non-return-to-zero 231-1 pseudo-random bit sequence signal was performed with a bias current of 1 mA, which is the lowest bias current ever reported for direct modulation of a DFB laser. A bit-error rate of 10−9 was successfully achieved.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2015 (4)

D. Inoue, J. Lee, T. Hiratani, Y. Atsuji, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Sub-milliampere threshold operation of butt-jointed built-in membrane DFB laser bonded on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7771–7778 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Inoue, T. Hiratani, K. Fukuda, T. Tomiyasu, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “High-modulation efficiency operation of GaInAsP/InP membrane distributed feedback laser on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 23(22), 29024–29031 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Inoue, T. Hiratani, Y. Atsuji, T. Tomiyasu, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Monolithic integration of membrane-based butt-jointed built-in DFB lasers and p-i-n photodiodes bonded on Si substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1502907 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Hiratani, D. Inoue, T. Tomiyasu, Y. Atsuji, K. Fukuda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of membrane distributed-reflector laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(11), 112701 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

D. Inoue, J. Lee, K. Doi, T. Hiratani, Y. Atsuji, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaInAsP/InP lateral-current-injection membrane laser bonded on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(7), 072701 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

S. Matsuo, T. Sato, K. Takeda, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, K. Hasebe, and T. Kakitsuka, “Ultralow operating energy electrically driven photonic crystal lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 4900311 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Takeda, T. Sato, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, W. Kobayashi, H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, K. Hasebe, T. Kakitsuka, and S. Matsuo, “Few-fJ/bit data transmissions using directly modulated lambda-scale embedded active region photonic-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 569–575 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Kobayashi, T. Ito, T. Yamanaka, T. Fujisawa, Y. Shibata, T. Kurosaki, M. Kohtoku, T. Tadokoro, and H. Sanjoh, “50-Gb/s direct modulation of 1.3-µm InGaAlAs-based DFB laser with ridge waveguide structure,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1500908 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

P. Moser, J. A. Lott, P. Wolf, G. Larisch, H. Li, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “56 fJ dissipated energy per bit of oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at 25 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 48(20), 1292–1294 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Hofmann, P. Moser, and D. Bimberg, “Energy-efficient VCSELs for interconnects,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 652–656 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. A. Taubenblatt, “Optical interconnects for high-performance computing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 448–457 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

S. Arai, N. Nishiyama, T. Maruyama, and T. Okumura, “GaInAsP/InP membrane lasers for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1381–1389 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Shindo, T. Okumura, H. Ito, T. Koguchi, D. Takahashi, Y. Atsumi, J. Kang, R. Osabe, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “GaInAsP/InP lateral-current-injection distributed feedback laser with a-Si surface grating,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1884–1891 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, D. Takahashi, T. Shindo, K. Shinno, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Low-power-consumption high-eye-margin 10-Gb/s operation by GaInAsP/InP distributed reflector lasers with wirelike active regions,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(18), 1349–1351 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2007 (2)

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6744–6749 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sakamoto, H. Naitoh, M. Ohtake, Y. Nishimoto, S. Tamura, T. Maruyama, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Strongly index-coupled membrane BH-DFB lasers with surface corrugation grating,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1135–1141 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Maruyama, T. Okumura, S. Sakamoto, K. Miura, Y. Nishimoto, and S. Arai, “GaInAsP/InP membrane BH-DFB lasers directly bonded on SOI substrate,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8184–8188 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Hofmann, N. H. Zhu, M. Ortsiefer, G. Bohm, Y. Liu, and M.-C. Amann, “High speed (>11 GHz) modulation of BCB-passivated 1.55 µm InGaAlAs-InP VCSELs,” Electron. Lett. 42(17), 976–977 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

T. Okamoto, N. Nunoya, Y. Onodera, T. Yamazaki, S. Tamura, and S. Arai, “Optically pumped membrane BH-DFB lasers for low-threshold and single-mode operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1361–1366 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

T. Okamoto, N. Nunoya, Y. Onodera, S. Tamura, and S. Arai, “Continuous wave operation of optically pumped membrane DFB laser,” Electron. Lett. 37(24), 1455–1457 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 728–749 (2000).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

M. H. MacDougal, G. M. Yang, and P. D. Dapkus, “Ultralow threshold current vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers obtained with selective oxidation,” Electron. Lett. 31(11), 886–888 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

K. Oe, Y. Noguchi, and C. Caneau, “GaInAsP lateral current injection lasers on semi-insulating substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6(4), 479–481 (1994).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

T. Makino and J. Glinski, “Transfer matrix analysis of the amplified spontaneous emission of DFB semiconductor laser amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(8), 1507–1518 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

R. Olshansky, P. Hill, V. Lanzisera, and W. Powazinik, “Frequency response of 1.3 μm InGaAsP high speed semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(9), 1410–1418 (1987).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

R. S. Tucker, “High-speed modulation of semiconductor lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3(6), 1180–1192 (1985).
[Crossref]

Albonesi, D. H.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[Crossref]

Amann, M.-C.

W. Hofmann, N. H. Zhu, M. Ortsiefer, G. Bohm, Y. Liu, and M.-C. Amann, “High speed (>11 GHz) modulation of BCB-passivated 1.55 µm InGaAlAs-InP VCSELs,” Electron. Lett. 42(17), 976–977 (2006).
[Crossref]

Amemiya, T.

D. Inoue, J. Lee, T. Hiratani, Y. Atsuji, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Sub-milliampere threshold operation of butt-jointed built-in membrane DFB laser bonded on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7771–7778 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Inoue, T. Hiratani, K. Fukuda, T. Tomiyasu, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “High-modulation efficiency operation of GaInAsP/InP membrane distributed feedback laser on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 23(22), 29024–29031 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Inoue, T. Hiratani, Y. Atsuji, T. Tomiyasu, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Monolithic integration of membrane-based butt-jointed built-in DFB lasers and p-i-n photodiodes bonded on Si substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1502907 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Hiratani, D. Inoue, T. Tomiyasu, Y. Atsuji, K. Fukuda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of membrane distributed-reflector laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(11), 112701 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Inoue, J. Lee, K. Doi, T. Hiratani, Y. Atsuji, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaInAsP/InP lateral-current-injection membrane laser bonded on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(7), 072701 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Shindo, T. Okumura, H. Ito, T. Koguchi, D. Takahashi, Y. Atsumi, J. Kang, R. Osabe, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “GaInAsP/InP lateral-current-injection distributed feedback laser with a-Si surface grating,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1884–1891 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, D. Takahashi, T. Shindo, K. Shinno, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Low-power-consumption high-eye-margin 10-Gb/s operation by GaInAsP/InP distributed reflector lasers with wirelike active regions,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(18), 1349–1351 (2011).
[Crossref]

Arai, S.

T. Hiratani, D. Inoue, T. Tomiyasu, Y. Atsuji, K. Fukuda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of membrane distributed-reflector laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(11), 112701 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Inoue, T. Hiratani, Y. Atsuji, T. Tomiyasu, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Monolithic integration of membrane-based butt-jointed built-in DFB lasers and p-i-n photodiodes bonded on Si substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1502907 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Inoue, T. Hiratani, K. Fukuda, T. Tomiyasu, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “High-modulation efficiency operation of GaInAsP/InP membrane distributed feedback laser on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 23(22), 29024–29031 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Inoue, J. Lee, T. Hiratani, Y. Atsuji, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Sub-milliampere threshold operation of butt-jointed built-in membrane DFB laser bonded on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7771–7778 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Inoue, J. Lee, K. Doi, T. Hiratani, Y. Atsuji, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaInAsP/InP lateral-current-injection membrane laser bonded on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(7), 072701 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Shindo, T. Okumura, H. Ito, T. Koguchi, D. Takahashi, Y. Atsumi, J. Kang, R. Osabe, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “GaInAsP/InP lateral-current-injection distributed feedback laser with a-Si surface grating,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1884–1891 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Arai, N. Nishiyama, T. Maruyama, and T. Okumura, “GaInAsP/InP membrane lasers for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1381–1389 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, D. Takahashi, T. Shindo, K. Shinno, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Low-power-consumption high-eye-margin 10-Gb/s operation by GaInAsP/InP distributed reflector lasers with wirelike active regions,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(18), 1349–1351 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Okumura, M. Kurokawa, M. Shirao, D. Kondo, H. Ito, N. Nishiyama, T. Maruyama, and S. Arai, “Lateral current injection GaInAsP/InP laser on semi-insulating substrate for membrane-based photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12564–12570 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sakamoto, H. Naitoh, M. Ohtake, Y. Nishimoto, S. Tamura, T. Maruyama, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Strongly index-coupled membrane BH-DFB lasers with surface corrugation grating,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1135–1141 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Maruyama, T. Okumura, S. Sakamoto, K. Miura, Y. Nishimoto, and S. Arai, “GaInAsP/InP membrane BH-DFB lasers directly bonded on SOI substrate,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8184–8188 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Okamoto, N. Nunoya, Y. Onodera, T. Yamazaki, S. Tamura, and S. Arai, “Optically pumped membrane BH-DFB lasers for low-threshold and single-mode operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1361–1366 (2003).
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T. Okamoto, N. Nunoya, Y. Onodera, S. Tamura, and S. Arai, “Continuous wave operation of optically pumped membrane DFB laser,” Electron. Lett. 37(24), 1455–1457 (2001).
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Atsuji, Y.

D. Inoue, J. Lee, T. Hiratani, Y. Atsuji, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Sub-milliampere threshold operation of butt-jointed built-in membrane DFB laser bonded on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7771–7778 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Inoue, T. Hiratani, Y. Atsuji, T. Tomiyasu, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Monolithic integration of membrane-based butt-jointed built-in DFB lasers and p-i-n photodiodes bonded on Si substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1502907 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Hiratani, D. Inoue, T. Tomiyasu, Y. Atsuji, K. Fukuda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of membrane distributed-reflector laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(11), 112701 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Inoue, J. Lee, K. Doi, T. Hiratani, Y. Atsuji, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaInAsP/InP lateral-current-injection membrane laser bonded on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(7), 072701 (2014).
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Atsumi, Y.

Baets, R.

Bimberg, D.

W. Hofmann, P. Moser, and D. Bimberg, “Energy-efficient VCSELs for interconnects,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 652–656 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Moser, J. A. Lott, P. Wolf, G. Larisch, H. Li, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “56 fJ dissipated energy per bit of oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at 25 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 48(20), 1292–1294 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bohm, G.

W. Hofmann, N. H. Zhu, M. Ortsiefer, G. Bohm, Y. Liu, and M.-C. Amann, “High speed (>11 GHz) modulation of BCB-passivated 1.55 µm InGaAlAs-InP VCSELs,” Electron. Lett. 42(17), 976–977 (2006).
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M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
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Chen, H.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
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R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
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M. H. MacDougal, G. M. Yang, and P. D. Dapkus, “Ultralow threshold current vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers obtained with selective oxidation,” Electron. Lett. 31(11), 886–888 (1995).
[Crossref]

Dentai, A.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Di Cioccio, L.

Doi, K.

D. Inoue, J. Lee, K. Doi, T. Hiratani, Y. Atsuji, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaInAsP/InP lateral-current-injection membrane laser bonded on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(7), 072701 (2014).
[Crossref]

Evans, P.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
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Fauchet, P. M.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fedeli, J.-M.

Friedman, E. G.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fujisawa, T.

W. Kobayashi, T. Ito, T. Yamanaka, T. Fujisawa, Y. Shibata, T. Kurosaki, M. Kohtoku, T. Tadokoro, and H. Sanjoh, “50-Gb/s direct modulation of 1.3-µm InGaAlAs-based DFB laser with ridge waveguide structure,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1500908 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, K.

D. Inoue, T. Hiratani, K. Fukuda, T. Tomiyasu, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “High-modulation efficiency operation of GaInAsP/InP membrane distributed feedback laser on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 23(22), 29024–29031 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hiratani, D. Inoue, T. Tomiyasu, Y. Atsuji, K. Fukuda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of membrane distributed-reflector laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(11), 112701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Glinski, J.

T. Makino and J. Glinski, “Transfer matrix analysis of the amplified spontaneous emission of DFB semiconductor laser amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(8), 1507–1518 (1988).
[Crossref]

Hasebe, K.

S. Matsuo, T. Sato, K. Takeda, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, K. Hasebe, and T. Kakitsuka, “Ultralow operating energy electrically driven photonic crystal lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 4900311 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Takeda, T. Sato, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, W. Kobayashi, H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, K. Hasebe, T. Kakitsuka, and S. Matsuo, “Few-fJ/bit data transmissions using directly modulated lambda-scale embedded active region photonic-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 569–575 (2013).
[Crossref]

Haurylau, M.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hill, P.

R. Olshansky, P. Hill, V. Lanzisera, and W. Powazinik, “Frequency response of 1.3 μm InGaAsP high speed semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(9), 1410–1418 (1987).
[Crossref]

Hiratani, T.

D. Inoue, T. Hiratani, Y. Atsuji, T. Tomiyasu, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Monolithic integration of membrane-based butt-jointed built-in DFB lasers and p-i-n photodiodes bonded on Si substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1502907 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Hiratani, D. Inoue, T. Tomiyasu, Y. Atsuji, K. Fukuda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of membrane distributed-reflector laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(11), 112701 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Inoue, J. Lee, T. Hiratani, Y. Atsuji, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Sub-milliampere threshold operation of butt-jointed built-in membrane DFB laser bonded on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7771–7778 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Inoue, T. Hiratani, K. Fukuda, T. Tomiyasu, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “High-modulation efficiency operation of GaInAsP/InP membrane distributed feedback laser on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 23(22), 29024–29031 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Inoue, J. Lee, K. Doi, T. Hiratani, Y. Atsuji, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaInAsP/InP lateral-current-injection membrane laser bonded on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(7), 072701 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hofmann, W.

W. Hofmann, P. Moser, and D. Bimberg, “Energy-efficient VCSELs for interconnects,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 652–656 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Hofmann, N. H. Zhu, M. Ortsiefer, G. Bohm, Y. Liu, and M.-C. Amann, “High speed (>11 GHz) modulation of BCB-passivated 1.55 µm InGaAlAs-InP VCSELs,” Electron. Lett. 42(17), 976–977 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hurtt, S.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Inoue, D.

D. Inoue, J. Lee, T. Hiratani, Y. Atsuji, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Sub-milliampere threshold operation of butt-jointed built-in membrane DFB laser bonded on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7771–7778 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Inoue, T. Hiratani, K. Fukuda, T. Tomiyasu, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “High-modulation efficiency operation of GaInAsP/InP membrane distributed feedback laser on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 23(22), 29024–29031 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Inoue, T. Hiratani, Y. Atsuji, T. Tomiyasu, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Monolithic integration of membrane-based butt-jointed built-in DFB lasers and p-i-n photodiodes bonded on Si substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1502907 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Hiratani, D. Inoue, T. Tomiyasu, Y. Atsuji, K. Fukuda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of membrane distributed-reflector laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(11), 112701 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Inoue, J. Lee, K. Doi, T. Hiratani, Y. Atsuji, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaInAsP/InP lateral-current-injection membrane laser bonded on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(7), 072701 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ito, H.

Ito, T.

W. Kobayashi, T. Ito, T. Yamanaka, T. Fujisawa, Y. Shibata, T. Kurosaki, M. Kohtoku, T. Tadokoro, and H. Sanjoh, “50-Gb/s direct modulation of 1.3-µm InGaAlAs-based DFB laser with ridge waveguide structure,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1500908 (2013).
[Crossref]

Joyner, C.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kakitsuka, T.

K. Takeda, T. Sato, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, W. Kobayashi, H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, K. Hasebe, T. Kakitsuka, and S. Matsuo, “Few-fJ/bit data transmissions using directly modulated lambda-scale embedded active region photonic-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 569–575 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Matsuo, T. Sato, K. Takeda, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, K. Hasebe, and T. Kakitsuka, “Ultralow operating energy electrically driven photonic crystal lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 4900311 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kang, J.

Kato, M.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kish, F.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, W.

W. Kobayashi, T. Ito, T. Yamanaka, T. Fujisawa, Y. Shibata, T. Kurosaki, M. Kohtoku, T. Tadokoro, and H. Sanjoh, “50-Gb/s direct modulation of 1.3-µm InGaAlAs-based DFB laser with ridge waveguide structure,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1500908 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Takeda, T. Sato, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, W. Kobayashi, H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, K. Hasebe, T. Kakitsuka, and S. Matsuo, “Few-fJ/bit data transmissions using directly modulated lambda-scale embedded active region photonic-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 569–575 (2013).
[Crossref]

Koguchi, T.

Kohtoku, M.

W. Kobayashi, T. Ito, T. Yamanaka, T. Fujisawa, Y. Shibata, T. Kurosaki, M. Kohtoku, T. Tadokoro, and H. Sanjoh, “50-Gb/s direct modulation of 1.3-µm InGaAlAs-based DFB laser with ridge waveguide structure,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1500908 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kondo, D.

Kurokawa, M.

Kurosaki, T.

W. Kobayashi, T. Ito, T. Yamanaka, T. Fujisawa, Y. Shibata, T. Kurosaki, M. Kohtoku, T. Tadokoro, and H. Sanjoh, “50-Gb/s direct modulation of 1.3-µm InGaAlAs-based DFB laser with ridge waveguide structure,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1500908 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lagahe, C.

Lanzisera, V.

R. Olshansky, P. Hill, V. Lanzisera, and W. Powazinik, “Frequency response of 1.3 μm InGaAsP high speed semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(9), 1410–1418 (1987).
[Crossref]

Larisch, G.

P. Moser, J. A. Lott, P. Wolf, G. Larisch, H. Li, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “56 fJ dissipated energy per bit of oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at 25 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 48(20), 1292–1294 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ledentsov, N. N.

P. Moser, J. A. Lott, P. Wolf, G. Larisch, H. Li, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “56 fJ dissipated energy per bit of oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at 25 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 48(20), 1292–1294 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

D. Inoue, J. Lee, T. Hiratani, Y. Atsuji, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Sub-milliampere threshold operation of butt-jointed built-in membrane DFB laser bonded on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7771–7778 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Inoue, J. Lee, K. Doi, T. Hiratani, Y. Atsuji, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaInAsP/InP lateral-current-injection membrane laser bonded on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(7), 072701 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

S. H. Lee, D. Takahashi, T. Shindo, K. Shinno, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Low-power-consumption high-eye-margin 10-Gb/s operation by GaInAsP/InP distributed reflector lasers with wirelike active regions,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(18), 1349–1351 (2011).
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Li, H.

P. Moser, J. A. Lott, P. Wolf, G. Larisch, H. Li, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “56 fJ dissipated energy per bit of oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at 25 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 48(20), 1292–1294 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

W. Hofmann, N. H. Zhu, M. Ortsiefer, G. Bohm, Y. Liu, and M.-C. Amann, “High speed (>11 GHz) modulation of BCB-passivated 1.55 µm InGaAlAs-InP VCSELs,” Electron. Lett. 42(17), 976–977 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lott, J. A.

P. Moser, J. A. Lott, P. Wolf, G. Larisch, H. Li, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “56 fJ dissipated energy per bit of oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at 25 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 48(20), 1292–1294 (2012).
[Crossref]

MacDougal, M. H.

M. H. MacDougal, G. M. Yang, and P. D. Dapkus, “Ultralow threshold current vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers obtained with selective oxidation,” Electron. Lett. 31(11), 886–888 (1995).
[Crossref]

Makino, T.

T. Makino and J. Glinski, “Transfer matrix analysis of the amplified spontaneous emission of DFB semiconductor laser amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(8), 1507–1518 (1988).
[Crossref]

Maruyama, T.

S. Arai, N. Nishiyama, T. Maruyama, and T. Okumura, “GaInAsP/InP membrane lasers for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1381–1389 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Okumura, M. Kurokawa, M. Shirao, D. Kondo, H. Ito, N. Nishiyama, T. Maruyama, and S. Arai, “Lateral current injection GaInAsP/InP laser on semi-insulating substrate for membrane-based photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12564–12570 (2009).
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S. Sakamoto, H. Naitoh, M. Ohtake, Y. Nishimoto, S. Tamura, T. Maruyama, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Strongly index-coupled membrane BH-DFB lasers with surface corrugation grating,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1135–1141 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Maruyama, T. Okumura, S. Sakamoto, K. Miura, Y. Nishimoto, and S. Arai, “GaInAsP/InP membrane BH-DFB lasers directly bonded on SOI substrate,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8184–8188 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matsuo, S.

K. Takeda, T. Sato, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, W. Kobayashi, H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, K. Hasebe, T. Kakitsuka, and S. Matsuo, “Few-fJ/bit data transmissions using directly modulated lambda-scale embedded active region photonic-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 569–575 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Matsuo, T. Sato, K. Takeda, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, K. Hasebe, and T. Kakitsuka, “Ultralow operating energy electrically driven photonic crystal lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 4900311 (2013).
[Crossref]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 728–749 (2000).
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Missey, M.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Miura, K.

Moser, P.

W. Hofmann, P. Moser, and D. Bimberg, “Energy-efficient VCSELs for interconnects,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 652–656 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Moser, J. A. Lott, P. Wolf, G. Larisch, H. Li, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “56 fJ dissipated energy per bit of oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at 25 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 48(20), 1292–1294 (2012).
[Crossref]

Murthy, S.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Muthiah, R.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nagarajan, R.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Naitoh, H.

S. Sakamoto, H. Naitoh, M. Ohtake, Y. Nishimoto, S. Tamura, T. Maruyama, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Strongly index-coupled membrane BH-DFB lasers with surface corrugation grating,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1135–1141 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nelson, N. A.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nishimoto, Y.

S. Sakamoto, H. Naitoh, M. Ohtake, Y. Nishimoto, S. Tamura, T. Maruyama, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Strongly index-coupled membrane BH-DFB lasers with surface corrugation grating,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1135–1141 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Maruyama, T. Okumura, S. Sakamoto, K. Miura, Y. Nishimoto, and S. Arai, “GaInAsP/InP membrane BH-DFB lasers directly bonded on SOI substrate,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8184–8188 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishiyama, N.

T. Hiratani, D. Inoue, T. Tomiyasu, Y. Atsuji, K. Fukuda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of membrane distributed-reflector laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(11), 112701 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Inoue, T. Hiratani, Y. Atsuji, T. Tomiyasu, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Monolithic integration of membrane-based butt-jointed built-in DFB lasers and p-i-n photodiodes bonded on Si substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1502907 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Inoue, T. Hiratani, K. Fukuda, T. Tomiyasu, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “High-modulation efficiency operation of GaInAsP/InP membrane distributed feedback laser on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 23(22), 29024–29031 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Inoue, J. Lee, T. Hiratani, Y. Atsuji, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Sub-milliampere threshold operation of butt-jointed built-in membrane DFB laser bonded on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7771–7778 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Inoue, J. Lee, K. Doi, T. Hiratani, Y. Atsuji, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaInAsP/InP lateral-current-injection membrane laser bonded on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(7), 072701 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Shindo, T. Okumura, H. Ito, T. Koguchi, D. Takahashi, Y. Atsumi, J. Kang, R. Osabe, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “GaInAsP/InP lateral-current-injection distributed feedback laser with a-Si surface grating,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1884–1891 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Arai, N. Nishiyama, T. Maruyama, and T. Okumura, “GaInAsP/InP membrane lasers for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1381–1389 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, D. Takahashi, T. Shindo, K. Shinno, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Low-power-consumption high-eye-margin 10-Gb/s operation by GaInAsP/InP distributed reflector lasers with wirelike active regions,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(18), 1349–1351 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Okumura, M. Kurokawa, M. Shirao, D. Kondo, H. Ito, N. Nishiyama, T. Maruyama, and S. Arai, “Lateral current injection GaInAsP/InP laser on semi-insulating substrate for membrane-based photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12564–12570 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sakamoto, H. Naitoh, M. Ohtake, Y. Nishimoto, S. Tamura, T. Maruyama, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Strongly index-coupled membrane BH-DFB lasers with surface corrugation grating,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1135–1141 (2007).
[Crossref]

Noguchi, Y.

K. Oe, Y. Noguchi, and C. Caneau, “GaInAsP lateral current injection lasers on semi-insulating substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6(4), 479–481 (1994).
[Crossref]

Notomi, M.

K. Takeda, T. Sato, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, W. Kobayashi, H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, K. Hasebe, T. Kakitsuka, and S. Matsuo, “Few-fJ/bit data transmissions using directly modulated lambda-scale embedded active region photonic-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 569–575 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Matsuo, T. Sato, K. Takeda, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, K. Hasebe, and T. Kakitsuka, “Ultralow operating energy electrically driven photonic crystal lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 4900311 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nozaki, K.

K. Takeda, T. Sato, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, W. Kobayashi, H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, K. Hasebe, T. Kakitsuka, and S. Matsuo, “Few-fJ/bit data transmissions using directly modulated lambda-scale embedded active region photonic-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 569–575 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Matsuo, T. Sato, K. Takeda, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, K. Hasebe, and T. Kakitsuka, “Ultralow operating energy electrically driven photonic crystal lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 4900311 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nunoya, N.

T. Okamoto, N. Nunoya, Y. Onodera, T. Yamazaki, S. Tamura, and S. Arai, “Optically pumped membrane BH-DFB lasers for low-threshold and single-mode operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1361–1366 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Okamoto, N. Nunoya, Y. Onodera, S. Tamura, and S. Arai, “Continuous wave operation of optically pumped membrane DFB laser,” Electron. Lett. 37(24), 1455–1457 (2001).
[Crossref]

Oe, K.

K. Oe, Y. Noguchi, and C. Caneau, “GaInAsP lateral current injection lasers on semi-insulating substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6(4), 479–481 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ohtake, M.

S. Sakamoto, H. Naitoh, M. Ohtake, Y. Nishimoto, S. Tamura, T. Maruyama, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Strongly index-coupled membrane BH-DFB lasers with surface corrugation grating,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1135–1141 (2007).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, T.

T. Okamoto, N. Nunoya, Y. Onodera, T. Yamazaki, S. Tamura, and S. Arai, “Optically pumped membrane BH-DFB lasers for low-threshold and single-mode operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1361–1366 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Okamoto, N. Nunoya, Y. Onodera, S. Tamura, and S. Arai, “Continuous wave operation of optically pumped membrane DFB laser,” Electron. Lett. 37(24), 1455–1457 (2001).
[Crossref]

Okumura, T.

Olshansky, R.

R. Olshansky, P. Hill, V. Lanzisera, and W. Powazinik, “Frequency response of 1.3 μm InGaAsP high speed semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(9), 1410–1418 (1987).
[Crossref]

Onodera, Y.

T. Okamoto, N. Nunoya, Y. Onodera, T. Yamazaki, S. Tamura, and S. Arai, “Optically pumped membrane BH-DFB lasers for low-threshold and single-mode operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1361–1366 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Okamoto, N. Nunoya, Y. Onodera, S. Tamura, and S. Arai, “Continuous wave operation of optically pumped membrane DFB laser,” Electron. Lett. 37(24), 1455–1457 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ortsiefer, M.

W. Hofmann, N. H. Zhu, M. Ortsiefer, G. Bohm, Y. Liu, and M.-C. Amann, “High speed (>11 GHz) modulation of BCB-passivated 1.55 µm InGaAlAs-InP VCSELs,” Electron. Lett. 42(17), 976–977 (2006).
[Crossref]

Osabe, R.

Pleumeekers, J.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Powazinik, W.

R. Olshansky, P. Hill, V. Lanzisera, and W. Powazinik, “Frequency response of 1.3 μm InGaAsP high speed semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(9), 1410–1418 (1987).
[Crossref]

Regreny, P.

Rojo Romeo, P.

Sakamoto, S.

S. Sakamoto, H. Naitoh, M. Ohtake, Y. Nishimoto, S. Tamura, T. Maruyama, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Strongly index-coupled membrane BH-DFB lasers with surface corrugation grating,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1135–1141 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Maruyama, T. Okumura, S. Sakamoto, K. Miura, Y. Nishimoto, and S. Arai, “GaInAsP/InP membrane BH-DFB lasers directly bonded on SOI substrate,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8184–8188 (2006).
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Salvatore, R. A.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sanjoh, H.

W. Kobayashi, T. Ito, T. Yamanaka, T. Fujisawa, Y. Shibata, T. Kurosaki, M. Kohtoku, T. Tadokoro, and H. Sanjoh, “50-Gb/s direct modulation of 1.3-µm InGaAlAs-based DFB laser with ridge waveguide structure,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1500908 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sato, T.

S. Matsuo, T. Sato, K. Takeda, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, K. Hasebe, and T. Kakitsuka, “Ultralow operating energy electrically driven photonic crystal lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 4900311 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Takeda, T. Sato, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, W. Kobayashi, H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, K. Hasebe, T. Kakitsuka, and S. Matsuo, “Few-fJ/bit data transmissions using directly modulated lambda-scale embedded active region photonic-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 569–575 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schneider, R.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Seassal, C.

Shibata, Y.

W. Kobayashi, T. Ito, T. Yamanaka, T. Fujisawa, Y. Shibata, T. Kurosaki, M. Kohtoku, T. Tadokoro, and H. Sanjoh, “50-Gb/s direct modulation of 1.3-µm InGaAlAs-based DFB laser with ridge waveguide structure,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1500908 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shindo, T.

T. Shindo, T. Okumura, H. Ito, T. Koguchi, D. Takahashi, Y. Atsumi, J. Kang, R. Osabe, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “GaInAsP/InP lateral-current-injection distributed feedback laser with a-Si surface grating,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1884–1891 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, D. Takahashi, T. Shindo, K. Shinno, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Low-power-consumption high-eye-margin 10-Gb/s operation by GaInAsP/InP distributed reflector lasers with wirelike active regions,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(18), 1349–1351 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shinno, K.

S. H. Lee, D. Takahashi, T. Shindo, K. Shinno, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Low-power-consumption high-eye-margin 10-Gb/s operation by GaInAsP/InP distributed reflector lasers with wirelike active regions,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(18), 1349–1351 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shinya, A.

S. Matsuo, T. Sato, K. Takeda, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, K. Hasebe, and T. Kakitsuka, “Ultralow operating energy electrically driven photonic crystal lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 4900311 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Takeda, T. Sato, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, W. Kobayashi, H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, K. Hasebe, T. Kakitsuka, and S. Matsuo, “Few-fJ/bit data transmissions using directly modulated lambda-scale embedded active region photonic-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 569–575 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shirao, M.

Tadokoro, T.

W. Kobayashi, T. Ito, T. Yamanaka, T. Fujisawa, Y. Shibata, T. Kurosaki, M. Kohtoku, T. Tadokoro, and H. Sanjoh, “50-Gb/s direct modulation of 1.3-µm InGaAlAs-based DFB laser with ridge waveguide structure,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1500908 (2013).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, D.

T. Shindo, T. Okumura, H. Ito, T. Koguchi, D. Takahashi, Y. Atsumi, J. Kang, R. Osabe, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “GaInAsP/InP lateral-current-injection distributed feedback laser with a-Si surface grating,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1884–1891 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, D. Takahashi, T. Shindo, K. Shinno, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Low-power-consumption high-eye-margin 10-Gb/s operation by GaInAsP/InP distributed reflector lasers with wirelike active regions,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(18), 1349–1351 (2011).
[Crossref]

Takeda, K.

K. Takeda, T. Sato, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, W. Kobayashi, H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, K. Hasebe, T. Kakitsuka, and S. Matsuo, “Few-fJ/bit data transmissions using directly modulated lambda-scale embedded active region photonic-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 569–575 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Matsuo, T. Sato, K. Takeda, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, K. Hasebe, and T. Kakitsuka, “Ultralow operating energy electrically driven photonic crystal lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 4900311 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tamura, S.

S. Sakamoto, H. Naitoh, M. Ohtake, Y. Nishimoto, S. Tamura, T. Maruyama, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Strongly index-coupled membrane BH-DFB lasers with surface corrugation grating,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1135–1141 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Okamoto, N. Nunoya, Y. Onodera, T. Yamazaki, S. Tamura, and S. Arai, “Optically pumped membrane BH-DFB lasers for low-threshold and single-mode operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1361–1366 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Okamoto, N. Nunoya, Y. Onodera, S. Tamura, and S. Arai, “Continuous wave operation of optically pumped membrane DFB laser,” Electron. Lett. 37(24), 1455–1457 (2001).
[Crossref]

Taniyama, H.

K. Takeda, T. Sato, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, W. Kobayashi, H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, K. Hasebe, T. Kakitsuka, and S. Matsuo, “Few-fJ/bit data transmissions using directly modulated lambda-scale embedded active region photonic-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 569–575 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Matsuo, T. Sato, K. Takeda, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, K. Hasebe, and T. Kakitsuka, “Ultralow operating energy electrically driven photonic crystal lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 4900311 (2013).
[Crossref]

Taubenblatt, M. A.

Tomiyasu, T.

T. Hiratani, D. Inoue, T. Tomiyasu, Y. Atsuji, K. Fukuda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of membrane distributed-reflector laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(11), 112701 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Inoue, T. Hiratani, K. Fukuda, T. Tomiyasu, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “High-modulation efficiency operation of GaInAsP/InP membrane distributed feedback laser on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 23(22), 29024–29031 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Inoue, T. Hiratani, Y. Atsuji, T. Tomiyasu, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Monolithic integration of membrane-based butt-jointed built-in DFB lasers and p-i-n photodiodes bonded on Si substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1502907 (2015).
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Tucker, R. S.

R. S. Tucker, “High-speed modulation of semiconductor lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 3(6), 1180–1192 (1985).
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Welch, D.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
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P. Moser, J. A. Lott, P. Wolf, G. Larisch, H. Li, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “56 fJ dissipated energy per bit of oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at 25 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 48(20), 1292–1294 (2012).
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Yamanaka, T.

W. Kobayashi, T. Ito, T. Yamanaka, T. Fujisawa, Y. Shibata, T. Kurosaki, M. Kohtoku, T. Tadokoro, and H. Sanjoh, “50-Gb/s direct modulation of 1.3-µm InGaAlAs-based DFB laser with ridge waveguide structure,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1500908 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yamazaki, T.

T. Okamoto, N. Nunoya, Y. Onodera, T. Yamazaki, S. Tamura, and S. Arai, “Optically pumped membrane BH-DFB lasers for low-threshold and single-mode operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1361–1366 (2003).
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M. H. MacDougal, G. M. Yang, and P. D. Dapkus, “Ultralow threshold current vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers obtained with selective oxidation,” Electron. Lett. 31(11), 886–888 (1995).
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M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
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Zhu, N. H.

W. Hofmann, N. H. Zhu, M. Ortsiefer, G. Bohm, Y. Liu, and M.-C. Amann, “High speed (>11 GHz) modulation of BCB-passivated 1.55 µm InGaAlAs-InP VCSELs,” Electron. Lett. 42(17), 976–977 (2006).
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R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
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T. Hiratani, D. Inoue, T. Tomiyasu, Y. Atsuji, K. Fukuda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of membrane distributed-reflector laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(11), 112701 (2015).
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D. Inoue, J. Lee, K. Doi, T. Hiratani, Y. Atsuji, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of GaInAsP/InP lateral-current-injection membrane laser bonded on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(7), 072701 (2014).
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Electron. Lett. (4)

W. Hofmann, N. H. Zhu, M. Ortsiefer, G. Bohm, Y. Liu, and M.-C. Amann, “High speed (>11 GHz) modulation of BCB-passivated 1.55 µm InGaAlAs-InP VCSELs,” Electron. Lett. 42(17), 976–977 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Moser, J. A. Lott, P. Wolf, G. Larisch, H. Li, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “56 fJ dissipated energy per bit of oxide-confined 850 nm VCSELs operating at 25 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett. 48(20), 1292–1294 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Okamoto, N. Nunoya, Y. Onodera, S. Tamura, and S. Arai, “Continuous wave operation of optically pumped membrane DFB laser,” Electron. Lett. 37(24), 1455–1457 (2001).
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M. H. MacDougal, G. M. Yang, and P. D. Dapkus, “Ultralow threshold current vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers obtained with selective oxidation,” Electron. Lett. 31(11), 886–888 (1995).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (8)

D. Inoue, T. Hiratani, Y. Atsuji, T. Tomiyasu, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Monolithic integration of membrane-based butt-jointed built-in DFB lasers and p-i-n photodiodes bonded on Si substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1502907 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Matsuo, T. Sato, K. Takeda, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, K. Hasebe, and T. Kakitsuka, “Ultralow operating energy electrically driven photonic crystal lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 4900311 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Sakamoto, H. Naitoh, M. Ohtake, Y. Nishimoto, S. Tamura, T. Maruyama, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Strongly index-coupled membrane BH-DFB lasers with surface corrugation grating,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(5), 1135–1141 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Arai, N. Nishiyama, T. Maruyama, and T. Okumura, “GaInAsP/InP membrane lasers for optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1381–1389 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Kobayashi, T. Ito, T. Yamanaka, T. Fujisawa, Y. Shibata, T. Kurosaki, M. Kohtoku, T. Tadokoro, and H. Sanjoh, “50-Gb/s direct modulation of 1.3-µm InGaAlAs-based DFB laser with ridge waveguide structure,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1500908 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Okamoto, N. Nunoya, Y. Onodera, T. Yamazaki, S. Tamura, and S. Arai, “Optically pumped membrane BH-DFB lasers for low-threshold and single-mode operation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1361–1366 (2003).
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IEEE Photonics J. (1)

W. Hofmann, P. Moser, and D. Bimberg, “Energy-efficient VCSELs for interconnects,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 652–656 (2012).
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IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

K. Oe, Y. Noguchi, and C. Caneau, “GaInAsP lateral current injection lasers on semi-insulating substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6(4), 479–481 (1994).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, D. Takahashi, T. Shindo, K. Shinno, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Low-power-consumption high-eye-margin 10-Gb/s operation by GaInAsP/InP distributed reflector lasers with wirelike active regions,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(18), 1349–1351 (2011).
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M. A. Taubenblatt, “Optical interconnects for high-performance computing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 448–457 (2012).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

K. Takeda, T. Sato, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, W. Kobayashi, H. Taniyama, M. Notomi, K. Hasebe, T. Kakitsuka, and S. Matsuo, “Few-fJ/bit data transmissions using directly modulated lambda-scale embedded active region photonic-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 569–575 (2013).
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Opt. Express (6)

D. Inoue, J. Lee, T. Hiratani, Y. Atsuji, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Sub-milliampere threshold operation of butt-jointed built-in membrane DFB laser bonded on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7771–7778 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Inoue, T. Hiratani, K. Fukuda, T. Tomiyasu, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “High-modulation efficiency operation of GaInAsP/InP membrane distributed feedback laser on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 23(22), 29024–29031 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Maruyama, T. Okumura, S. Sakamoto, K. Miura, Y. Nishimoto, and S. Arai, “GaInAsP/InP membrane BH-DFB lasers directly bonded on SOI substrate,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8184–8188 (2006).
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J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6744–6749 (2007).
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T. Okumura, M. Kurokawa, M. Shirao, D. Kondo, H. Ito, N. Nishiyama, T. Maruyama, and S. Arai, “Lateral current injection GaInAsP/InP laser on semi-insulating substrate for membrane-based photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12564–12570 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Shindo, T. Okumura, H. Ito, T. Koguchi, D. Takahashi, Y. Atsumi, J. Kang, R. Osabe, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “GaInAsP/InP lateral-current-injection distributed feedback laser with a-Si surface grating,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1884–1891 (2011).
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Proc. IEEE (2)

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Other (5)

N. Ophir, K. Padmaraju, A. Biberman, L. Chen, K. Preston, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “First demonstration of error-free operation of a full silicon on-chip photonic link,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2011 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWZ3.
[Crossref]

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Z. Li, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High-speed on-chip photonic link based on ultralow-power microring modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2014 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Tu2E.
[Crossref]

M. Muller, C. Grasse, and M. C. Amann, “InP-based 1.3 μm and 1.55 μm short-cavity VCSELs suitable for telecom- and datacom-applications,” in Proc. of 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON, 2012), paper Mo.B4.2.

S. Spiga, D. Schoke, A. Andrejew, M. Müller, G. Boehm, and M. C. Amann, “Single-mode 1.5-µm VCSELs with 22-GHz small-signal bandwidth,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2016 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Tu3D.4.
[Crossref]

H. Nishi, T. Fujii, K. Takeda, K. Hasebe, T. Kakitsuka, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Yamamoto, K. Yamada, and S. Matsuo, “Membrane distributed-reflector laser integrated with SiOx-based spot-size converter on Si platform,” in Proc. of the 41st European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC, 2015), paper We.2.5.3.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the membrane DFB laser structure: (a) top view; (b) cross section of active region.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Light output and voltage versus injection current characteristics of the membrane DFB laser.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Lasing spectra measured for three different bias current conditions.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Photograph of the device during modulation measurement.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Results of small signal modulation measurement, (a) responses of S21 measured for various bias current conditions, (b) plots of relaxation oscillation frequency and 3dB bandwidth versus square root of bias current above threshold, and (c) damping factor as a function of the squared relaxation oscillation frequency.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Recent trend of the modulation efficiency of InP-based long wavelength DFB lasers, VCSELs and PhC laser.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 10 Gbit/s BER characteristics.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Eye diagram at 10 Gbit/s of NRZ signal using a 231-1 pattern.

Equations (2)

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f 3dB,max = 2 2 π K
Energy cost= I b V b Data rate

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