Abstract

We demonstrate a new approach to control the pretilt angle of liquid crystals (LCs) with photocurable prepolymer in a cell fabricated with vertically aligned substrates. During UV exposure, prepolymer approaches and is polymerized on the substrate surfaces because of the vertical phase separation induced by differences in the surface tensions of the employed materials. After polymerization, the polymer structure formed on the substrate alters its surface polarity and changes the pretilt angle of the LC cell. The LC pretilt angle can be controlled from 87.3° to 2.5° when the prepolymer concentration ranges from 0 wt% to 2.5 wt%.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Self-assembled polymer gravel array in prepolymer-doped nematic liquid crystals

Che Ju Hsu, Zhi Yu Cui, Chien-Chang Chiu, Fu-Li Hsiao, and Chi Yen Huang
Opt. Mater. Express 7(12) 4374-4385 (2017)

Nanoparticle-doped polyimide for controlling the pretilt angle of liquid crystals devices

Shug-June Hwang, Shie-Chang Jeng, and I-Ming Hsieh
Opt. Express 18(16) 16507-16512 (2010)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. H. Paek, C. J. Durning, K. W. Lee, and A. Lien, “A mechanistic picture of the effects of rubbing on polyimide surfaces and liquid crystal pretilt angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(3), 1270–1280 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  2. B. S. Ban and Y. B. Kim, “Surface free energy and pretilt angle on rubbed polyimide surfaces,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 74(2), 267–271 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. Y. Wu, C. Y. Wang, C. J. Lin, R. P. Pan, S. S. Lin, C. D. Lee, and C. S. Kou, “Mechanism in determining pretilt angle of liquid crystals aligned on fluorinated copolymer films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(15), 155303 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  4. F. S. Y. Yeung and H. S. Kwok, “Fast-response no-bias-bend liquid crystal displays using nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 063505 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  5. B. Y. Oh, J. H. Lim, K. M. Lee, Y. H. Kim, B. Y. Kim, J. M. Han, S. K. Lee, D. S. Seo, and J. Y. Hwang, “A No-Bias-Bend Nematic LCD with a Medium Pretilt Angle Controlled by Ion-Beam Bombardment,” Electrochem. Solid. St. 11(12), H331–H334 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  6. C. H. Kuo, W. C. Chien, C. T. Hsieh, C. Y. Huang, J. J. Jiang, Y. C. Li, M. F. Chen, Y. P. Hsieh, H. L. Kuo, and C. H. Lin, “Influence of pretilt angle on disclination lines of liquid crystal lens,” Appl. Opt. 51(19), 4269–4274 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. Y. J. Lee, J. S. Gwag, Y. K. Kim, S. I. Jo, S. G. Kang, Y. R. Park, and J. H. Kim, “Control of liquid crystal pretilt angle by anchoring competition of the stacked alignment layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041113 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. Uchida, M. Ohgawara, and M. Wada, “Liquid-Crystal Orientation on the Surface of Obliquely-Evaporated Silicon Monoxide with Homeotropic Surface-Treatment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19(11), 2127–2136 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. R. Chiou, L. J. Chen, and C. D. Lee, “Pretilt angle of liquid crystals and liquid-crystal alignment on microgrooved polyimide surfaces fabricated by soft embossing method,” Langmuir 22(22), 9403–9408 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. D. R. Chiou and L. J. Chen, “Pretilt Angle of a Nematic Liquid Crystal on Microgrooved Silica Surfaces Continuously Manipulated by the Surface Hydrophobicity,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(22), 9797–9803 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  11. F. K. Lee, B. Zhang, P. Sheng, H. S. Kwok, and O. K. C. Tsui, “Continuous liquid crystal pretilt control through textured substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5556–5558 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, D. C. Hyun, and H. K. Baik, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles on various compositions of alignment layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 043515 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  13. C. J. Newsome, M. O’Neill, R. J. Farley, and G. P. Bryan-Brown, “Laser etched gratings on polymer layers for alignment of liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(17), 2078–2080 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  14. V. V. Sergan, T. A. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Control of the molecular pretilt angle in liquid crystal devices by using a low-density localized polymer network,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 486(4-6), 123–125 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  15. T. A. Sergan, V. Sergan, R. Herrera, L. Lu, P. J. Bos, and E. V. Sergan, “In situ control of surface molecular order in liquid crystals using a localised polymer network and its application to electro-optical devices,” Liq. Cryst. 40(1), 72–82 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. T. J. Chen and K. L. Chu, “Pretilt angle control for single-cell-gap transflective liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091102 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  17. B. Y. Liu and L. J. Chen, “Role of Surface Hydrophobicity in Pretilt Angle Control of Polymer-Stabilized Liquid Crystal Alignment Systems,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(26), 13474–13478 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  18. C. J. Hsu, C. C. Kuo, C. D. Hsieh, and C. Y. Huang, “Effects of silica nanoparticles on electro-optical properties of polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18513–18518 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. L. Lu, V. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Mechanism of electric-field-induced segregation of additives in a liquid-crystal host,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 86(5), 051706 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. T. Qian, J. H. Kim, S. Kumar, and P. L. Taylor, “Phase-separated composite films: experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 61(44 Pt B), 4007–4010 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. H. Kang, S. W. Joo, and D. Kang, “Photopolymerization-Induced Vertical Phase Separation and Homeotropic Alignment in Liquid Crystal and Polymer Mixtures,” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 33(8), 2806–2808 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  22. H. Kang, J. M. Lee, J. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, J. S. Park, J. G. Seo, and D. Kang, “Homeotropic Alignment Properties of Liquid Crystal and Photocurable Monomer System via UV Irradiation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 606(1), 101–110 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  23. A. J. Lovinger, K. R. Amundson, and D. D. Davis, “Morphological Investigation of Uv-Curable Polymer-Dispersed Liquid-Crystal (Pdlc) Materials,” Chem. Mater. 6(10), 1726–1736 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  24. H. Kang, J. H. Lee, D. G. Kim, and D. Kang, “Control of Pretilt Angle in Liquid Crystal and Photocurable Monomer System,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 607(1), 94–103 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  25. K. Y. Han, T. Miyashita, and T. Uchida, “Accurate Determination and Measurement Error of Pretilt Angle in Liquid-Crystal Cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(2), 277–279 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  26. G. Kumar and K. N. Prabhu, “Review of non-reactive and reactive wetting of liquids on surfaces,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 133(2), 61–89 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. D. K. Owens and R. C. Wendt, “Estimation of the surface free energy of polymers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 13(8), 1741–1747 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  28. L. Lu, T. Sergan, V. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Spatial and orientational control of liquid crystal alignment using a surface localized polymer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251912 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  29. L. Lu, “Controllable liquid crystal alignment with the assistance of reactive monomers,” (Kent State University, 2012).
  30. J. W. Lee, H. T. Kim, S. J. Sung, and J. K. Park, “Relationship between pretilt angle and surface energy of the blended films based on poly(vinyl cinnamate) and alkanoyl cinnamic acid,” Synth. Met. 117(1-3), 267–269 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  31. S. Naemura, “Physicochemical Study on Liquid Crystal-Substrate Interfacial Interactions,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 68(1), 1131–1146 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  32. X. Y. Nie, R. B. Lu, H. Q. Xianyu, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Anchoring energy and cell gap effects on liquid crystal response time,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 103110 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  33. D. W. Berreman, “Solid Surface Shape and Alignment of an Adjacent Nematic Liquid-Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(26), 1683–1686 (1972).
    [Crossref]

2015 (2)

H. Kang, J. M. Lee, J. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, J. S. Park, J. G. Seo, and D. Kang, “Homeotropic Alignment Properties of Liquid Crystal and Photocurable Monomer System via UV Irradiation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 606(1), 101–110 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Kang, J. H. Lee, D. G. Kim, and D. Kang, “Control of Pretilt Angle in Liquid Crystal and Photocurable Monomer System,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 607(1), 94–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

T. A. Sergan, V. Sergan, R. Herrera, L. Lu, P. J. Bos, and E. V. Sergan, “In situ control of surface molecular order in liquid crystals using a localised polymer network and its application to electro-optical devices,” Liq. Cryst. 40(1), 72–82 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Y. Liu and L. J. Chen, “Role of Surface Hydrophobicity in Pretilt Angle Control of Polymer-Stabilized Liquid Crystal Alignment Systems,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(26), 13474–13478 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

C. H. Kuo, W. C. Chien, C. T. Hsieh, C. Y. Huang, J. J. Jiang, Y. C. Li, M. F. Chen, Y. P. Hsieh, H. L. Kuo, and C. H. Lin, “Influence of pretilt angle on disclination lines of liquid crystal lens,” Appl. Opt. 51(19), 4269–4274 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Lu, V. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Mechanism of electric-field-induced segregation of additives in a liquid-crystal host,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 86(5), 051706 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Lu, T. Sergan, V. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Spatial and orientational control of liquid crystal alignment using a surface localized polymer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251912 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Kang, S. W. Joo, and D. Kang, “Photopolymerization-Induced Vertical Phase Separation and Homeotropic Alignment in Liquid Crystal and Polymer Mixtures,” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 33(8), 2806–2808 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

V. V. Sergan, T. A. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Control of the molecular pretilt angle in liquid crystal devices by using a low-density localized polymer network,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 486(4-6), 123–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

D. R. Chiou and L. J. Chen, “Pretilt Angle of a Nematic Liquid Crystal on Microgrooved Silica Surfaces Continuously Manipulated by the Surface Hydrophobicity,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(22), 9797–9803 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lee, J. S. Gwag, Y. K. Kim, S. I. Jo, S. G. Kang, Y. R. Park, and J. H. Kim, “Control of liquid crystal pretilt angle by anchoring competition of the stacked alignment layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041113 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Wu, C. Y. Wang, C. J. Lin, R. P. Pan, S. S. Lin, C. D. Lee, and C. S. Kou, “Mechanism in determining pretilt angle of liquid crystals aligned on fluorinated copolymer films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(15), 155303 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

B. Y. Oh, J. H. Lim, K. M. Lee, Y. H. Kim, B. Y. Kim, J. M. Han, S. K. Lee, D. S. Seo, and J. Y. Hwang, “A No-Bias-Bend Nematic LCD with a Medium Pretilt Angle Controlled by Ion-Beam Bombardment,” Electrochem. Solid. St. 11(12), H331–H334 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. J. Chen and K. L. Chu, “Pretilt angle control for single-cell-gap transflective liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091102 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, D. C. Hyun, and H. K. Baik, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles on various compositions of alignment layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 043515 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Y. Nie, R. B. Lu, H. Q. Xianyu, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Anchoring energy and cell gap effects on liquid crystal response time,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 103110 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Kumar and K. N. Prabhu, “Review of non-reactive and reactive wetting of liquids on surfaces,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 133(2), 61–89 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

D. R. Chiou, L. J. Chen, and C. D. Lee, “Pretilt angle of liquid crystals and liquid-crystal alignment on microgrooved polyimide surfaces fabricated by soft embossing method,” Langmuir 22(22), 9403–9408 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. S. Y. Yeung and H. S. Kwok, “Fast-response no-bias-bend liquid crystal displays using nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 063505 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

F. K. Lee, B. Zhang, P. Sheng, H. S. Kwok, and O. K. C. Tsui, “Continuous liquid crystal pretilt control through textured substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5556–5558 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

J. W. Lee, H. T. Kim, S. J. Sung, and J. K. Park, “Relationship between pretilt angle and surface energy of the blended films based on poly(vinyl cinnamate) and alkanoyl cinnamic acid,” Synth. Met. 117(1-3), 267–269 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

T. Qian, J. H. Kim, S. Kumar, and P. L. Taylor, “Phase-separated composite films: experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 61(44 Pt B), 4007–4010 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

B. S. Ban and Y. B. Kim, “Surface free energy and pretilt angle on rubbed polyimide surfaces,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 74(2), 267–271 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

S. H. Paek, C. J. Durning, K. W. Lee, and A. Lien, “A mechanistic picture of the effects of rubbing on polyimide surfaces and liquid crystal pretilt angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(3), 1270–1280 (1998).
[Crossref]

C. J. Newsome, M. O’Neill, R. J. Farley, and G. P. Bryan-Brown, “Laser etched gratings on polymer layers for alignment of liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(17), 2078–2080 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

A. J. Lovinger, K. R. Amundson, and D. D. Davis, “Morphological Investigation of Uv-Curable Polymer-Dispersed Liquid-Crystal (Pdlc) Materials,” Chem. Mater. 6(10), 1726–1736 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

K. Y. Han, T. Miyashita, and T. Uchida, “Accurate Determination and Measurement Error of Pretilt Angle in Liquid-Crystal Cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(2), 277–279 (1993).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

S. Naemura, “Physicochemical Study on Liquid Crystal-Substrate Interfacial Interactions,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 68(1), 1131–1146 (1981).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

T. Uchida, M. Ohgawara, and M. Wada, “Liquid-Crystal Orientation on the Surface of Obliquely-Evaporated Silicon Monoxide with Homeotropic Surface-Treatment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19(11), 2127–2136 (1980).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

D. W. Berreman, “Solid Surface Shape and Alignment of an Adjacent Nematic Liquid-Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(26), 1683–1686 (1972).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

D. K. Owens and R. C. Wendt, “Estimation of the surface free energy of polymers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 13(8), 1741–1747 (1969).
[Crossref]

Ahn, H. J.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, D. C. Hyun, and H. K. Baik, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles on various compositions of alignment layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 043515 (2007).
[Crossref]

Amundson, K. R.

A. J. Lovinger, K. R. Amundson, and D. D. Davis, “Morphological Investigation of Uv-Curable Polymer-Dispersed Liquid-Crystal (Pdlc) Materials,” Chem. Mater. 6(10), 1726–1736 (1994).
[Crossref]

Baik, H. K.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, D. C. Hyun, and H. K. Baik, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles on various compositions of alignment layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 043515 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ban, B. S.

B. S. Ban and Y. B. Kim, “Surface free energy and pretilt angle on rubbed polyimide surfaces,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 74(2), 267–271 (1999).
[Crossref]

Berreman, D. W.

D. W. Berreman, “Solid Surface Shape and Alignment of an Adjacent Nematic Liquid-Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(26), 1683–1686 (1972).
[Crossref]

Bos, P. J.

T. A. Sergan, V. Sergan, R. Herrera, L. Lu, P. J. Bos, and E. V. Sergan, “In situ control of surface molecular order in liquid crystals using a localised polymer network and its application to electro-optical devices,” Liq. Cryst. 40(1), 72–82 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Lu, V. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Mechanism of electric-field-induced segregation of additives in a liquid-crystal host,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 86(5), 051706 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Lu, T. Sergan, V. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Spatial and orientational control of liquid crystal alignment using a surface localized polymer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251912 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. V. Sergan, T. A. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Control of the molecular pretilt angle in liquid crystal devices by using a low-density localized polymer network,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 486(4-6), 123–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bryan-Brown, G. P.

C. J. Newsome, M. O’Neill, R. J. Farley, and G. P. Bryan-Brown, “Laser etched gratings on polymer layers for alignment of liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(17), 2078–2080 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chen, L. J.

B. Y. Liu and L. J. Chen, “Role of Surface Hydrophobicity in Pretilt Angle Control of Polymer-Stabilized Liquid Crystal Alignment Systems,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(26), 13474–13478 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. R. Chiou and L. J. Chen, “Pretilt Angle of a Nematic Liquid Crystal on Microgrooved Silica Surfaces Continuously Manipulated by the Surface Hydrophobicity,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(22), 9797–9803 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. R. Chiou, L. J. Chen, and C. D. Lee, “Pretilt angle of liquid crystals and liquid-crystal alignment on microgrooved polyimide surfaces fabricated by soft embossing method,” Langmuir 22(22), 9403–9408 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, M. F.

Chen, T. J.

T. J. Chen and K. L. Chu, “Pretilt angle control for single-cell-gap transflective liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chien, W. C.

Chiou, D. R.

D. R. Chiou and L. J. Chen, “Pretilt Angle of a Nematic Liquid Crystal on Microgrooved Silica Surfaces Continuously Manipulated by the Surface Hydrophobicity,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(22), 9797–9803 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. R. Chiou, L. J. Chen, and C. D. Lee, “Pretilt angle of liquid crystals and liquid-crystal alignment on microgrooved polyimide surfaces fabricated by soft embossing method,” Langmuir 22(22), 9403–9408 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, K. L.

T. J. Chen and K. L. Chu, “Pretilt angle control for single-cell-gap transflective liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Davis, D. D.

A. J. Lovinger, K. R. Amundson, and D. D. Davis, “Morphological Investigation of Uv-Curable Polymer-Dispersed Liquid-Crystal (Pdlc) Materials,” Chem. Mater. 6(10), 1726–1736 (1994).
[Crossref]

Durning, C. J.

S. H. Paek, C. J. Durning, K. W. Lee, and A. Lien, “A mechanistic picture of the effects of rubbing on polyimide surfaces and liquid crystal pretilt angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(3), 1270–1280 (1998).
[Crossref]

Farley, R. J.

C. J. Newsome, M. O’Neill, R. J. Farley, and G. P. Bryan-Brown, “Laser etched gratings on polymer layers for alignment of liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(17), 2078–2080 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gwag, J. S.

Y. J. Lee, J. S. Gwag, Y. K. Kim, S. I. Jo, S. G. Kang, Y. R. Park, and J. H. Kim, “Control of liquid crystal pretilt angle by anchoring competition of the stacked alignment layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Han, J. M.

B. Y. Oh, J. H. Lim, K. M. Lee, Y. H. Kim, B. Y. Kim, J. M. Han, S. K. Lee, D. S. Seo, and J. Y. Hwang, “A No-Bias-Bend Nematic LCD with a Medium Pretilt Angle Controlled by Ion-Beam Bombardment,” Electrochem. Solid. St. 11(12), H331–H334 (2008).
[Crossref]

Han, K. Y.

K. Y. Han, T. Miyashita, and T. Uchida, “Accurate Determination and Measurement Error of Pretilt Angle in Liquid-Crystal Cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(2), 277–279 (1993).
[Crossref]

Herrera, R.

T. A. Sergan, V. Sergan, R. Herrera, L. Lu, P. J. Bos, and E. V. Sergan, “In situ control of surface molecular order in liquid crystals using a localised polymer network and its application to electro-optical devices,” Liq. Cryst. 40(1), 72–82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, C. D.

Hsieh, C. T.

Hsieh, Y. P.

Hsu, C. J.

Huang, C. Y.

Hwang, B. H.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, D. C. Hyun, and H. K. Baik, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles on various compositions of alignment layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 043515 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hwang, J. Y.

B. Y. Oh, J. H. Lim, K. M. Lee, Y. H. Kim, B. Y. Kim, J. M. Han, S. K. Lee, D. S. Seo, and J. Y. Hwang, “A No-Bias-Bend Nematic LCD with a Medium Pretilt Angle Controlled by Ion-Beam Bombardment,” Electrochem. Solid. St. 11(12), H331–H334 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hyun, D. C.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, D. C. Hyun, and H. K. Baik, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles on various compositions of alignment layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 043515 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jiang, J. J.

Jo, S. I.

Y. J. Lee, J. S. Gwag, Y. K. Kim, S. I. Jo, S. G. Kang, Y. R. Park, and J. H. Kim, “Control of liquid crystal pretilt angle by anchoring competition of the stacked alignment layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Joo, S. W.

H. Kang, S. W. Joo, and D. Kang, “Photopolymerization-Induced Vertical Phase Separation and Homeotropic Alignment in Liquid Crystal and Polymer Mixtures,” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 33(8), 2806–2808 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kang, D.

H. Kang, J. M. Lee, J. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, J. S. Park, J. G. Seo, and D. Kang, “Homeotropic Alignment Properties of Liquid Crystal and Photocurable Monomer System via UV Irradiation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 606(1), 101–110 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Kang, J. H. Lee, D. G. Kim, and D. Kang, “Control of Pretilt Angle in Liquid Crystal and Photocurable Monomer System,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 607(1), 94–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Kang, S. W. Joo, and D. Kang, “Photopolymerization-Induced Vertical Phase Separation and Homeotropic Alignment in Liquid Crystal and Polymer Mixtures,” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 33(8), 2806–2808 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kang, H.

H. Kang, J. M. Lee, J. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, J. S. Park, J. G. Seo, and D. Kang, “Homeotropic Alignment Properties of Liquid Crystal and Photocurable Monomer System via UV Irradiation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 606(1), 101–110 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Kang, J. H. Lee, D. G. Kim, and D. Kang, “Control of Pretilt Angle in Liquid Crystal and Photocurable Monomer System,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 607(1), 94–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Kang, S. W. Joo, and D. Kang, “Photopolymerization-Induced Vertical Phase Separation and Homeotropic Alignment in Liquid Crystal and Polymer Mixtures,” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 33(8), 2806–2808 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kang, S. G.

Y. J. Lee, J. S. Gwag, Y. K. Kim, S. I. Jo, S. G. Kang, Y. R. Park, and J. H. Kim, “Control of liquid crystal pretilt angle by anchoring competition of the stacked alignment layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, B. Y.

B. Y. Oh, J. H. Lim, K. M. Lee, Y. H. Kim, B. Y. Kim, J. M. Han, S. K. Lee, D. S. Seo, and J. Y. Hwang, “A No-Bias-Bend Nematic LCD with a Medium Pretilt Angle Controlled by Ion-Beam Bombardment,” Electrochem. Solid. St. 11(12), H331–H334 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. G.

H. Kang, J. H. Lee, D. G. Kim, and D. Kang, “Control of Pretilt Angle in Liquid Crystal and Photocurable Monomer System,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 607(1), 94–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. T.

J. W. Lee, H. T. Kim, S. J. Sung, and J. K. Park, “Relationship between pretilt angle and surface energy of the blended films based on poly(vinyl cinnamate) and alkanoyl cinnamic acid,” Synth. Met. 117(1-3), 267–269 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. B.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, D. C. Hyun, and H. K. Baik, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles on various compositions of alignment layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 043515 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. H.

H. Kang, J. M. Lee, J. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, J. S. Park, J. G. Seo, and D. Kang, “Homeotropic Alignment Properties of Liquid Crystal and Photocurable Monomer System via UV Irradiation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 606(1), 101–110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lee, J. S. Gwag, Y. K. Kim, S. I. Jo, S. G. Kang, Y. R. Park, and J. H. Kim, “Control of liquid crystal pretilt angle by anchoring competition of the stacked alignment layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041113 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Qian, J. H. Kim, S. Kumar, and P. L. Taylor, “Phase-separated composite films: experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 61(44 Pt B), 4007–4010 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K. C.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, D. C. Hyun, and H. K. Baik, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles on various compositions of alignment layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 043515 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. B.

B. S. Ban and Y. B. Kim, “Surface free energy and pretilt angle on rubbed polyimide surfaces,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 74(2), 267–271 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. H.

B. Y. Oh, J. H. Lim, K. M. Lee, Y. H. Kim, B. Y. Kim, J. M. Han, S. K. Lee, D. S. Seo, and J. Y. Hwang, “A No-Bias-Bend Nematic LCD with a Medium Pretilt Angle Controlled by Ion-Beam Bombardment,” Electrochem. Solid. St. 11(12), H331–H334 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. K.

Y. J. Lee, J. S. Gwag, Y. K. Kim, S. I. Jo, S. G. Kang, Y. R. Park, and J. H. Kim, “Control of liquid crystal pretilt angle by anchoring competition of the stacked alignment layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kou, C. S.

H. Y. Wu, C. Y. Wang, C. J. Lin, R. P. Pan, S. S. Lin, C. D. Lee, and C. S. Kou, “Mechanism in determining pretilt angle of liquid crystals aligned on fluorinated copolymer films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(15), 155303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kumar, G.

G. Kumar and K. N. Prabhu, “Review of non-reactive and reactive wetting of liquids on surfaces,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 133(2), 61–89 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, S.

T. Qian, J. H. Kim, S. Kumar, and P. L. Taylor, “Phase-separated composite films: experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 61(44 Pt B), 4007–4010 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuo, C. C.

Kuo, C. H.

Kuo, H. L.

Kwok, H. S.

F. S. Y. Yeung and H. S. Kwok, “Fast-response no-bias-bend liquid crystal displays using nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 063505 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. K. Lee, B. Zhang, P. Sheng, H. S. Kwok, and O. K. C. Tsui, “Continuous liquid crystal pretilt control through textured substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5556–5558 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. D.

H. Y. Wu, C. Y. Wang, C. J. Lin, R. P. Pan, S. S. Lin, C. D. Lee, and C. S. Kou, “Mechanism in determining pretilt angle of liquid crystals aligned on fluorinated copolymer films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(15), 155303 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. R. Chiou, L. J. Chen, and C. D. Lee, “Pretilt angle of liquid crystals and liquid-crystal alignment on microgrooved polyimide surfaces fabricated by soft embossing method,” Langmuir 22(22), 9403–9408 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, F. K.

F. K. Lee, B. Zhang, P. Sheng, H. S. Kwok, and O. K. C. Tsui, “Continuous liquid crystal pretilt control through textured substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5556–5558 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

H. Kang, J. M. Lee, J. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, J. S. Park, J. G. Seo, and D. Kang, “Homeotropic Alignment Properties of Liquid Crystal and Photocurable Monomer System via UV Irradiation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 606(1), 101–110 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Kang, J. H. Lee, D. G. Kim, and D. Kang, “Control of Pretilt Angle in Liquid Crystal and Photocurable Monomer System,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 607(1), 94–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. M.

H. Kang, J. M. Lee, J. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, J. S. Park, J. G. Seo, and D. Kang, “Homeotropic Alignment Properties of Liquid Crystal and Photocurable Monomer System via UV Irradiation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 606(1), 101–110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. W.

J. W. Lee, H. T. Kim, S. J. Sung, and J. K. Park, “Relationship between pretilt angle and surface energy of the blended films based on poly(vinyl cinnamate) and alkanoyl cinnamic acid,” Synth. Met. 117(1-3), 267–269 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. M.

B. Y. Oh, J. H. Lim, K. M. Lee, Y. H. Kim, B. Y. Kim, J. M. Han, S. K. Lee, D. S. Seo, and J. Y. Hwang, “A No-Bias-Bend Nematic LCD with a Medium Pretilt Angle Controlled by Ion-Beam Bombardment,” Electrochem. Solid. St. 11(12), H331–H334 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. W.

S. H. Paek, C. J. Durning, K. W. Lee, and A. Lien, “A mechanistic picture of the effects of rubbing on polyimide surfaces and liquid crystal pretilt angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(3), 1270–1280 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. K.

B. Y. Oh, J. H. Lim, K. M. Lee, Y. H. Kim, B. Y. Kim, J. M. Han, S. K. Lee, D. S. Seo, and J. Y. Hwang, “A No-Bias-Bend Nematic LCD with a Medium Pretilt Angle Controlled by Ion-Beam Bombardment,” Electrochem. Solid. St. 11(12), H331–H334 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, J. S. Gwag, Y. K. Kim, S. I. Jo, S. G. Kang, Y. R. Park, and J. H. Kim, “Control of liquid crystal pretilt angle by anchoring competition of the stacked alignment layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, Y. C.

Lien, A.

S. H. Paek, C. J. Durning, K. W. Lee, and A. Lien, “A mechanistic picture of the effects of rubbing on polyimide surfaces and liquid crystal pretilt angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(3), 1270–1280 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lim, J. H.

B. Y. Oh, J. H. Lim, K. M. Lee, Y. H. Kim, B. Y. Kim, J. M. Han, S. K. Lee, D. S. Seo, and J. Y. Hwang, “A No-Bias-Bend Nematic LCD with a Medium Pretilt Angle Controlled by Ion-Beam Bombardment,” Electrochem. Solid. St. 11(12), H331–H334 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. H.

Lin, C. J.

H. Y. Wu, C. Y. Wang, C. J. Lin, R. P. Pan, S. S. Lin, C. D. Lee, and C. S. Kou, “Mechanism in determining pretilt angle of liquid crystals aligned on fluorinated copolymer films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(15), 155303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lin, S. S.

H. Y. Wu, C. Y. Wang, C. J. Lin, R. P. Pan, S. S. Lin, C. D. Lee, and C. S. Kou, “Mechanism in determining pretilt angle of liquid crystals aligned on fluorinated copolymer films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(15), 155303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, B. Y.

B. Y. Liu and L. J. Chen, “Role of Surface Hydrophobicity in Pretilt Angle Control of Polymer-Stabilized Liquid Crystal Alignment Systems,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(26), 13474–13478 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lovinger, A. J.

A. J. Lovinger, K. R. Amundson, and D. D. Davis, “Morphological Investigation of Uv-Curable Polymer-Dispersed Liquid-Crystal (Pdlc) Materials,” Chem. Mater. 6(10), 1726–1736 (1994).
[Crossref]

Lu, L.

T. A. Sergan, V. Sergan, R. Herrera, L. Lu, P. J. Bos, and E. V. Sergan, “In situ control of surface molecular order in liquid crystals using a localised polymer network and its application to electro-optical devices,” Liq. Cryst. 40(1), 72–82 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Lu, V. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Mechanism of electric-field-induced segregation of additives in a liquid-crystal host,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 86(5), 051706 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Lu, T. Sergan, V. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Spatial and orientational control of liquid crystal alignment using a surface localized polymer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251912 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lu, R. B.

X. Y. Nie, R. B. Lu, H. Q. Xianyu, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Anchoring energy and cell gap effects on liquid crystal response time,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 103110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Miyashita, T.

K. Y. Han, T. Miyashita, and T. Uchida, “Accurate Determination and Measurement Error of Pretilt Angle in Liquid-Crystal Cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(2), 277–279 (1993).
[Crossref]

Naemura, S.

S. Naemura, “Physicochemical Study on Liquid Crystal-Substrate Interfacial Interactions,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 68(1), 1131–1146 (1981).
[Crossref]

Newsome, C. J.

C. J. Newsome, M. O’Neill, R. J. Farley, and G. P. Bryan-Brown, “Laser etched gratings on polymer layers for alignment of liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(17), 2078–2080 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nie, X. Y.

X. Y. Nie, R. B. Lu, H. Q. Xianyu, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Anchoring energy and cell gap effects on liquid crystal response time,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 103110 (2007).
[Crossref]

O’Neill, M.

C. J. Newsome, M. O’Neill, R. J. Farley, and G. P. Bryan-Brown, “Laser etched gratings on polymer layers for alignment of liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(17), 2078–2080 (1998).
[Crossref]

Oh, B. Y.

B. Y. Oh, J. H. Lim, K. M. Lee, Y. H. Kim, B. Y. Kim, J. M. Han, S. K. Lee, D. S. Seo, and J. Y. Hwang, “A No-Bias-Bend Nematic LCD with a Medium Pretilt Angle Controlled by Ion-Beam Bombardment,” Electrochem. Solid. St. 11(12), H331–H334 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ohgawara, M.

T. Uchida, M. Ohgawara, and M. Wada, “Liquid-Crystal Orientation on the Surface of Obliquely-Evaporated Silicon Monoxide with Homeotropic Surface-Treatment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19(11), 2127–2136 (1980).
[Crossref]

Owens, D. K.

D. K. Owens and R. C. Wendt, “Estimation of the surface free energy of polymers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 13(8), 1741–1747 (1969).
[Crossref]

Paek, S. H.

S. H. Paek, C. J. Durning, K. W. Lee, and A. Lien, “A mechanistic picture of the effects of rubbing on polyimide surfaces and liquid crystal pretilt angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(3), 1270–1280 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pan, R. P.

H. Y. Wu, C. Y. Wang, C. J. Lin, R. P. Pan, S. S. Lin, C. D. Lee, and C. S. Kou, “Mechanism in determining pretilt angle of liquid crystals aligned on fluorinated copolymer films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(15), 155303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Park, J. K.

J. W. Lee, H. T. Kim, S. J. Sung, and J. K. Park, “Relationship between pretilt angle and surface energy of the blended films based on poly(vinyl cinnamate) and alkanoyl cinnamic acid,” Synth. Met. 117(1-3), 267–269 (2001).
[Crossref]

Park, J. S.

H. Kang, J. M. Lee, J. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, J. S. Park, J. G. Seo, and D. Kang, “Homeotropic Alignment Properties of Liquid Crystal and Photocurable Monomer System via UV Irradiation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 606(1), 101–110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, Y. R.

Y. J. Lee, J. S. Gwag, Y. K. Kim, S. I. Jo, S. G. Kang, Y. R. Park, and J. H. Kim, “Control of liquid crystal pretilt angle by anchoring competition of the stacked alignment layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Prabhu, K. N.

G. Kumar and K. N. Prabhu, “Review of non-reactive and reactive wetting of liquids on surfaces,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 133(2), 61–89 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qian, T.

T. Qian, J. H. Kim, S. Kumar, and P. L. Taylor, “Phase-separated composite films: experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 61(44 Pt B), 4007–4010 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seo, D. S.

B. Y. Oh, J. H. Lim, K. M. Lee, Y. H. Kim, B. Y. Kim, J. M. Han, S. K. Lee, D. S. Seo, and J. Y. Hwang, “A No-Bias-Bend Nematic LCD with a Medium Pretilt Angle Controlled by Ion-Beam Bombardment,” Electrochem. Solid. St. 11(12), H331–H334 (2008).
[Crossref]

Seo, J. G.

H. Kang, J. M. Lee, J. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, J. S. Park, J. G. Seo, and D. Kang, “Homeotropic Alignment Properties of Liquid Crystal and Photocurable Monomer System via UV Irradiation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 606(1), 101–110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sergan, E. V.

T. A. Sergan, V. Sergan, R. Herrera, L. Lu, P. J. Bos, and E. V. Sergan, “In situ control of surface molecular order in liquid crystals using a localised polymer network and its application to electro-optical devices,” Liq. Cryst. 40(1), 72–82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sergan, T.

L. Lu, T. Sergan, V. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Spatial and orientational control of liquid crystal alignment using a surface localized polymer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251912 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sergan, T. A.

T. A. Sergan, V. Sergan, R. Herrera, L. Lu, P. J. Bos, and E. V. Sergan, “In situ control of surface molecular order in liquid crystals using a localised polymer network and its application to electro-optical devices,” Liq. Cryst. 40(1), 72–82 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. V. Sergan, T. A. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Control of the molecular pretilt angle in liquid crystal devices by using a low-density localized polymer network,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 486(4-6), 123–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sergan, V.

T. A. Sergan, V. Sergan, R. Herrera, L. Lu, P. J. Bos, and E. V. Sergan, “In situ control of surface molecular order in liquid crystals using a localised polymer network and its application to electro-optical devices,” Liq. Cryst. 40(1), 72–82 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Lu, V. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Mechanism of electric-field-induced segregation of additives in a liquid-crystal host,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 86(5), 051706 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Lu, T. Sergan, V. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Spatial and orientational control of liquid crystal alignment using a surface localized polymer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251912 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sergan, V. V.

V. V. Sergan, T. A. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Control of the molecular pretilt angle in liquid crystal devices by using a low-density localized polymer network,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 486(4-6), 123–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sheng, P.

F. K. Lee, B. Zhang, P. Sheng, H. S. Kwok, and O. K. C. Tsui, “Continuous liquid crystal pretilt control through textured substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5556–5558 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sung, S. J.

J. W. Lee, H. T. Kim, S. J. Sung, and J. K. Park, “Relationship between pretilt angle and surface energy of the blended films based on poly(vinyl cinnamate) and alkanoyl cinnamic acid,” Synth. Met. 117(1-3), 267–269 (2001).
[Crossref]

Taylor, P. L.

T. Qian, J. H. Kim, S. Kumar, and P. L. Taylor, “Phase-separated composite films: experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 61(44 Pt B), 4007–4010 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsui, O. K. C.

F. K. Lee, B. Zhang, P. Sheng, H. S. Kwok, and O. K. C. Tsui, “Continuous liquid crystal pretilt control through textured substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5556–5558 (2004).
[Crossref]

Uchida, T.

K. Y. Han, T. Miyashita, and T. Uchida, “Accurate Determination and Measurement Error of Pretilt Angle in Liquid-Crystal Cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(2), 277–279 (1993).
[Crossref]

T. Uchida, M. Ohgawara, and M. Wada, “Liquid-Crystal Orientation on the Surface of Obliquely-Evaporated Silicon Monoxide with Homeotropic Surface-Treatment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19(11), 2127–2136 (1980).
[Crossref]

Wada, M.

T. Uchida, M. Ohgawara, and M. Wada, “Liquid-Crystal Orientation on the Surface of Obliquely-Evaporated Silicon Monoxide with Homeotropic Surface-Treatment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19(11), 2127–2136 (1980).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. Y.

H. Y. Wu, C. Y. Wang, C. J. Lin, R. P. Pan, S. S. Lin, C. D. Lee, and C. S. Kou, “Mechanism in determining pretilt angle of liquid crystals aligned on fluorinated copolymer films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(15), 155303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wendt, R. C.

D. K. Owens and R. C. Wendt, “Estimation of the surface free energy of polymers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 13(8), 1741–1747 (1969).
[Crossref]

Wu, H. Y.

H. Y. Wu, C. Y. Wang, C. J. Lin, R. P. Pan, S. S. Lin, C. D. Lee, and C. S. Kou, “Mechanism in determining pretilt angle of liquid crystals aligned on fluorinated copolymer films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(15), 155303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. T.

X. Y. Nie, R. B. Lu, H. Q. Xianyu, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Anchoring energy and cell gap effects on liquid crystal response time,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 103110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, T. X.

X. Y. Nie, R. B. Lu, H. Q. Xianyu, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Anchoring energy and cell gap effects on liquid crystal response time,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 103110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xianyu, H. Q.

X. Y. Nie, R. B. Lu, H. Q. Xianyu, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Anchoring energy and cell gap effects on liquid crystal response time,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 103110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yeung, F. S. Y.

F. S. Y. Yeung and H. S. Kwok, “Fast-response no-bias-bend liquid crystal displays using nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 063505 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B.

F. K. Lee, B. Zhang, P. Sheng, H. S. Kwok, and O. K. C. Tsui, “Continuous liquid crystal pretilt control through textured substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5556–5558 (2004).
[Crossref]

Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

G. Kumar and K. N. Prabhu, “Review of non-reactive and reactive wetting of liquids on surfaces,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 133(2), 61–89 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

Y. J. Lee, J. S. Gwag, Y. K. Kim, S. I. Jo, S. G. Kang, Y. R. Park, and J. H. Kim, “Control of liquid crystal pretilt angle by anchoring competition of the stacked alignment layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041113 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. S. Y. Yeung and H. S. Kwok, “Fast-response no-bias-bend liquid crystal displays using nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 063505 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. K. Lee, B. Zhang, P. Sheng, H. S. Kwok, and O. K. C. Tsui, “Continuous liquid crystal pretilt control through textured substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5556–5558 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, D. C. Hyun, and H. K. Baik, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles on various compositions of alignment layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 043515 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. J. Newsome, M. O’Neill, R. J. Farley, and G. P. Bryan-Brown, “Laser etched gratings on polymer layers for alignment of liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(17), 2078–2080 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. J. Chen and K. L. Chu, “Pretilt angle control for single-cell-gap transflective liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091102 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Lu, T. Sergan, V. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Spatial and orientational control of liquid crystal alignment using a surface localized polymer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251912 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. (1)

H. Kang, S. W. Joo, and D. Kang, “Photopolymerization-Induced Vertical Phase Separation and Homeotropic Alignment in Liquid Crystal and Polymer Mixtures,” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 33(8), 2806–2808 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (1)

A. J. Lovinger, K. R. Amundson, and D. D. Davis, “Morphological Investigation of Uv-Curable Polymer-Dispersed Liquid-Crystal (Pdlc) Materials,” Chem. Mater. 6(10), 1726–1736 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

V. V. Sergan, T. A. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Control of the molecular pretilt angle in liquid crystal devices by using a low-density localized polymer network,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 486(4-6), 123–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Electrochem. Solid. St. (1)

B. Y. Oh, J. H. Lim, K. M. Lee, Y. H. Kim, B. Y. Kim, J. M. Han, S. K. Lee, D. S. Seo, and J. Y. Hwang, “A No-Bias-Bend Nematic LCD with a Medium Pretilt Angle Controlled by Ion-Beam Bombardment,” Electrochem. Solid. St. 11(12), H331–H334 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. H. Paek, C. J. Durning, K. W. Lee, and A. Lien, “A mechanistic picture of the effects of rubbing on polyimide surfaces and liquid crystal pretilt angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(3), 1270–1280 (1998).
[Crossref]

X. Y. Nie, R. B. Lu, H. Q. Xianyu, T. X. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Anchoring energy and cell gap effects on liquid crystal response time,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(10), 103110 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Polym. Sci. (2)

D. K. Owens and R. C. Wendt, “Estimation of the surface free energy of polymers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 13(8), 1741–1747 (1969).
[Crossref]

B. S. Ban and Y. B. Kim, “Surface free energy and pretilt angle on rubbed polyimide surfaces,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 74(2), 267–271 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (2)

B. Y. Liu and L. J. Chen, “Role of Surface Hydrophobicity in Pretilt Angle Control of Polymer-Stabilized Liquid Crystal Alignment Systems,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(26), 13474–13478 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. R. Chiou and L. J. Chen, “Pretilt Angle of a Nematic Liquid Crystal on Microgrooved Silica Surfaces Continuously Manipulated by the Surface Hydrophobicity,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(22), 9797–9803 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Y. Wu, C. Y. Wang, C. J. Lin, R. P. Pan, S. S. Lin, C. D. Lee, and C. S. Kou, “Mechanism in determining pretilt angle of liquid crystals aligned on fluorinated copolymer films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(15), 155303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T. Uchida, M. Ohgawara, and M. Wada, “Liquid-Crystal Orientation on the Surface of Obliquely-Evaporated Silicon Monoxide with Homeotropic Surface-Treatment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19(11), 2127–2136 (1980).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Han, T. Miyashita, and T. Uchida, “Accurate Determination and Measurement Error of Pretilt Angle in Liquid-Crystal Cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(2), 277–279 (1993).
[Crossref]

Langmuir (1)

D. R. Chiou, L. J. Chen, and C. D. Lee, “Pretilt angle of liquid crystals and liquid-crystal alignment on microgrooved polyimide surfaces fabricated by soft embossing method,” Langmuir 22(22), 9403–9408 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

T. A. Sergan, V. Sergan, R. Herrera, L. Lu, P. J. Bos, and E. V. Sergan, “In situ control of surface molecular order in liquid crystals using a localised polymer network and its application to electro-optical devices,” Liq. Cryst. 40(1), 72–82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) (3)

H. Kang, J. H. Lee, D. G. Kim, and D. Kang, “Control of Pretilt Angle in Liquid Crystal and Photocurable Monomer System,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 607(1), 94–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Kang, J. M. Lee, J. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, J. S. Park, J. G. Seo, and D. Kang, “Homeotropic Alignment Properties of Liquid Crystal and Photocurable Monomer System via UV Irradiation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 606(1), 101–110 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Naemura, “Physicochemical Study on Liquid Crystal-Substrate Interfacial Interactions,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 68(1), 1131–1146 (1981).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

L. Lu, V. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Mechanism of electric-field-induced segregation of additives in a liquid-crystal host,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 86(5), 051706 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics (1)

T. Qian, J. H. Kim, S. Kumar, and P. L. Taylor, “Phase-separated composite films: experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 61(44 Pt B), 4007–4010 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. W. Berreman, “Solid Surface Shape and Alignment of an Adjacent Nematic Liquid-Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(26), 1683–1686 (1972).
[Crossref]

Synth. Met. (1)

J. W. Lee, H. T. Kim, S. J. Sung, and J. K. Park, “Relationship between pretilt angle and surface energy of the blended films based on poly(vinyl cinnamate) and alkanoyl cinnamic acid,” Synth. Met. 117(1-3), 267–269 (2001).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

L. Lu, “Controllable liquid crystal alignment with the assistance of reactive monomers,” (Kent State University, 2012).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental procedure; (a) before, (b) during, and (c) after UV exposure.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Measured pretilt angles of the LC cells, (b) measured contact angles of water and diiodomethane on the substrates, (c) calculated dispersive, polar, and total surface free energies of the substrates given various NOA65 concentrations.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured T-V curves of the LC cells given various NOA65 concentrations. Inset: Polarized optical microscope images of the cells under different NOA65 concentrations at voltages of 0 V and 10 V.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 SEM images of the alignment layer surfaces of the NOA65-doped LC cells at concentrations of (a) 2.5 wt% on the top substrate, (b) 2.5 wt% on the bottom substrate, (c) 1.5 wt% on the bottom substrate, and (d) 0.5 wt% on the bottom substrate. The red arrows represent the rubbing direction on the substrate.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 T-V curves of 2.5 wt% NOA65-doped and HA LC cells.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

γ L S γ L D (1+cosθ)=2 γ S D +2 γ S P γ L P γ L D ,
A= 2 π 3 a 2 K λ 3 ,

Metrics