Abstract

We optimize the linearity performance of silicon carrier-depletion Mach-Zehnder optical modulator through controlling the doping concentration. The optical field distribution in the waveguide is a Gaussian-like distribution. As the doping concentration increases, the dynamic depletion width of the PN junction under the same modulation signal will decrease, and the integration width of the overlap between the Gaussian-like optical field distribution and the depletion region will become smaller. Therefore the modulated signal has less nonlinear components. Our simulation results proved this analysis. We also fabricated different devices with different doping concentrations. By adopting a ten times doping concentration, the spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) for third-order intermodulation distortion (TID) increases from 109.2 dB.Hz2/3 to 113.7 dB.Hz2/3 and the SFDR for second harmonic distortion (SHD) increases from 87.6 dB.Hz1/2 to 97.5 dB.Hz1/2 at a driving frequency of 2 GHz. When the driving frequency is 20 GHz, the SFDRs for TID and SHD distortions are 110.3 dB.Hz2/3 and 96 dB.Hz1/2, respectively.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (3)

2015 (1)

2014 (3)

2013 (2)

2012 (3)

2011 (5)

2010 (4)

H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, and A. De Keersgieter, “Optimization of ion implantation condition for depletion-type silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1763–1768 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm V(π)L integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Geng, L. Jia, L. Zhang, L. Yang, P. Chen, T. Wang, and Y. Liu, “Four-channel reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer based on photonic wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5502–5516 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Ahn, D.

Asghari, M.

Assefa, S.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ayazi, A.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Beals, M.

Beling, A.

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bennett, B.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bergman, K.

Biberman, A.

Bogaerts, W.

H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, and A. De Keersgieter, “Optimization of ion implantation condition for depletion-type silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1763–1768 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

C. Zhang, P. A. Morton, J. B. Khurgin, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “Highly linear heterogeneous-integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer modulators on Si,” Opt. Express 24(17), 19040–19047 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, J. C.

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

J. Ding, H. Chen, L. Yang, L. Zhang, R. Ji, Y. Tian, W. Zhu, Y. Lu, P. Zhou, and R. Min, “Low-voltage, high-extinction-ratio, Mach-Zehnder silicon optical modulator for CMOS-compatible integration,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3209–3218 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ji, L. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Tian, J. Ding, H. Chen, Y. Lu, P. Zhou, and W. Zhu, “Five-port optical router for photonic networks-on-chip,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20258–20268 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

Chen, J. P.

Chen, L.

Chen, P.

Chen, Y. K.

Chetrit, Y.

Chu, T.

Ciftcioglu, B.

Cohen, O.

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cunningham, J. E.

Dahlem, M. S.

De Keersgieter, A.

H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, and A. De Keersgieter, “Optimization of ion implantation condition for depletion-type silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1763–1768 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ding, J.

Ding, R.

Doerr, C. R.

Dong, P.

Fang, A.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, A. W.

Fang, Q.

Fedeli, J. M.

Feng, D.

Feng, N. N.

Filion, B.

Fournier, M.

Gardes, F. Y.

Geng, M.

Giziewicz, W.

Grosse, P.

Hak, D.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harris, N. C.

Hochberg, M.

Holzwarth, C. W.

Hong, C. Y.

Hu, Y.

Ippen, E. P.

Izhaky, N.

Ji, R.

Jia, L.

Jones, R.

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, Y.

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kärtner, F. X.

Khilo, A.

Khurgin, J. B.

Kimerling, L. C.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kuo, Y.

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

LaRochelle, S.

Lee, B. G.

Lee, P.

Li, G.

Li, Q.

Li, T.

Li, X.

Li, X. W.

Li, Z.

Liang, H.

Liao, L.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liao, S.

Lim, A. E.

Lim, A. E.-J.

Liow, T. Y.

Lipson, M.

Litski, S.

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, A.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Liu, Y.

Lo, G. Q.

Lo, G.-Q.

Lu, Y.

Ma, Y.

Mashanovich, G.

McIntosh, D. C.

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Michel, J.

Min, R.

Morse, M.

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Morton, P. A.

Nagy, J.

Nguyen, H.

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M. J.

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, H.

Patel, D.

Pauchard, A.

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Peters, J. D.

Pinguet, T.

Plant, D.

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reano, R. M.

Reed, G. T.

Rong, H.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rusli, R.

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarid, G.

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shafiiha, R.

Sherwood-Droz, N.

Simard, A. D.

Smith, H. I.

Song, J.

Soref, R.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

Streshinsky, M.

Su, F.

Teo, S. H.

Thomson, D. J.

Tian, Y.

Tu, X.

Vlasov, Y. A.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

Wang, H.

Wang, T.

Wang, X.

Wu, H.

Xia, F.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, X.

Xu, H.

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xuan, Z.

Yang, L.

Yang, Y.

Yu, H.

H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, and A. De Keersgieter, “Optimization of ion implantation condition for depletion-type silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1763–1768 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

Yu, M.

Yu, Y.

Zadka, M.

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zaoui, W. S.

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

Zhang, F.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, Y.

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X.

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L. J.

Zhou, P.

Zhou, Y.

Zhou, Z.

Zhu, W.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, and A. De Keersgieter, “Optimization of ion implantation condition for depletion-type silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1763–1768 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Nat. Photonics (2)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Kang, H. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y. Kuo, H. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain-bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (4)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (21)

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. Song, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “Fabrication of low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator using doping compensation method,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18029–18035 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Geng, L. Jia, L. Zhang, L. Yang, P. Chen, T. Wang, and Y. Liu, “Four-channel reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer based on photonic wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5502–5516 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, A. Khilo, F. X. Kärtner, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, “Reconfigurable multi-channel second-order silicon microring-resonator filterbanks for on-chip WDM systems,” Opt. Express 19(1), 306–316 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ji, L. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Tian, J. Ding, H. Chen, Y. Lu, P. Zhou, and W. Zhu, “Five-port optical router for photonic networks-on-chip,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20258–20268 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “Optical 4x4 hitless slicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC),” Opt. Express 16(20), 15915–15922 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm V(π)L integrated on 0.25microm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators with doping optimization,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4116–4125 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ding, H. Chen, L. Yang, L. Zhang, R. Ji, Y. Tian, W. Zhu, Y. Lu, P. Zhou, and R. Min, “Low-voltage, high-extinction-ratio, Mach-Zehnder silicon optical modulator for CMOS-compatible integration,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3209–3218 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, P. Dong, and Y. K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon chip with 10 modulator channels at 25 Gbps and 100-GHz spacing,” Opt. Express 19(26), B946–B951 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y. K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, Q. Fang, M. Yu, X. Tu, R. Rusli, and G.-Q. Lo, “High-efficiency Si optical modulator using Cu travelling-wave electrode,” Opt. Express 22(24), 29978–29985 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Simard, B. Filion, D. Patel, D. Plant, and S. LaRochelle, “Segmented silicon MZM for PAM-8 transmissions at 114 Gb/s with binary signaling,” Opt. Express 24(17), 19467–19472 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Streshinsky, A. Ayazi, Z. Xuan, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Highly linear silicon traveling wave Mach-Zehnder carrier depletion modulator based on differential drive,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3818–3825 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Li, D. Wang, J. Zhang, Z. Zhou, F. Zhang, X. Wang, and H. Wu, “Demonstration of 6.25 Gbaud advanced modulation formats with subcarrier multiplexed technique on silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19818–19823 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chen, J. Chen, J. Nagy, and R. M. Reano, “Highly linear ring modulator from hybrid silicon and lithium niobate,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13255–13264 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, P. A. Morton, J. B. Khurgin, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “Highly linear heterogeneous-integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer modulators on Si,” Opt. Express 24(17), 19040–19047 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Illustration of (a) the optical field distribution in a silicon ridge waveguide. (b) the carrier concentration distribution of a PN junction without any depletion region. (c) the carrier concentration distribution of a PN junction with a depletion region.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Normalized power of the two-dimensional optical field distribution in an x range of 1.2 μm and a y range of 1 μm. (b) Normalized power of the one-dimensional optical field distribution in an x range of 1.2 μm after the integration along y axis.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The fitted Gaussian curve and the calculated curve of the optical field distribution in the core of the silicon ridge waveguide.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The simulated SFDRs for SHD and TID when the doping concentration increases from 2 × 1017cm−3 to 2 × 1018cm−3.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimental setup of the SFDR test (LD: laser diode; PC: polarization controller; DUT: device under test; PD: photodiode; ESA: electrical spectral analyzer; E.Combiner: electrical combiner; MS: microwave source.)
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Experimental SFDR results of (a) the high-doped device, (b) the medium-doped device and (c) the low-doped device at a frequency of 2 GHz. The SFDRs for TID are 113.7 dB.Hz2/3, 111.3 dB.Hz2/3 and 109.2 dB.Hz2/3, respectively. The SFDRs for SHD are 97.5 dB.Hz1/2, 94.8 dB.Hz1/2 and 87.6 dB.Hz1/2, respectively.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Experimental SFDRs for TID of the devces with different doping concentrations in a frequency range from 2 GHz to 20GHz. (b) Experimental SFDRs for SHD of the devces with different doping concentrations in a frequency range from 2 GHz to 20GHz.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ n e f f = 1 n e f f ( 0 ) n ( x , y ) n ( 0 ) ( x , y ) | E ( 0 ) ( x , y ) | 2 d x d y | E ( 0 ) ( x , y ) | 2 d x d y
| E ( 0 ) ( x ) | 2 = A e ( 2 x 231 ) 2 .
O s = B { e r f ( 2 231 ( x L C d V b i a s ) ) e r f ( 2 231 ( x L C d ( V b i a s + V s ( sin ( 2 π f 1 t ) + sin ( 2 π f 2 t ) ) ) ) ) } .

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