Abstract

A new terahertz (THz) modulator based on bias-driven carrier conductivity change in a heterojunction was proposed. BiFeO3 film and silicon were selected as building blocks for fabricating the THz modulator. THz nonlinear transmission as a function of bias voltage was studied systematically. THz peak transmission as a function of bias shows a similar tendency as the current-voltage response of the heterojunction: the forward bias leads to the exponential enhancement of THz transmission, and in contrast, the reverse bias shows no observable changes in THz transmission. The modulation depth and modulation bandwidth of THz pulse can reach up to 42% and 1.0 THz with forward bias of 4.8 V, respectively. The observed bias dependent THz transmission in the BFO/Si heterojunction is well-interpreted by the proposed model: the diffused carriers across the heterojunction are localized in BFO thin film with applied forward bias. Our finding provides great potential for applications in designing all electrical broadband THz modulators.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [PubMed]
  4. B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. Jepsen, “Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3807–3814 (2002).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2016 (1)

L. Zhong, B. Zhang, T. He, L. Lv, Y. Hou, and J. Shen, “Conjugated polymer based active electric-controlled terahertz device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(10), 103301 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

Q. Li, Z. Tian, X. Zhang, R. Singh, L. Du, J. Gu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active graphene-silicon hybrid diode for terahertz waves,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7082 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Li, Z. Tian, X. Zhang, N. Xu, R. Singh, J. Gu, P. Lv, L. Luo, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Dual control of active graphene–silicon hybrid metamaterial devices,” Carbon 90, 146–153 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. He, B. Zhang, J. Shen, M. Zang, T. Chen, Y. Hu, and Y. Hou, “High-efficiency THz modulator based on phthalocyanine-compound organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053303 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Gu, K. Jin, L. Wang, X. He, H. Guo, C. Wang, M. He, and G. Yang, “Long-time relaxation of photo-induced influence on BiFeO3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(20), 204103 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (4)

M. Rahm, J.-S. Li, and W. J. Padilla, “THz Wave Modulators: A Brief Review on Different Modulation Techniques,” J. Infrared, Milli Terahz Waves 34(1), 1–27 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. K. Yoo, S. G. Lee, C. Kang, C. S. Kee, and J. W. Lee, “Terahertz modulation on angle-dependent photoexcitation in organic-inorganic hybrid structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151116 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. König, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Castro-Camus, M. Palomar, and A. A. Covarrubias, “Leaf water dynamics of Arabidopsis thaliana monitored in-vivo using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2910–2914 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Sun, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: A review of investigations to date,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 2(1), 33–45 (2012).
[PubMed]

Z. Jin, Y. Xu, Z. Zhang, X. Lin, G. Ma, Z. Cheng, and X. Wang, “Strain modulated transient photostriction in La and Nb codoped multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 242902 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

D. Shrekenhamer, S. Rout, A. C. Strikwerda, C. Bingham, R. D. Averitt, S. Sonkusale, and W. J. Padilla, “High speed terahertz modulation from metamaterials with embedded high electron mobility transistors,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9968–9975 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. K. Yoo, C. Kang, Y. Yoon, H. Lee, J. W. Lee, K. Lee, and C.-S. Kee, “Organic conjugated material-based broadband terahertz wave modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(6), 061108 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, Y. L. Jin, K. J. Jin, C. Wang, H. B. Lu, C. Wang, C. Ge, X. Y. Chen, E. J. Guo, and G. Z. Yang, “Photo-resistance and photo-voltage in epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films,” Europhys. Lett. 96(1), 17008 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Tongay, T. Schumann, X. Miao, B. R. Appleton, and A. F. Hebard, “Tuning Schottky diodes at the many-layer-graphene/semiconductor interface by doping,” Carbon 49(6), 2033–2038 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “An approach for sub-second imaging of concealed objects using terahertz (THz) radar,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 30(12), 1297–1307 (2009).

2008 (3)

Z. X. Cheng, A. H. Li, X. L. Wang, S. X. Dou, K. Ozawa, H. Kimura, S. J. Zhang, and T. R. Shrout, “Structure, ferroelectric properties, and magnetic properties of the La-doped bismuth ferrite,” J. Appl. Phys. 10(7), 07E507 (2008).

Z. Cheng, X. Wang, S. Dou, H. Kimura, and K. Ozawa, “Improved ferroelectric properties in multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films through La and Nb cooping,” Phys. Rev. B 77(9), 092101 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, H. M. Luo, H. Wang, I. O. Usov, N. A. Suvorova, M. Jain, D. M. Feldmann, P. C. Dowden, R. F. DePaula, and Q. X. Jia, “Rectifying Current–Voltage Characteristics of BiFeO3/Nb-Doped SrTiO3 Heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 102113 (2008).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. Jepsen, “Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3807–3814 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

A. K. Ramdas and S. Rodriguez, “Spectroscopy of the solid-state analogues of the hydrogen atom: donors and acceptors in semiconductors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 44(12), 1297–1387 (1981).
[Crossref]

Ambacher, O.

S. König, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Antes, J.

S. König, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appleton, B. R.

S. Tongay, T. Schumann, X. Miao, B. R. Appleton, and A. F. Hebard, “Tuning Schottky diodes at the many-layer-graphene/semiconductor interface by doping,” Carbon 49(6), 2033–2038 (2011).
[Crossref]

Averitt, R. D.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Shrekenhamer, S. Rout, A. C. Strikwerda, C. Bingham, R. D. Averitt, S. Sonkusale, and W. J. Padilla, “High speed terahertz modulation from metamaterials with embedded high electron mobility transistors,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9968–9975 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, J.

Y. Zhou, X. Xu, F. Hu, X. Zheng, W. Li, P. Zhao, J. Bai, and Z. Ren, “Graphene as broadband terahertz antireflection coating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bingham, C.

Boes, F.

S. König, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bryllert, T.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “An approach for sub-second imaging of concealed objects using terahertz (THz) radar,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 30(12), 1297–1307 (2009).

Castro-Camus, E.

E. Castro-Camus, M. Palomar, and A. A. Covarrubias, “Leaf water dynamics of Arabidopsis thaliana monitored in-vivo using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2910–2914 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chattopadhyay, G.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “An approach for sub-second imaging of concealed objects using terahertz (THz) radar,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 30(12), 1297–1307 (2009).

Chen, T.

T. He, B. Zhang, J. Shen, M. Zang, T. Chen, Y. Hu, and Y. Hou, “High-efficiency THz modulator based on phthalocyanine-compound organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053303 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, T. He, J. Shen, Y. Hou, Y. Hu, M. Zang, T. Chen, S. Feng, F. Teng, and L. Qin, “Conjugated polymer-based broadband terahertz wave modulator,” Opt. Lett. 39(21), 6110–6113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X. Y.

L. Wang, Y. L. Jin, K. J. Jin, C. Wang, H. B. Lu, C. Wang, C. Ge, X. Y. Chen, E. J. Guo, and G. Z. Yang, “Photo-resistance and photo-voltage in epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films,” Europhys. Lett. 96(1), 17008 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Cheng, Z.

Z. Jin, Y. Xu, Z. Zhang, X. Lin, G. Ma, Z. Cheng, and X. Wang, “Strain modulated transient photostriction in La and Nb codoped multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 242902 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Cheng, X. Wang, S. Dou, H. Kimura, and K. Ozawa, “Improved ferroelectric properties in multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films through La and Nb cooping,” Phys. Rev. B 77(9), 092101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Z. X.

Z. X. Cheng, A. H. Li, X. L. Wang, S. X. Dou, K. Ozawa, H. Kimura, S. J. Zhang, and T. R. Shrout, “Structure, ferroelectric properties, and magnetic properties of the La-doped bismuth ferrite,” J. Appl. Phys. 10(7), 07E507 (2008).

Cooper, K. B.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “An approach for sub-second imaging of concealed objects using terahertz (THz) radar,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 30(12), 1297–1307 (2009).

Covarrubias, A. A.

E. Castro-Camus, M. Palomar, and A. A. Covarrubias, “Leaf water dynamics of Arabidopsis thaliana monitored in-vivo using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2910–2914 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dengler, R. J.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “An approach for sub-second imaging of concealed objects using terahertz (THz) radar,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 30(12), 1297–1307 (2009).

DePaula, R. F.

H. Yang, H. M. Luo, H. Wang, I. O. Usov, N. A. Suvorova, M. Jain, D. M. Feldmann, P. C. Dowden, R. F. DePaula, and Q. X. Jia, “Rectifying Current–Voltage Characteristics of BiFeO3/Nb-Doped SrTiO3 Heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 102113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dou, S.

Z. Cheng, X. Wang, S. Dou, H. Kimura, and K. Ozawa, “Improved ferroelectric properties in multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films through La and Nb cooping,” Phys. Rev. B 77(9), 092101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dou, S. X.

Z. X. Cheng, A. H. Li, X. L. Wang, S. X. Dou, K. Ozawa, H. Kimura, S. J. Zhang, and T. R. Shrout, “Structure, ferroelectric properties, and magnetic properties of the La-doped bismuth ferrite,” J. Appl. Phys. 10(7), 07E507 (2008).

Dowden, P. C.

H. Yang, H. M. Luo, H. Wang, I. O. Usov, N. A. Suvorova, M. Jain, D. M. Feldmann, P. C. Dowden, R. F. DePaula, and Q. X. Jia, “Rectifying Current–Voltage Characteristics of BiFeO3/Nb-Doped SrTiO3 Heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 102113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Du, L.

Q. Li, Z. Tian, X. Zhang, R. Singh, L. Du, J. Gu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active graphene-silicon hybrid diode for terahertz waves,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7082 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, K.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

C. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Sun, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: A review of investigations to date,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 2(1), 33–45 (2012).
[PubMed]

Feldmann, D. M.

H. Yang, H. M. Luo, H. Wang, I. O. Usov, N. A. Suvorova, M. Jain, D. M. Feldmann, P. C. Dowden, R. F. DePaula, and Q. X. Jia, “Rectifying Current–Voltage Characteristics of BiFeO3/Nb-Doped SrTiO3 Heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 102113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Feng, S.

Fischer, B. M.

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. Jepsen, “Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3807–3814 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freude, W.

S. König, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ge, C.

L. Wang, Y. L. Jin, K. J. Jin, C. Wang, H. B. Lu, C. Wang, C. Ge, X. Y. Chen, E. J. Guo, and G. Z. Yang, “Photo-resistance and photo-voltage in epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films,” Europhys. Lett. 96(1), 17008 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gu, J.

Q. Li, Z. Tian, X. Zhang, N. Xu, R. Singh, J. Gu, P. Lv, L. Luo, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Dual control of active graphene–silicon hybrid metamaterial devices,” Carbon 90, 146–153 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Gu, K. Jin, L. Wang, X. He, H. Guo, C. Wang, M. He, and G. Yang, “Long-time relaxation of photo-induced influence on BiFeO3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(20), 204103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, Z. Tian, X. Zhang, R. Singh, L. Du, J. Gu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active graphene-silicon hybrid diode for terahertz waves,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7082 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, E. J.

L. Wang, Y. L. Jin, K. J. Jin, C. Wang, H. B. Lu, C. Wang, C. Ge, X. Y. Chen, E. J. Guo, and G. Z. Yang, “Photo-resistance and photo-voltage in epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films,” Europhys. Lett. 96(1), 17008 (2011).
[Crossref]

Guo, H.

J. Gu, K. Jin, L. Wang, X. He, H. Guo, C. Wang, M. He, and G. Yang, “Long-time relaxation of photo-induced influence on BiFeO3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(20), 204103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Han, J.

Q. Li, Z. Tian, X. Zhang, N. Xu, R. Singh, J. Gu, P. Lv, L. Luo, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Dual control of active graphene–silicon hybrid metamaterial devices,” Carbon 90, 146–153 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, Z. Tian, X. Zhang, R. Singh, L. Du, J. Gu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active graphene-silicon hybrid diode for terahertz waves,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7082 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, M.

J. Gu, K. Jin, L. Wang, X. He, H. Guo, C. Wang, M. He, and G. Yang, “Long-time relaxation of photo-induced influence on BiFeO3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(20), 204103 (2015).
[Crossref]

He, T.

L. Zhong, B. Zhang, T. He, L. Lv, Y. Hou, and J. Shen, “Conjugated polymer based active electric-controlled terahertz device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(10), 103301 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. He, B. Zhang, J. Shen, M. Zang, T. Chen, Y. Hu, and Y. Hou, “High-efficiency THz modulator based on phthalocyanine-compound organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053303 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, T. He, J. Shen, Y. Hou, Y. Hu, M. Zang, T. Chen, S. Feng, F. Teng, and L. Qin, “Conjugated polymer-based broadband terahertz wave modulator,” Opt. Lett. 39(21), 6110–6113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, X.

J. Gu, K. Jin, L. Wang, X. He, H. Guo, C. Wang, M. He, and G. Yang, “Long-time relaxation of photo-induced influence on BiFeO3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(20), 204103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hebard, A. F.

S. Tongay, T. Schumann, X. Miao, B. R. Appleton, and A. F. Hebard, “Tuning Schottky diodes at the many-layer-graphene/semiconductor interface by doping,” Carbon 49(6), 2033–2038 (2011).
[Crossref]

Henneberger, R.

S. König, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hillerkuss, D.

S. König, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hou, Y.

L. Zhong, B. Zhang, T. He, L. Lv, Y. Hou, and J. Shen, “Conjugated polymer based active electric-controlled terahertz device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(10), 103301 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. He, B. Zhang, J. Shen, M. Zang, T. Chen, Y. Hu, and Y. Hou, “High-efficiency THz modulator based on phthalocyanine-compound organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053303 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, T. He, J. Shen, Y. Hou, Y. Hu, M. Zang, T. Chen, S. Feng, F. Teng, and L. Qin, “Conjugated polymer-based broadband terahertz wave modulator,” Opt. Lett. 39(21), 6110–6113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, F.

Y. Zhou, X. Xu, F. Hu, X. Zheng, W. Li, P. Zhao, J. Bai, and Z. Ren, “Graphene as broadband terahertz antireflection coating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

T. He, B. Zhang, J. Shen, M. Zang, T. Chen, Y. Hu, and Y. Hou, “High-efficiency THz modulator based on phthalocyanine-compound organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053303 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, T. He, J. Shen, Y. Hou, Y. Hu, M. Zang, T. Chen, S. Feng, F. Teng, and L. Qin, “Conjugated polymer-based broadband terahertz wave modulator,” Opt. Lett. 39(21), 6110–6113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, H. Y.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jain, M.

H. Yang, H. M. Luo, H. Wang, I. O. Usov, N. A. Suvorova, M. Jain, D. M. Feldmann, P. C. Dowden, R. F. DePaula, and Q. X. Jia, “Rectifying Current–Voltage Characteristics of BiFeO3/Nb-Doped SrTiO3 Heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 102113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jepsen, P.

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. Jepsen, “Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3807–3814 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, Q. X.

H. Yang, H. M. Luo, H. Wang, I. O. Usov, N. A. Suvorova, M. Jain, D. M. Feldmann, P. C. Dowden, R. F. DePaula, and Q. X. Jia, “Rectifying Current–Voltage Characteristics of BiFeO3/Nb-Doped SrTiO3 Heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 102113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jin, K.

J. Gu, K. Jin, L. Wang, X. He, H. Guo, C. Wang, M. He, and G. Yang, “Long-time relaxation of photo-induced influence on BiFeO3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(20), 204103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jin, K. J.

L. Wang, Y. L. Jin, K. J. Jin, C. Wang, H. B. Lu, C. Wang, C. Ge, X. Y. Chen, E. J. Guo, and G. Z. Yang, “Photo-resistance and photo-voltage in epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films,” Europhys. Lett. 96(1), 17008 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jin, Y. L.

L. Wang, Y. L. Jin, K. J. Jin, C. Wang, H. B. Lu, C. Wang, C. Ge, X. Y. Chen, E. J. Guo, and G. Z. Yang, “Photo-resistance and photo-voltage in epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films,” Europhys. Lett. 96(1), 17008 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jin, Z.

Z. Jin, Y. Xu, Z. Zhang, X. Lin, G. Ma, Z. Cheng, and X. Wang, “Strain modulated transient photostriction in La and Nb codoped multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 242902 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kallfass, I.

S. König, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kang, C.

H. K. Yoo, S. G. Lee, C. Kang, C. S. Kee, and J. W. Lee, “Terahertz modulation on angle-dependent photoexcitation in organic-inorganic hybrid structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151116 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. K. Yoo, C. Kang, Y. Yoon, H. Lee, J. W. Lee, K. Lee, and C.-S. Kee, “Organic conjugated material-based broadband terahertz wave modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(6), 061108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kee, C. S.

H. K. Yoo, S. G. Lee, C. Kang, C. S. Kee, and J. W. Lee, “Terahertz modulation on angle-dependent photoexcitation in organic-inorganic hybrid structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kee, C.-S.

H. K. Yoo, C. Kang, Y. Yoon, H. Lee, J. W. Lee, K. Lee, and C.-S. Kee, “Organic conjugated material-based broadband terahertz wave modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(6), 061108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Keiser, G. R.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kimura, H.

Z. X. Cheng, A. H. Li, X. L. Wang, S. X. Dou, K. Ozawa, H. Kimura, S. J. Zhang, and T. R. Shrout, “Structure, ferroelectric properties, and magnetic properties of the La-doped bismuth ferrite,” J. Appl. Phys. 10(7), 07E507 (2008).

Z. Cheng, X. Wang, S. Dou, H. Kimura, and K. Ozawa, “Improved ferroelectric properties in multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films through La and Nb cooping,” Phys. Rev. B 77(9), 092101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kittiwatanakul, S.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

König, S.

S. König, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Koos, C.

S. König, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.

H. K. Yoo, C. Kang, Y. Yoon, H. Lee, J. W. Lee, K. Lee, and C.-S. Kee, “Organic conjugated material-based broadband terahertz wave modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(6), 061108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. W.

H. K. Yoo, S. G. Lee, C. Kang, C. S. Kee, and J. W. Lee, “Terahertz modulation on angle-dependent photoexcitation in organic-inorganic hybrid structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151116 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. K. Yoo, C. Kang, Y. Yoon, H. Lee, J. W. Lee, K. Lee, and C.-S. Kee, “Organic conjugated material-based broadband terahertz wave modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(6), 061108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

H. K. Yoo, C. Kang, Y. Yoon, H. Lee, J. W. Lee, K. Lee, and C.-S. Kee, “Organic conjugated material-based broadband terahertz wave modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(6), 061108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. G.

H. K. Yoo, S. G. Lee, C. Kang, C. S. Kee, and J. W. Lee, “Terahertz modulation on angle-dependent photoexcitation in organic-inorganic hybrid structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Leuther, A.

S. König, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Leuthold, J.

S. König, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, A. H.

Z. X. Cheng, A. H. Li, X. L. Wang, S. X. Dou, K. Ozawa, H. Kimura, S. J. Zhang, and T. R. Shrout, “Structure, ferroelectric properties, and magnetic properties of the La-doped bismuth ferrite,” J. Appl. Phys. 10(7), 07E507 (2008).

Li, J.-S.

M. Rahm, J.-S. Li, and W. J. Padilla, “THz Wave Modulators: A Brief Review on Different Modulation Techniques,” J. Infrared, Milli Terahz Waves 34(1), 1–27 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, Q.

Q. Li, Z. Tian, X. Zhang, R. Singh, L. Du, J. Gu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active graphene-silicon hybrid diode for terahertz waves,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7082 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Li, Z. Tian, X. Zhang, N. Xu, R. Singh, J. Gu, P. Lv, L. Luo, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Dual control of active graphene–silicon hybrid metamaterial devices,” Carbon 90, 146–153 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

Y. Zhou, X. Xu, F. Hu, X. Zheng, W. Li, P. Zhao, J. Bai, and Z. Ren, “Graphene as broadband terahertz antireflection coating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, X.

Z. Jin, Y. Xu, Z. Zhang, X. Lin, G. Ma, Z. Cheng, and X. Wang, “Strain modulated transient photostriction in La and Nb codoped multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 242902 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Llombart, N.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “An approach for sub-second imaging of concealed objects using terahertz (THz) radar,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 30(12), 1297–1307 (2009).

Lopez-Diaz, D.

S. König, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lu, H. B.

L. Wang, Y. L. Jin, K. J. Jin, C. Wang, H. B. Lu, C. Wang, C. Ge, X. Y. Chen, E. J. Guo, and G. Z. Yang, “Photo-resistance and photo-voltage in epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films,” Europhys. Lett. 96(1), 17008 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lu, J.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, H. M.

H. Yang, H. M. Luo, H. Wang, I. O. Usov, N. A. Suvorova, M. Jain, D. M. Feldmann, P. C. Dowden, R. F. DePaula, and Q. X. Jia, “Rectifying Current–Voltage Characteristics of BiFeO3/Nb-Doped SrTiO3 Heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 102113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Luo, L.

Q. Li, Z. Tian, X. Zhang, N. Xu, R. Singh, J. Gu, P. Lv, L. Luo, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Dual control of active graphene–silicon hybrid metamaterial devices,” Carbon 90, 146–153 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lv, L.

L. Zhong, B. Zhang, T. He, L. Lv, Y. Hou, and J. Shen, “Conjugated polymer based active electric-controlled terahertz device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(10), 103301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lv, P.

Q. Li, Z. Tian, X. Zhang, N. Xu, R. Singh, J. Gu, P. Lv, L. Luo, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Dual control of active graphene–silicon hybrid metamaterial devices,” Carbon 90, 146–153 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ma, G.

Z. Jin, Y. Xu, Z. Zhang, X. Lin, G. Ma, Z. Cheng, and X. Wang, “Strain modulated transient photostriction in La and Nb codoped multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 242902 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mao, Q.

Mehdi, I.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “An approach for sub-second imaging of concealed objects using terahertz (THz) radar,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 30(12), 1297–1307 (2009).

Miao, X.

S. Tongay, T. Schumann, X. Miao, B. R. Appleton, and A. F. Hebard, “Tuning Schottky diodes at the many-layer-graphene/semiconductor interface by doping,” Carbon 49(6), 2033–2038 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nelson, K. A.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Omenetto, F. G.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ozawa, K.

Z. X. Cheng, A. H. Li, X. L. Wang, S. X. Dou, K. Ozawa, H. Kimura, S. J. Zhang, and T. R. Shrout, “Structure, ferroelectric properties, and magnetic properties of the La-doped bismuth ferrite,” J. Appl. Phys. 10(7), 07E507 (2008).

Z. Cheng, X. Wang, S. Dou, H. Kimura, and K. Ozawa, “Improved ferroelectric properties in multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films through La and Nb cooping,” Phys. Rev. B 77(9), 092101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Padilla, W. J.

Palmer, R.

S. König, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Palomar, M.

E. Castro-Camus, M. Palomar, and A. A. Covarrubias, “Leaf water dynamics of Arabidopsis thaliana monitored in-vivo using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2910–2914 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pickwell-Macpherson, E.

C. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Sun, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: A review of investigations to date,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 2(1), 33–45 (2012).
[PubMed]

Qin, L.

Rahm, M.

M. Rahm, J.-S. Li, and W. J. Padilla, “THz Wave Modulators: A Brief Review on Different Modulation Techniques,” J. Infrared, Milli Terahz Waves 34(1), 1–27 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ramdas, A. K.

A. K. Ramdas and S. Rodriguez, “Spectroscopy of the solid-state analogues of the hydrogen atom: donors and acceptors in semiconductors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 44(12), 1297–1387 (1981).
[Crossref]

Ren, Z.

Y. Zhou, X. Xu, F. Hu, X. Zheng, W. Li, P. Zhao, J. Bai, and Z. Ren, “Graphene as broadband terahertz antireflection coating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, S.

A. K. Ramdas and S. Rodriguez, “Spectroscopy of the solid-state analogues of the hydrogen atom: donors and acceptors in semiconductors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 44(12), 1297–1387 (1981).
[Crossref]

Rout, S.

Schmogrow, R.

S. König, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schumann, T.

S. Tongay, T. Schumann, X. Miao, B. R. Appleton, and A. F. Hebard, “Tuning Schottky diodes at the many-layer-graphene/semiconductor interface by doping,” Carbon 49(6), 2033–2038 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shen, J.

L. Zhong, B. Zhang, T. He, L. Lv, Y. Hou, and J. Shen, “Conjugated polymer based active electric-controlled terahertz device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(10), 103301 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. He, B. Zhang, J. Shen, M. Zang, T. Chen, Y. Hu, and Y. Hou, “High-efficiency THz modulator based on phthalocyanine-compound organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053303 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, T. He, J. Shen, Y. Hou, Y. Hu, M. Zang, T. Chen, S. Feng, F. Teng, and L. Qin, “Conjugated polymer-based broadband terahertz wave modulator,” Opt. Lett. 39(21), 6110–6113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shrekenhamer, D.

Shrout, T. R.

Z. X. Cheng, A. H. Li, X. L. Wang, S. X. Dou, K. Ozawa, H. Kimura, S. J. Zhang, and T. R. Shrout, “Structure, ferroelectric properties, and magnetic properties of the La-doped bismuth ferrite,” J. Appl. Phys. 10(7), 07E507 (2008).

Siegel, P. H.

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “An approach for sub-second imaging of concealed objects using terahertz (THz) radar,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 30(12), 1297–1307 (2009).

Singh, R.

Q. Li, Z. Tian, X. Zhang, R. Singh, L. Du, J. Gu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active graphene-silicon hybrid diode for terahertz waves,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7082 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Li, Z. Tian, X. Zhang, N. Xu, R. Singh, J. Gu, P. Lv, L. Luo, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Dual control of active graphene–silicon hybrid metamaterial devices,” Carbon 90, 146–153 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sonkusale, S.

Sternbach, A. J.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strikwerda, A. C.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Shrekenhamer, S. Rout, A. C. Strikwerda, C. Bingham, R. D. Averitt, S. Sonkusale, and W. J. Padilla, “High speed terahertz modulation from metamaterials with embedded high electron mobility transistors,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9968–9975 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

C. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Sun, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: A review of investigations to date,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 2(1), 33–45 (2012).
[PubMed]

Suvorova, N. A.

H. Yang, H. M. Luo, H. Wang, I. O. Usov, N. A. Suvorova, M. Jain, D. M. Feldmann, P. C. Dowden, R. F. DePaula, and Q. X. Jia, “Rectifying Current–Voltage Characteristics of BiFeO3/Nb-Doped SrTiO3 Heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 102113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tao, H.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teng, F.

Tessmann, A.

S. König, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tian, W.

Tian, Z.

Q. Li, Z. Tian, X. Zhang, N. Xu, R. Singh, J. Gu, P. Lv, L. Luo, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Dual control of active graphene–silicon hybrid metamaterial devices,” Carbon 90, 146–153 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, Z. Tian, X. Zhang, R. Singh, L. Du, J. Gu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active graphene-silicon hybrid diode for terahertz waves,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7082 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tongay, S.

S. Tongay, T. Schumann, X. Miao, B. R. Appleton, and A. F. Hebard, “Tuning Schottky diodes at the many-layer-graphene/semiconductor interface by doping,” Carbon 49(6), 2033–2038 (2011).
[Crossref]

Usov, I. O.

H. Yang, H. M. Luo, H. Wang, I. O. Usov, N. A. Suvorova, M. Jain, D. M. Feldmann, P. C. Dowden, R. F. DePaula, and Q. X. Jia, “Rectifying Current–Voltage Characteristics of BiFeO3/Nb-Doped SrTiO3 Heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 102113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Walther, M.

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. Jepsen, “Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3807–3814 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

J. Gu, K. Jin, L. Wang, X. He, H. Guo, C. Wang, M. He, and G. Yang, “Long-time relaxation of photo-induced influence on BiFeO3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(20), 204103 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, Y. L. Jin, K. J. Jin, C. Wang, H. B. Lu, C. Wang, C. Ge, X. Y. Chen, E. J. Guo, and G. Z. Yang, “Photo-resistance and photo-voltage in epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films,” Europhys. Lett. 96(1), 17008 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, Y. L. Jin, K. J. Jin, C. Wang, H. B. Lu, C. Wang, C. Ge, X. Y. Chen, E. J. Guo, and G. Z. Yang, “Photo-resistance and photo-voltage in epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films,” Europhys. Lett. 96(1), 17008 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

H. Yang, H. M. Luo, H. Wang, I. O. Usov, N. A. Suvorova, M. Jain, D. M. Feldmann, P. C. Dowden, R. F. DePaula, and Q. X. Jia, “Rectifying Current–Voltage Characteristics of BiFeO3/Nb-Doped SrTiO3 Heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 102113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

J. Gu, K. Jin, L. Wang, X. He, H. Guo, C. Wang, M. He, and G. Yang, “Long-time relaxation of photo-induced influence on BiFeO3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(20), 204103 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, Y. L. Jin, K. J. Jin, C. Wang, H. B. Lu, C. Wang, C. Ge, X. Y. Chen, E. J. Guo, and G. Z. Yang, “Photo-resistance and photo-voltage in epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films,” Europhys. Lett. 96(1), 17008 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Z. Jin, Y. Xu, Z. Zhang, X. Lin, G. Ma, Z. Cheng, and X. Wang, “Strain modulated transient photostriction in La and Nb codoped multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 242902 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Cheng, X. Wang, S. Dou, H. Kimura, and K. Ozawa, “Improved ferroelectric properties in multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films through La and Nb cooping,” Phys. Rev. B 77(9), 092101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, X. L.

Z. X. Cheng, A. H. Li, X. L. Wang, S. X. Dou, K. Ozawa, H. Kimura, S. J. Zhang, and T. R. Shrout, “Structure, ferroelectric properties, and magnetic properties of the La-doped bismuth ferrite,” J. Appl. Phys. 10(7), 07E507 (2008).

Wen, Q. Y.

Wen, T. L.

West, K. G.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, S. A.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, N.

Q. Li, Z. Tian, X. Zhang, N. Xu, R. Singh, J. Gu, P. Lv, L. Luo, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Dual control of active graphene–silicon hybrid metamaterial devices,” Carbon 90, 146–153 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

Y. Zhou, X. Xu, F. Hu, X. Zheng, W. Li, P. Zhao, J. Bai, and Z. Ren, “Graphene as broadband terahertz antireflection coating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

Z. Jin, Y. Xu, Z. Zhang, X. Lin, G. Ma, Z. Cheng, and X. Wang, “Strain modulated transient photostriction in La and Nb codoped multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 242902 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, G.

J. Gu, K. Jin, L. Wang, X. He, H. Guo, C. Wang, M. He, and G. Yang, “Long-time relaxation of photo-induced influence on BiFeO3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(20), 204103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, G. Z.

L. Wang, Y. L. Jin, K. J. Jin, C. Wang, H. B. Lu, C. Wang, C. Ge, X. Y. Chen, E. J. Guo, and G. Z. Yang, “Photo-resistance and photo-voltage in epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films,” Europhys. Lett. 96(1), 17008 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

H. Yang, H. M. Luo, H. Wang, I. O. Usov, N. A. Suvorova, M. Jain, D. M. Feldmann, P. C. Dowden, R. F. DePaula, and Q. X. Jia, “Rectifying Current–Voltage Characteristics of BiFeO3/Nb-Doped SrTiO3 Heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 102113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, Q. H.

Yoo, H. K.

H. K. Yoo, S. G. Lee, C. Kang, C. S. Kee, and J. W. Lee, “Terahertz modulation on angle-dependent photoexcitation in organic-inorganic hybrid structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151116 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. K. Yoo, C. Kang, Y. Yoon, H. Lee, J. W. Lee, K. Lee, and C.-S. Kee, “Organic conjugated material-based broadband terahertz wave modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(6), 061108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yoon, Y.

H. K. Yoo, C. Kang, Y. Yoon, H. Lee, J. W. Lee, K. Lee, and C.-S. Kee, “Organic conjugated material-based broadband terahertz wave modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(6), 061108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yu, C.

C. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Sun, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: A review of investigations to date,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 2(1), 33–45 (2012).
[PubMed]

Zang, M.

T. He, B. Zhang, J. Shen, M. Zang, T. Chen, Y. Hu, and Y. Hou, “High-efficiency THz modulator based on phthalocyanine-compound organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053303 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, T. He, J. Shen, Y. Hou, Y. Hu, M. Zang, T. Chen, S. Feng, F. Teng, and L. Qin, “Conjugated polymer-based broadband terahertz wave modulator,” Opt. Lett. 39(21), 6110–6113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

L. Zhong, B. Zhang, T. He, L. Lv, Y. Hou, and J. Shen, “Conjugated polymer based active electric-controlled terahertz device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(10), 103301 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. He, B. Zhang, J. Shen, M. Zang, T. Chen, Y. Hu, and Y. Hou, “High-efficiency THz modulator based on phthalocyanine-compound organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053303 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, T. He, J. Shen, Y. Hou, Y. Hu, M. Zang, T. Chen, S. Feng, F. Teng, and L. Qin, “Conjugated polymer-based broadband terahertz wave modulator,” Opt. Lett. 39(21), 6110–6113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H. W.

Zhang, S.

Q. Li, Z. Tian, X. Zhang, N. Xu, R. Singh, J. Gu, P. Lv, L. Luo, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Dual control of active graphene–silicon hybrid metamaterial devices,” Carbon 90, 146–153 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S. J.

Z. X. Cheng, A. H. Li, X. L. Wang, S. X. Dou, K. Ozawa, H. Kimura, S. J. Zhang, and T. R. Shrout, “Structure, ferroelectric properties, and magnetic properties of the La-doped bismuth ferrite,” J. Appl. Phys. 10(7), 07E507 (2008).

Zhang, W.

Q. Li, Z. Tian, X. Zhang, R. Singh, L. Du, J. Gu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active graphene-silicon hybrid diode for terahertz waves,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7082 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Li, Z. Tian, X. Zhang, N. Xu, R. Singh, J. Gu, P. Lv, L. Luo, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Dual control of active graphene–silicon hybrid metamaterial devices,” Carbon 90, 146–153 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Q. Li, Z. Tian, X. Zhang, N. Xu, R. Singh, J. Gu, P. Lv, L. Luo, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Dual control of active graphene–silicon hybrid metamaterial devices,” Carbon 90, 146–153 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, Z. Tian, X. Zhang, R. Singh, L. Du, J. Gu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active graphene-silicon hybrid diode for terahertz waves,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7082 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Jin, Y. Xu, Z. Zhang, X. Lin, G. Ma, Z. Cheng, and X. Wang, “Strain modulated transient photostriction in La and Nb codoped multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 242902 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, P.

Y. Zhou, X. Xu, F. Hu, X. Zheng, W. Li, P. Zhao, J. Bai, and Z. Ren, “Graphene as broadband terahertz antireflection coating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zheng, X.

Y. Zhou, X. Xu, F. Hu, X. Zheng, W. Li, P. Zhao, J. Bai, and Z. Ren, “Graphene as broadband terahertz antireflection coating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhong, L.

L. Zhong, B. Zhang, T. He, L. Lv, Y. Hou, and J. Shen, “Conjugated polymer based active electric-controlled terahertz device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(10), 103301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhou, X. Xu, F. Hu, X. Zheng, W. Li, P. Zhao, J. Bai, and Z. Ren, “Graphene as broadband terahertz antireflection coating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zwick, T.

S. König, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

H. K. Yoo, S. G. Lee, C. Kang, C. S. Kee, and J. W. Lee, “Terahertz modulation on angle-dependent photoexcitation in organic-inorganic hybrid structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151116 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. K. Yoo, C. Kang, Y. Yoon, H. Lee, J. W. Lee, K. Lee, and C.-S. Kee, “Organic conjugated material-based broadband terahertz wave modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(6), 061108 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. He, B. Zhang, J. Shen, M. Zang, T. Chen, Y. Hu, and Y. Hou, “High-efficiency THz modulator based on phthalocyanine-compound organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053303 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Jin, Y. Xu, Z. Zhang, X. Lin, G. Ma, Z. Cheng, and X. Wang, “Strain modulated transient photostriction in La and Nb codoped multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 242902 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, H. M. Luo, H. Wang, I. O. Usov, N. A. Suvorova, M. Jain, D. M. Feldmann, P. C. Dowden, R. F. DePaula, and Q. X. Jia, “Rectifying Current–Voltage Characteristics of BiFeO3/Nb-Doped SrTiO3 Heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 102113 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Zhong, B. Zhang, T. He, L. Lv, Y. Hou, and J. Shen, “Conjugated polymer based active electric-controlled terahertz device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(10), 103301 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, X. Xu, F. Hu, X. Zheng, W. Li, P. Zhao, J. Bai, and Z. Ren, “Graphene as broadband terahertz antireflection coating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Carbon (2)

Q. Li, Z. Tian, X. Zhang, N. Xu, R. Singh, J. Gu, P. Lv, L. Luo, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Dual control of active graphene–silicon hybrid metamaterial devices,” Carbon 90, 146–153 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Tongay, T. Schumann, X. Miao, B. R. Appleton, and A. F. Hebard, “Tuning Schottky diodes at the many-layer-graphene/semiconductor interface by doping,” Carbon 49(6), 2033–2038 (2011).
[Crossref]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

L. Wang, Y. L. Jin, K. J. Jin, C. Wang, H. B. Lu, C. Wang, C. Ge, X. Y. Chen, E. J. Guo, and G. Z. Yang, “Photo-resistance and photo-voltage in epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films,” Europhys. Lett. 96(1), 17008 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. Gu, K. Jin, L. Wang, X. He, H. Guo, C. Wang, M. He, and G. Yang, “Long-time relaxation of photo-induced influence on BiFeO3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(20), 204103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. X. Cheng, A. H. Li, X. L. Wang, S. X. Dou, K. Ozawa, H. Kimura, S. J. Zhang, and T. R. Shrout, “Structure, ferroelectric properties, and magnetic properties of the La-doped bismuth ferrite,” J. Appl. Phys. 10(7), 07E507 (2008).

J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves (1)

K. B. Cooper, R. J. Dengler, N. Llombart, T. Bryllert, G. Chattopadhyay, I. Mehdi, and P. H. Siegel, “An approach for sub-second imaging of concealed objects using terahertz (THz) radar,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 30(12), 1297–1307 (2009).

J. Infrared, Milli Terahz Waves (1)

M. Rahm, J.-S. Li, and W. J. Padilla, “THz Wave Modulators: A Brief Review on Different Modulation Techniques,” J. Infrared, Milli Terahz Waves 34(1), 1–27 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

Q. Li, Z. Tian, X. Zhang, R. Singh, L. Du, J. Gu, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active graphene-silicon hybrid diode for terahertz waves,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7082 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

S. König, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, and P. Jepsen, “Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3807–3814 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

Z. Cheng, X. Wang, S. Dou, H. Kimura, and K. Ozawa, “Improved ferroelectric properties in multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films through La and Nb cooping,” Phys. Rev. B 77(9), 092101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. (1)

C. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Sun, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: A review of investigations to date,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 2(1), 33–45 (2012).
[PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

A. K. Ramdas and S. Rodriguez, “Spectroscopy of the solid-state analogues of the hydrogen atom: donors and acceptors in semiconductors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 44(12), 1297–1387 (1981).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

E. Castro-Camus, M. Palomar, and A. A. Covarrubias, “Leaf water dynamics of Arabidopsis thaliana monitored in-vivo using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2910–2914 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

B. L. Anderson and R. L. Anderson, Fundamentals of Semiconductor Devices (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2005).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of BFO/Si sample, the red and blue colors represent BFO thin film and Si substrate, respectively. The silver electrode with ring shape is illustrated as yellow color. (b) THz time-domain signal at various bias voltages. The inset (up) shows the enlargement of secondary reflection signals (THz echo pulse), and the inset (down) illustrates the main THz transmission as well as the reflections occur at the two interface. (c) Bias voltage controlled amplitude changes of time-domain transmission peaks of the BFO/Si hybrid structure. The solid line is exponential fitting result.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) THz transmission spectra at bias voltage of −5, 0 and + 4.8 V. (b) THz spectra modulation depth at various bias voltages.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Energy band diagram of isolated BFO and p-type silicon; (b) Energy band diagram of an ideal BFO/p-type Si heterojunction at thermal equilibrium. (c) Bias controlled amplitude changes of normalized THz peaks of the BFO/Si heterojunction (open diamond), and the current-voltage curve of the heterojunction is also plotted as open circles. The solid lines are the exponential fittings for the both experimental data.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The change of potential barrier at zero (black solid), forward (red dash), and reverse (blue dash) bias voltage for BFO/Si heterojunction. xp and xn denote the depletion width in Si and BFO region. (b) Illustration of holes diffusion in the BFO/Si heterojunction with forward bias. Forwards bias decreases the potential barrier and reduces the width of depletion layers, as a result, more holes can come across the barrier and accumulates at the BFO region. (c) Bias controlled R(f) response, and the solid line the exponential fitting result.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 THz spectra modulation depth for the secondary reflection THz pulses under various bias voltages.

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

p n 0 ( x n ) = p p 0 ( x p ) e e [ ψ ( x n ) ψ ( x p ) ] K B T ,
p n 0 ( x n ) = p p 0 ( x p ) e Δ E v K B T ,
p n ( x n ) = p p 0 ( x p ) e ( Δ E v eV g ) K B T ,
Δ P n ( x n ) = p n ( x n ) p n 0 ( x n ) = p p 0 ( x p ) e Δ E v K B T ( e eV g K B T 1 ) ,
Δ σ = ( P p 0 Δ P n ) μ 0 + ( P n 0 + Δ P n ) μ 1 P p 0 μ 0 P n 0 μ 1 = Δ P n ( μ 1 μ 0 ) = ( μ 1 μ 0 ) p p 0 ( x p ) e Δ E v K B T ( e e V g K B T 1 ) ,
M ( f , V g ) = | E ( f , 0 ) E ( f , V g ) E ( f , 0 ) | ,
T ( f ) = 1 + n sub 1 + n sub + z 0 σd ,
R ( f ) = 1 T ( f , V g ) 1 T ( f , 0 ) = Z 0 d 1 + n sub Δσ,
 R ( f ) = Z 0 d 1 + n sub ( μ 1 μ 0 ) p p 0 ( x p ) e Δ E v K B T ( e eV g K B T 1 ) ,
J = J s ( e e V g k B T - 1 ) ,
I = A 0 ( e R 0 V g 1 ) ,
R ( f ) = 1 T ( f , V g ) 1 T ( f , 0 ) = Z 0 d 1 + n sub Δσ = Z 0 d 1 + n sub ( μ 1 μ 0 ) p p 0 ( x p ) e Δ E v K B T ( e eV g K B T 1 ) ,
R ( f ) = Z 0 d 1 + n sub ( μ 1 μ 0 ) p p 0 ( x p ) e Δ E v K B T ( e γ'eV g K B T 1 ) ,
R ( V g ) = A 1 ( e R 1 V g 1 ) ,

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