Abstract

In the paper, a flexible low-scattering metasurface is proposed and realized. The layout is composed of similar “#” shaped elements with variable sizes which are randomly distributed along the surface. The various dimensions of the meta-elements lead to different reflection phases for the meta-elements with respect to the incident plane wave, resulting a diffuse reflection surface and exhibiting a broadband backward low-scattering property. In consideration of the flexibility, metasurfaces composed of printed metallic element films attaching with flexible substrate are designed, fabricated and measured in microwave domain. The measurement results show that 10dB radar cross section (RCS) reduction is obtained across the X-band by coating them to either metallic plates or metallic cylinders with only 1/8 working wavelength thickness. We think that the proposed flexible metasurface is applicable to other frequency bands and can be applied in EM stealth technology.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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  9. X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
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  10. S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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  13. L. Huang, X. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Helicity dependent directional surface plasmon polariton excitation using a metasurface with interfacial phase discontinuity,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(3), e70 (2013).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. B. Wang, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle and polarization-independent chiral metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 033108 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  24. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. M. Paquay, J. C. Iriarte, I. Ederra, R. Gonzalo, and P. de Maagt, “Thin AMC structure for radar cross-section reduction,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(12), 3630–3638 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  28. J. A. Encinar, “Design of two-layer printed reflectarrays using patches of variable size,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 49(10), 1403–1410 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  29. H. Li, B. Z. Wang, and W. P. Du, “Novel broadband reflectarray antenna with windmill-shaped elements for millimeter-wave application,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 28(5), 339–344 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  30. H. Li, B. Z. Wang, and W. Shao, “Novel broadband reflectarray antenna with compound-cross-loop elements for millimeter-wave application,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 21(10), 1333–1340 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  31. K. H. Sayidmarie and M. E. Bialkowski, “Phasing of a microstrip reflectarray using multi-dimensional scaling of its elements,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. B 2, 125–136 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  32. J. Chen, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, D. Dong, and T. Cui, “Reduction of radar cross section based on a metasurface,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 146, 71–76 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  33. K. Wang, J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, D. S. Dong, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband and broad-angle low-scattering metasurface based on hybrid optimization algorithm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5935 (2014).
    [PubMed]
  34. L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

L. Zhang, S. Mei, K. Huang, and C. Qiu, “Advances in full control of electromagnetic waves with metasurfaces,” Adv. Optical Mater. 4(6), 818–833 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

G. Oliveri, D. H. Werner, and A. Massa, “Reconfigurable electromagnetics through metamaterials—a review,” Proc. IEEE 103(7), 1034–1056 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yu, A. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

J. Chen, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, D. Dong, and T. Cui, “Reduction of radar cross section based on a metasurface,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 146, 71–76 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, D. S. Dong, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband and broad-angle low-scattering metasurface based on hybrid optimization algorithm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5935 (2014).
[PubMed]

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

J. Lin, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Antoniou, and F. Capasso, “Nanostructured holograms for broadband manipulation of vector beams,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4269–4274 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, X. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Helicity dependent directional surface plasmon polariton excitation using a metasurface with interfacial phase discontinuity,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(3), e70 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. O. Zhu, J. Zhao, and Y. Feng, “Active impedance metasurface with full 360° reflection phase tuning,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3059 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

K. Iwaszczuk, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and P. U. Jepsen, “Flexible metamaterial absorbers for stealth applications at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 20(1), 635–643 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

N. I. Zheludev, “The road ahead for metamaterials,” Science 328(5978), 582–583 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

P. Alitalo and S. Tretyakov, “Electromagnetic cloaking with metamaterials,” Mater. Today 12(3), 22–29 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Wang, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle and polarization-independent chiral metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 033108 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. H. Sayidmarie and M. E. Bialkowski, “Phasing of a microstrip reflectarray using multi-dimensional scaling of its elements,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. B 2, 125–136 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

M. Paquay, J. C. Iriarte, I. Ederra, R. Gonzalo, and P. de Maagt, “Thin AMC structure for radar cross-section reduction,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(12), 3630–3638 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Li, B. Z. Wang, and W. P. Du, “Novel broadband reflectarray antenna with windmill-shaped elements for millimeter-wave application,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 28(5), 339–344 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Li, B. Z. Wang, and W. Shao, “Novel broadband reflectarray antenna with compound-cross-loop elements for millimeter-wave application,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 21(10), 1333–1340 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

J. A. Encinar, “Design of two-layer printed reflectarrays using patches of variable size,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 49(10), 1403–1410 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[Crossref]

Aieta, F.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alitalo, P.

P. Alitalo and S. Tretyakov, “Electromagnetic cloaking with metamaterials,” Mater. Today 12(3), 22–29 (2009).
[Crossref]

Antoniou, N.

J. Lin, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Antoniou, and F. Capasso, “Nanostructured holograms for broadband manipulation of vector beams,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4269–4274 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arbabi, A.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

Bagheri, M.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, B.

L. Huang, X. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Helicity dependent directional surface plasmon polariton excitation using a metasurface with interfacial phase discontinuity,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(3), e70 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ball, A. J.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bialkowski, M. E.

K. H. Sayidmarie and M. E. Bialkowski, “Phasing of a microstrip reflectarray using multi-dimensional scaling of its elements,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. B 2, 125–136 (2008).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, R.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Booth, J.

C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brenner, P.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Briggs, D. P.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, J.

J. Brown and W. Jackson, “The properties of artificial dielectrics at centimeter wavelengths,” Proc. IEEE Part B102, 11–16 (1955).

Capasso, F.

J. Lin, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Antoniou, and F. Capasso, “Nanostructured holograms for broadband manipulation of vector beams,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4269–4274 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, D. Dong, and T. Cui, “Reduction of radar cross section based on a metasurface,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 146, 71–76 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. T.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

L. Huang, X. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Helicity dependent directional surface plasmon polariton excitation using a metasurface with interfacial phase discontinuity,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(3), e70 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Q.

J. Chen, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, D. Dong, and T. Cui, “Reduction of radar cross section based on a metasurface,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 146, 71–76 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, D. S. Dong, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband and broad-angle low-scattering metasurface based on hybrid optimization algorithm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5935 (2014).
[PubMed]

Cui, T.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, D. Dong, and T. Cui, “Reduction of radar cross section based on a metasurface,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 146, 71–76 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cui, T. J.

K. Wang, J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, D. S. Dong, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband and broad-angle low-scattering metasurface based on hybrid optimization algorithm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5935 (2014).
[PubMed]

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Maagt, P.

M. Paquay, J. C. Iriarte, I. Ederra, R. Gonzalo, and P. de Maagt, “Thin AMC structure for radar cross-section reduction,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(12), 3630–3638 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dong, D.

J. Chen, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, D. Dong, and T. Cui, “Reduction of radar cross section based on a metasurface,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 146, 71–76 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dong, D. S.

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J. Lin, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Antoniou, and F. Capasso, “Nanostructured holograms for broadband manipulation of vector beams,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4269–4274 (2013).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2807 (2013).
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Y. Yu, A. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).
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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
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H. Li, B. Z. Wang, and W. Shao, “Novel broadband reflectarray antenna with compound-cross-loop elements for millimeter-wave application,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 21(10), 1333–1340 (2007).
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S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, J.

J. Lin, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Antoniou, and F. Capasso, “Nanostructured holograms for broadband manipulation of vector beams,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4269–4274 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
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L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
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Y. Yu, A. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).
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G. Oliveri, D. H. Werner, and A. Massa, “Reconfigurable electromagnetics through metamaterials—a review,” Proc. IEEE 103(7), 1034–1056 (2015).
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L. Zhang, S. Mei, K. Huang, and C. Qiu, “Advances in full control of electromagnetic waves with metasurfaces,” Adv. Optical Mater. 4(6), 818–833 (2016).
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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
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D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ni, X.

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).
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G. Oliveri, D. H. Werner, and A. Massa, “Reconfigurable electromagnetics through metamaterials—a review,” Proc. IEEE 103(7), 1034–1056 (2015).
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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
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Y. Yu, A. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).
[Crossref]

Paquay, M.

M. Paquay, J. C. Iriarte, I. Ederra, R. Gonzalo, and P. de Maagt, “Thin AMC structure for radar cross-section reduction,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(12), 3630–3638 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pendry, J. B.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
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Qi, M.

L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qiu, C.

L. Zhang, S. Mei, K. Huang, and C. Qiu, “Advances in full control of electromagnetic waves with metasurfaces,” Adv. Optical Mater. 4(6), 818–833 (2016).
[Crossref]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
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D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scully, M. O.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V. M.

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shao, W.

H. Li, B. Z. Wang, and W. Shao, “Novel broadband reflectarray antenna with compound-cross-loop elements for millimeter-wave application,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 21(10), 1333–1340 (2007).
[Crossref]

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R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. R.

C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: the two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

B. Wang, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle and polarization-independent chiral metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 033108 (2009).
[Crossref]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stenger, N.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[Crossref]

Strikwerda, A. C.

Sun, S.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, Q.

L. Huang, X. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Helicity dependent directional surface plasmon polariton excitation using a metasurface with interfacial phase discontinuity,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(3), e70 (2013).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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Tretyakov, S.

P. Alitalo and S. Tretyakov, “Electromagnetic cloaking with metamaterials,” Mater. Today 12(3), 22–29 (2009).
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Tsai, D. P.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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Valentine, J.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
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Wang, B.

B. Wang, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle and polarization-independent chiral metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 033108 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, B. Z.

H. Li, B. Z. Wang, and W. Shao, “Novel broadband reflectarray antenna with compound-cross-loop elements for millimeter-wave application,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 21(10), 1333–1340 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Li, B. Z. Wang, and W. P. Du, “Novel broadband reflectarray antenna with windmill-shaped elements for millimeter-wave application,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 28(5), 339–344 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.-M.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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K. Wang, J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, D. S. Dong, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband and broad-angle low-scattering metasurface based on hybrid optimization algorithm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5935 (2014).
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Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
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Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
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Y. Yu, A. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).
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L. Huang, X. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Helicity dependent directional surface plasmon polariton excitation using a metasurface with interfacial phase discontinuity,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(3), e70 (2013).
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J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
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L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
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L. Huang, X. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Helicity dependent directional surface plasmon polariton excitation using a metasurface with interfacial phase discontinuity,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(3), e70 (2013).
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Zhang, X.

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K. Wang, J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, D. S. Dong, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband and broad-angle low-scattering metasurface based on hybrid optimization algorithm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5935 (2014).
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J. Chen, Q. Cheng, J. Zhao, D. Dong, and T. Cui, “Reduction of radar cross section based on a metasurface,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 146, 71–76 (2014).
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B. O. Zhu, J. Zhao, and Y. Feng, “Active impedance metasurface with full 360° reflection phase tuning,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3059 (2013).
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S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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B. O. Zhu, J. Zhao, and Y. Feng, “Active impedance metasurface with full 360° reflection phase tuning,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3059 (2013).
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L. Liang, M. Qi, J. Yang, X. Shen, J. Zhai, W. Xu, B. Jin, W. Liu, Y. Feng, C. Zhang, H. Lu, H. Chen, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, T. Cui, P. Wu, and S. Liu, “Anomalous terahertz reflection and scattering by flexible and conformal coding metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1374–1380 (2015).
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Adv. Optical Mater. (1)

L. Zhang, S. Mei, K. Huang, and C. Qiu, “Advances in full control of electromagnetic waves with metasurfaces,” Adv. Optical Mater. 4(6), 818–833 (2016).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
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J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. (1)

H. Li, B. Z. Wang, and W. Shao, “Novel broadband reflectarray antenna with compound-cross-loop elements for millimeter-wave application,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 21(10), 1333–1340 (2007).
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Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

Y. Yu, A. Zhu, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, Y. Fu, B. Luk’yanchuk, and A. Kuznetsov, “High-transmission dielectric metasurface with 2π phase control at visible wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), 412–418 (2015).
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Light Sci. Appl. (1)

L. Huang, X. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Helicity dependent directional surface plasmon polariton excitation using a metasurface with interfacial phase discontinuity,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(3), e70 (2013).
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P. Alitalo and S. Tretyakov, “Electromagnetic cloaking with metamaterials,” Mater. Today 12(3), 22–29 (2009).
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Nano Lett. (3)

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
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S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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Nat. Mater. (1)

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
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Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

B. Wang, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle and polarization-independent chiral metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 033108 (2009).
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K. Wang, J. Zhao, Q. Cheng, D. S. Dong, and T. J. Cui, “Broadband and broad-angle low-scattering metasurface based on hybrid optimization algorithm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5935 (2014).
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B. O. Zhu, J. Zhao, and Y. Feng, “Active impedance metasurface with full 360° reflection phase tuning,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3059 (2013).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The schematic of the scatter element and (b) the layout of the random metasurface (c) the schematic of coating the random metasurface to a metallic cylinder.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Reflection phase response curves of meta-elements of variable dimensions; (b) Simulated far-field RCS results for metal and one optimized sample at different frequencies from 8GHz to 12GHz.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Comparison of the simulated far-field scattering patterns of the bare metallic cylinder and the coated cases at different frequencies with the radius of 80mm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The measurement setup for (a) coating the metasurface on a metallic plate (b) coating the metasurface to a metallic cylinder.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The measured Far-field RCS reduction results of the coated metallic plate with different thick substrates (a) 4mm PVC (b) 3mm PVC for both incident polarizations.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulated and measured far-field RCS reduction results (a) coated cylinder with radius of 40mm (b) coated cylinder with radius of 80mm.

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