Abstract

We have developed an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) scatterometer based on the analysis of coherent EUV light diffracted from a periodic array with nano-scale features. We discuss the choice of appropriate orders of the high harmonics generated coaxially along with the intense Ti:sapphire laser pulses for high resolution spatial performance. We describe an inverse-problem methodology for determining the structural parameters, and present preliminary measurement results confirming the functionality of the scatterometer. A rigorous coupled-wave analysis measurement algorithm was developed to extract accurately and quickly the relevant constitutive parameters from a measured diffraction pattern using a library-matching process.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. ITRS Metrology2013.
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    [Crossref]
  4. B. Bunday, J. Allgair, O. Adan, A. Tam, S. Latinski, and G. Eytan, “Small feature accuracy challenge for CD-SEM metrology physical model solution,” Proc. SPIE 6152, 61520S (2006).
    [Crossref]
  5. C. Wang, K.-W. Choi, Y.-C. Chen, J. Price, D. L. Ho, R. L. Jones, C. Soles, E. K. Lin, W.-L. Wu, and B. D. Bunday, “Nonplanar high-k dielectric thickness measurements using CD-SAXS,” Proc. SPIE 7272, 72722M (2009).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Cordes, B. Bunday, and E. Cottrell, “Sidewall slope sensitivity of CD-AFM,” Proc. SPIE 8105, 810506 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Sohail, H. Naqvi, and J. R. McNeil, “Optical scatterometry for process metrology,” Proc. SPIE CR72, 129–144 (1999).
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  10. B. K. Minhas, S. A. Coulombe, S. S. H. Naqvi, and J. R. McNeil, “Ellipsometric-Scatterometry for the metrology of sub-0.1 μm linewidth structures,” Appl. Opt. 37(22), 5112–5115 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. C. J. Raymond, M. R. Murnane, S. S. H. Naqvi, and J. R. McNeil, “Metrology of subwavelength photoresist gratings using optical scatterometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13(4), 1484–1495 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  12. Y. Feng, X. D. Zhang, B. Cheung, Z. Liu, M. Isao, and M. Hayashi, “OCD study of critical dimension and line-shape control of shallow trench-isolation structures,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 1173 (2004).
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2013 (3)

B. Bunday, T. A. Germer, V. Vartanian, A. Cordes, A. Cepler, and C. Settens, “Gaps analysis for CD metrology beyond the 22 nm node,” Proc. SPIE 8681, 86813B (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Solecky, O. D. Patterson, A. Stamper, E. McLellan, R. Buengener, A. Vaid, C. Hartig, B. Bunday, A. Arceo, and A. Cepler, “In-line e-beam wafer metrology and defect inspection: The end of an era for image-based critical dimensional metrology? New life for defect inspection,” Proc. SPIE 8681, 86810D (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Nagata, T. Harada, M. Nakasuji, H. Kinoshita, and K. Midorikawa, “Development of coherent EUV scatterometry microscope with high-order harmonic for EUV mask inspection,” Proc. SPIE 8849, 884914 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

A. Cordes, B. Bunday, and E. Cottrell, “Sidewall slope sensitivity of CD-AFM,” Proc. SPIE 8105, 810506 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

C. Wang, K.-W. Choi, Y.-C. Chen, J. Price, D. L. Ho, R. L. Jones, C. Soles, E. K. Lin, W.-L. Wu, and B. D. Bunday, “Nonplanar high-k dielectric thickness measurements using CD-SAXS,” Proc. SPIE 7272, 72722M (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

B. Bunday, J. Allgair, O. Adan, A. Tam, S. Latinski, and G. Eytan, “Small feature accuracy challenge for CD-SEM metrology physical model solution,” Proc. SPIE 6152, 61520S (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

Y. Feng, X. D. Zhang, B. Cheung, Z. Liu, M. Isao, and M. Hayashi, “OCD study of critical dimension and line-shape control of shallow trench-isolation structures,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 1173 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Bressler and M. Chergui, “Ultrafast X-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 104(4), 1781–1812 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Huang and F. L. Terry., “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and reflectometry from gratings (Scatterometry) for critical dimension measurement and in situ, real-time process monitoring,” Thin Solid Films 455–456, 828–836 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

F. L. Terry., “Accuracy limitations in specular-mode optical topography extraction,” Proc. SPIE 5038, 547 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. C. Logofătu, “UV scatterometry,” Proc. SPIE 5038, 208 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

E. M. Dre’ge, J. A. Reed, and D. M. Byrne, “Linearized inversion of scatterometric data to obtain surface profile information,” Opt. Eng. 41(1), 225–236 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

1999 (1)

X. Niu, N. Jakatdar, J. Bao, C. Spanos, and S. Yedur, “Specular spectroscopic scatterometry in DUV lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3677, 159–168 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1995 (3)

1994 (1)

1985 (1)

T. K. Gaylord and M. G. Moharam, “Analysis and applications of optical diffraction by gratings,” Proc. IEEE 73(5), 894–937 (1985).
[Crossref]

Adan, O.

B. Bunday, J. Allgair, O. Adan, A. Tam, S. Latinski, and G. Eytan, “Small feature accuracy challenge for CD-SEM metrology physical model solution,” Proc. SPIE 6152, 61520S (2006).
[Crossref]

Allgair, J.

B. Bunday, J. Allgair, O. Adan, A. Tam, S. Latinski, and G. Eytan, “Small feature accuracy challenge for CD-SEM metrology physical model solution,” Proc. SPIE 6152, 61520S (2006).
[Crossref]

Arceo, A.

E. Solecky, O. D. Patterson, A. Stamper, E. McLellan, R. Buengener, A. Vaid, C. Hartig, B. Bunday, A. Arceo, and A. Cepler, “In-line e-beam wafer metrology and defect inspection: The end of an era for image-based critical dimensional metrology? New life for defect inspection,” Proc. SPIE 8681, 86810D (2013).
[Crossref]

Attwood, D.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Backus, S.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Bao, J.

X. Niu, N. Jakatdar, J. Bao, C. Spanos, and S. Yedur, “Specular spectroscopic scatterometry in DUV lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3677, 159–168 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bartels, R. A.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Bressler, C.

C. Bressler and M. Chergui, “Ultrafast X-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 104(4), 1781–1812 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buengener, R.

E. Solecky, O. D. Patterson, A. Stamper, E. McLellan, R. Buengener, A. Vaid, C. Hartig, B. Bunday, A. Arceo, and A. Cepler, “In-line e-beam wafer metrology and defect inspection: The end of an era for image-based critical dimensional metrology? New life for defect inspection,” Proc. SPIE 8681, 86810D (2013).
[Crossref]

Bunday, B.

E. Solecky, O. D. Patterson, A. Stamper, E. McLellan, R. Buengener, A. Vaid, C. Hartig, B. Bunday, A. Arceo, and A. Cepler, “In-line e-beam wafer metrology and defect inspection: The end of an era for image-based critical dimensional metrology? New life for defect inspection,” Proc. SPIE 8681, 86810D (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Bunday, T. A. Germer, V. Vartanian, A. Cordes, A. Cepler, and C. Settens, “Gaps analysis for CD metrology beyond the 22 nm node,” Proc. SPIE 8681, 86813B (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Cordes, B. Bunday, and E. Cottrell, “Sidewall slope sensitivity of CD-AFM,” Proc. SPIE 8105, 810506 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Bunday, J. Allgair, O. Adan, A. Tam, S. Latinski, and G. Eytan, “Small feature accuracy challenge for CD-SEM metrology physical model solution,” Proc. SPIE 6152, 61520S (2006).
[Crossref]

Bunday, B. D.

C. Wang, K.-W. Choi, Y.-C. Chen, J. Price, D. L. Ho, R. L. Jones, C. Soles, E. K. Lin, W.-L. Wu, and B. D. Bunday, “Nonplanar high-k dielectric thickness measurements using CD-SAXS,” Proc. SPIE 7272, 72722M (2009).
[Crossref]

Byrne, D. M.

E. M. Dre’ge, J. A. Reed, and D. M. Byrne, “Linearized inversion of scatterometric data to obtain surface profile information,” Opt. Eng. 41(1), 225–236 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cepler, A.

E. Solecky, O. D. Patterson, A. Stamper, E. McLellan, R. Buengener, A. Vaid, C. Hartig, B. Bunday, A. Arceo, and A. Cepler, “In-line e-beam wafer metrology and defect inspection: The end of an era for image-based critical dimensional metrology? New life for defect inspection,” Proc. SPIE 8681, 86810D (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Bunday, T. A. Germer, V. Vartanian, A. Cordes, A. Cepler, and C. Settens, “Gaps analysis for CD metrology beyond the 22 nm node,” Proc. SPIE 8681, 86813B (2013).
[Crossref]

Chateau, N.

Chen, Y.-C.

C. Wang, K.-W. Choi, Y.-C. Chen, J. Price, D. L. Ho, R. L. Jones, C. Soles, E. K. Lin, W.-L. Wu, and B. D. Bunday, “Nonplanar high-k dielectric thickness measurements using CD-SAXS,” Proc. SPIE 7272, 72722M (2009).
[Crossref]

Chergui, M.

C. Bressler and M. Chergui, “Ultrafast X-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 104(4), 1781–1812 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheung, B.

Y. Feng, X. D. Zhang, B. Cheung, Z. Liu, M. Isao, and M. Hayashi, “OCD study of critical dimension and line-shape control of shallow trench-isolation structures,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 1173 (2004).
[Crossref]

Choi, K.-W.

C. Wang, K.-W. Choi, Y.-C. Chen, J. Price, D. L. Ho, R. L. Jones, C. Soles, E. K. Lin, W.-L. Wu, and B. D. Bunday, “Nonplanar high-k dielectric thickness measurements using CD-SAXS,” Proc. SPIE 7272, 72722M (2009).
[Crossref]

Christov, I. P.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Cordes, A.

B. Bunday, T. A. Germer, V. Vartanian, A. Cordes, A. Cepler, and C. Settens, “Gaps analysis for CD metrology beyond the 22 nm node,” Proc. SPIE 8681, 86813B (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Cordes, B. Bunday, and E. Cottrell, “Sidewall slope sensitivity of CD-AFM,” Proc. SPIE 8105, 810506 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cottrell, E.

A. Cordes, B. Bunday, and E. Cottrell, “Sidewall slope sensitivity of CD-AFM,” Proc. SPIE 8105, 810506 (2011).
[Crossref]

Coulombe, S. A.

Dre’ge, E. M.

E. M. Dre’ge, J. A. Reed, and D. M. Byrne, “Linearized inversion of scatterometric data to obtain surface profile information,” Opt. Eng. 41(1), 225–236 (2002).
[Crossref]

Eytan, G.

B. Bunday, J. Allgair, O. Adan, A. Tam, S. Latinski, and G. Eytan, “Small feature accuracy challenge for CD-SEM metrology physical model solution,” Proc. SPIE 6152, 61520S (2006).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y.

Y. Feng, X. D. Zhang, B. Cheung, Z. Liu, M. Isao, and M. Hayashi, “OCD study of critical dimension and line-shape control of shallow trench-isolation structures,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 1173 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gaylord, T. K.

Germer, T. A.

B. Bunday, T. A. Germer, V. Vartanian, A. Cordes, A. Cepler, and C. Settens, “Gaps analysis for CD metrology beyond the 22 nm node,” Proc. SPIE 8681, 86813B (2013).
[Crossref]

Grann, E. B.

Green, H.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Harada, T.

Y. Nagata, T. Harada, M. Nakasuji, H. Kinoshita, and K. Midorikawa, “Development of coherent EUV scatterometry microscope with high-order harmonic for EUV mask inspection,” Proc. SPIE 8849, 884914 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hartig, C.

E. Solecky, O. D. Patterson, A. Stamper, E. McLellan, R. Buengener, A. Vaid, C. Hartig, B. Bunday, A. Arceo, and A. Cepler, “In-line e-beam wafer metrology and defect inspection: The end of an era for image-based critical dimensional metrology? New life for defect inspection,” Proc. SPIE 8681, 86810D (2013).
[Crossref]

Hayashi, M.

Y. Feng, X. D. Zhang, B. Cheung, Z. Liu, M. Isao, and M. Hayashi, “OCD study of critical dimension and line-shape control of shallow trench-isolation structures,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 1173 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ho, D. L.

C. Wang, K.-W. Choi, Y.-C. Chen, J. Price, D. L. Ho, R. L. Jones, C. Soles, E. K. Lin, W.-L. Wu, and B. D. Bunday, “Nonplanar high-k dielectric thickness measurements using CD-SAXS,” Proc. SPIE 7272, 72722M (2009).
[Crossref]

Huang, H. T.

H. T. Huang and F. L. Terry., “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and reflectometry from gratings (Scatterometry) for critical dimension measurement and in situ, real-time process monitoring,” Thin Solid Films 455–456, 828–836 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hugonin, J.

Isao, M.

Y. Feng, X. D. Zhang, B. Cheung, Z. Liu, M. Isao, and M. Hayashi, “OCD study of critical dimension and line-shape control of shallow trench-isolation structures,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 1173 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jacobsen, C.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Jakatdar, N.

X. Niu, N. Jakatdar, J. Bao, C. Spanos, and S. Yedur, “Specular spectroscopic scatterometry in DUV lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3677, 159–168 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jones, R. L.

C. Wang, K.-W. Choi, Y.-C. Chen, J. Price, D. L. Ho, R. L. Jones, C. Soles, E. K. Lin, W.-L. Wu, and B. D. Bunday, “Nonplanar high-k dielectric thickness measurements using CD-SAXS,” Proc. SPIE 7272, 72722M (2009).
[Crossref]

Kapteyn, H. C.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Kinoshita, H.

Y. Nagata, T. Harada, M. Nakasuji, H. Kinoshita, and K. Midorikawa, “Development of coherent EUV scatterometry microscope with high-order harmonic for EUV mask inspection,” Proc. SPIE 8849, 884914 (2013).
[Crossref]

Latinski, S.

B. Bunday, J. Allgair, O. Adan, A. Tam, S. Latinski, and G. Eytan, “Small feature accuracy challenge for CD-SEM metrology physical model solution,” Proc. SPIE 6152, 61520S (2006).
[Crossref]

Lin, E. K.

C. Wang, K.-W. Choi, Y.-C. Chen, J. Price, D. L. Ho, R. L. Jones, C. Soles, E. K. Lin, W.-L. Wu, and B. D. Bunday, “Nonplanar high-k dielectric thickness measurements using CD-SAXS,” Proc. SPIE 7272, 72722M (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Liu, Z.

Y. Feng, X. D. Zhang, B. Cheung, Z. Liu, M. Isao, and M. Hayashi, “OCD study of critical dimension and line-shape control of shallow trench-isolation structures,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 1173 (2004).
[Crossref]

Logofatu, P. C.

P. C. Logofătu, “UV scatterometry,” Proc. SPIE 5038, 208 (2003).
[Crossref]

McLellan, E.

E. Solecky, O. D. Patterson, A. Stamper, E. McLellan, R. Buengener, A. Vaid, C. Hartig, B. Bunday, A. Arceo, and A. Cepler, “In-line e-beam wafer metrology and defect inspection: The end of an era for image-based critical dimensional metrology? New life for defect inspection,” Proc. SPIE 8681, 86810D (2013).
[Crossref]

McNeil, J. R.

B. K. Minhas, S. A. Coulombe, S. S. H. Naqvi, and J. R. McNeil, “Ellipsometric-Scatterometry for the metrology of sub-0.1 μm linewidth structures,” Appl. Opt. 37(22), 5112–5115 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Raymond, M. R. Murnane, S. S. H. Naqvi, and J. R. McNeil, “Metrology of subwavelength photoresist gratings using optical scatterometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13(4), 1484–1495 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Sohail, H. Naqvi, and J. R. McNeil, “Optical scatterometry for process metrology,” Proc. SPIE CR72, 129–144 (1999).

Metrology, ITRS

ITRS Metrology2013.

Midorikawa, K.

Y. Nagata, T. Harada, M. Nakasuji, H. Kinoshita, and K. Midorikawa, “Development of coherent EUV scatterometry microscope with high-order harmonic for EUV mask inspection,” Proc. SPIE 8849, 884914 (2013).
[Crossref]

Minhas, B. K.

Moharam, M. G.

Morris, G. M.

Murnane, M. M.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Murnane, M. R.

C. J. Raymond, M. R. Murnane, S. S. H. Naqvi, and J. R. McNeil, “Metrology of subwavelength photoresist gratings using optical scatterometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13(4), 1484–1495 (1995).
[Crossref]

Nagata, Y.

Y. Nagata, T. Harada, M. Nakasuji, H. Kinoshita, and K. Midorikawa, “Development of coherent EUV scatterometry microscope with high-order harmonic for EUV mask inspection,” Proc. SPIE 8849, 884914 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nakasuji, M.

Y. Nagata, T. Harada, M. Nakasuji, H. Kinoshita, and K. Midorikawa, “Development of coherent EUV scatterometry microscope with high-order harmonic for EUV mask inspection,” Proc. SPIE 8849, 884914 (2013).
[Crossref]

Naqvi, H.

S. Sohail, H. Naqvi, and J. R. McNeil, “Optical scatterometry for process metrology,” Proc. SPIE CR72, 129–144 (1999).

Naqvi, S. S. H.

B. K. Minhas, S. A. Coulombe, S. S. H. Naqvi, and J. R. McNeil, “Ellipsometric-Scatterometry for the metrology of sub-0.1 μm linewidth structures,” Appl. Opt. 37(22), 5112–5115 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Raymond, M. R. Murnane, S. S. H. Naqvi, and J. R. McNeil, “Metrology of subwavelength photoresist gratings using optical scatterometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13(4), 1484–1495 (1995).
[Crossref]

Niu, X.

X. Niu, N. Jakatdar, J. Bao, C. Spanos, and S. Yedur, “Specular spectroscopic scatterometry in DUV lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3677, 159–168 (1999).
[Crossref]

Patterson, O. D.

E. Solecky, O. D. Patterson, A. Stamper, E. McLellan, R. Buengener, A. Vaid, C. Hartig, B. Bunday, A. Arceo, and A. Cepler, “In-line e-beam wafer metrology and defect inspection: The end of an era for image-based critical dimensional metrology? New life for defect inspection,” Proc. SPIE 8681, 86810D (2013).
[Crossref]

Paul, A.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Peng, S.

Pommet, D. A.

Price, J.

C. Wang, K.-W. Choi, Y.-C. Chen, J. Price, D. L. Ho, R. L. Jones, C. Soles, E. K. Lin, W.-L. Wu, and B. D. Bunday, “Nonplanar high-k dielectric thickness measurements using CD-SAXS,” Proc. SPIE 7272, 72722M (2009).
[Crossref]

Raymond, C. J.

C. J. Raymond, M. R. Murnane, S. S. H. Naqvi, and J. R. McNeil, “Metrology of subwavelength photoresist gratings using optical scatterometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13(4), 1484–1495 (1995).
[Crossref]

Reed, J. A.

E. M. Dre’ge, J. A. Reed, and D. M. Byrne, “Linearized inversion of scatterometric data to obtain surface profile information,” Opt. Eng. 41(1), 225–236 (2002).
[Crossref]

Settens, C.

B. Bunday, T. A. Germer, V. Vartanian, A. Cordes, A. Cepler, and C. Settens, “Gaps analysis for CD metrology beyond the 22 nm node,” Proc. SPIE 8681, 86813B (2013).
[Crossref]

Sohail, S.

S. Sohail, H. Naqvi, and J. R. McNeil, “Optical scatterometry for process metrology,” Proc. SPIE CR72, 129–144 (1999).

Solecky, E.

E. Solecky, O. D. Patterson, A. Stamper, E. McLellan, R. Buengener, A. Vaid, C. Hartig, B. Bunday, A. Arceo, and A. Cepler, “In-line e-beam wafer metrology and defect inspection: The end of an era for image-based critical dimensional metrology? New life for defect inspection,” Proc. SPIE 8681, 86810D (2013).
[Crossref]

Soles, C.

C. Wang, K.-W. Choi, Y.-C. Chen, J. Price, D. L. Ho, R. L. Jones, C. Soles, E. K. Lin, W.-L. Wu, and B. D. Bunday, “Nonplanar high-k dielectric thickness measurements using CD-SAXS,” Proc. SPIE 7272, 72722M (2009).
[Crossref]

Spanos, C.

X. Niu, N. Jakatdar, J. Bao, C. Spanos, and S. Yedur, “Specular spectroscopic scatterometry in DUV lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3677, 159–168 (1999).
[Crossref]

Stamper, A.

E. Solecky, O. D. Patterson, A. Stamper, E. McLellan, R. Buengener, A. Vaid, C. Hartig, B. Bunday, A. Arceo, and A. Cepler, “In-line e-beam wafer metrology and defect inspection: The end of an era for image-based critical dimensional metrology? New life for defect inspection,” Proc. SPIE 8681, 86810D (2013).
[Crossref]

Tam, A.

B. Bunday, J. Allgair, O. Adan, A. Tam, S. Latinski, and G. Eytan, “Small feature accuracy challenge for CD-SEM metrology physical model solution,” Proc. SPIE 6152, 61520S (2006).
[Crossref]

Terry, F. L.

H. T. Huang and F. L. Terry., “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and reflectometry from gratings (Scatterometry) for critical dimension measurement and in situ, real-time process monitoring,” Thin Solid Films 455–456, 828–836 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. L. Terry., “Accuracy limitations in specular-mode optical topography extraction,” Proc. SPIE 5038, 547 (2003).
[Crossref]

Vaid, A.

E. Solecky, O. D. Patterson, A. Stamper, E. McLellan, R. Buengener, A. Vaid, C. Hartig, B. Bunday, A. Arceo, and A. Cepler, “In-line e-beam wafer metrology and defect inspection: The end of an era for image-based critical dimensional metrology? New life for defect inspection,” Proc. SPIE 8681, 86810D (2013).
[Crossref]

Vartanian, V.

B. Bunday, T. A. Germer, V. Vartanian, A. Cordes, A. Cepler, and C. Settens, “Gaps analysis for CD metrology beyond the 22 nm node,” Proc. SPIE 8681, 86813B (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

C. Wang, K.-W. Choi, Y.-C. Chen, J. Price, D. L. Ho, R. L. Jones, C. Soles, E. K. Lin, W.-L. Wu, and B. D. Bunday, “Nonplanar high-k dielectric thickness measurements using CD-SAXS,” Proc. SPIE 7272, 72722M (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, W.-L.

C. Wang, K.-W. Choi, Y.-C. Chen, J. Price, D. L. Ho, R. L. Jones, C. Soles, E. K. Lin, W.-L. Wu, and B. D. Bunday, “Nonplanar high-k dielectric thickness measurements using CD-SAXS,” Proc. SPIE 7272, 72722M (2009).
[Crossref]

Yedur, S.

X. Niu, N. Jakatdar, J. Bao, C. Spanos, and S. Yedur, “Specular spectroscopic scatterometry in DUV lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3677, 159–168 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. D.

Y. Feng, X. D. Zhang, B. Cheung, Z. Liu, M. Isao, and M. Hayashi, “OCD study of critical dimension and line-shape control of shallow trench-isolation structures,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 1173 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chem. Rev. (1)

C. Bressler and M. Chergui, “Ultrafast X-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 104(4), 1781–1812 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. J. Raymond, M. R. Murnane, S. S. H. Naqvi, and J. R. McNeil, “Metrology of subwavelength photoresist gratings using optical scatterometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13(4), 1484–1495 (1995).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

E. M. Dre’ge, J. A. Reed, and D. M. Byrne, “Linearized inversion of scatterometric data to obtain surface profile information,” Opt. Eng. 41(1), 225–236 (2002).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE (1)

T. K. Gaylord and M. G. Moharam, “Analysis and applications of optical diffraction by gratings,” Proc. IEEE 73(5), 894–937 (1985).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (10)

X. Niu, N. Jakatdar, J. Bao, C. Spanos, and S. Yedur, “Specular spectroscopic scatterometry in DUV lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3677, 159–168 (1999).
[Crossref]

Y. Nagata, T. Harada, M. Nakasuji, H. Kinoshita, and K. Midorikawa, “Development of coherent EUV scatterometry microscope with high-order harmonic for EUV mask inspection,” Proc. SPIE 8849, 884914 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Feng, X. D. Zhang, B. Cheung, Z. Liu, M. Isao, and M. Hayashi, “OCD study of critical dimension and line-shape control of shallow trench-isolation structures,” Proc. SPIE 5375, 1173 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. L. Terry., “Accuracy limitations in specular-mode optical topography extraction,” Proc. SPIE 5038, 547 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. C. Logofătu, “UV scatterometry,” Proc. SPIE 5038, 208 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. Bunday, T. A. Germer, V. Vartanian, A. Cordes, A. Cepler, and C. Settens, “Gaps analysis for CD metrology beyond the 22 nm node,” Proc. SPIE 8681, 86813B (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Solecky, O. D. Patterson, A. Stamper, E. McLellan, R. Buengener, A. Vaid, C. Hartig, B. Bunday, A. Arceo, and A. Cepler, “In-line e-beam wafer metrology and defect inspection: The end of an era for image-based critical dimensional metrology? New life for defect inspection,” Proc. SPIE 8681, 86810D (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Bunday, J. Allgair, O. Adan, A. Tam, S. Latinski, and G. Eytan, “Small feature accuracy challenge for CD-SEM metrology physical model solution,” Proc. SPIE 6152, 61520S (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, K.-W. Choi, Y.-C. Chen, J. Price, D. L. Ho, R. L. Jones, C. Soles, E. K. Lin, W.-L. Wu, and B. D. Bunday, “Nonplanar high-k dielectric thickness measurements using CD-SAXS,” Proc. SPIE 7272, 72722M (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Cordes, B. Bunday, and E. Cottrell, “Sidewall slope sensitivity of CD-AFM,” Proc. SPIE 8105, 810506 (2011).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

H. T. Huang and F. L. Terry., “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and reflectometry from gratings (Scatterometry) for critical dimension measurement and in situ, real-time process monitoring,” Thin Solid Films 455–456, 828–836 (2004).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

S. Sohail, H. Naqvi, and J. R. McNeil, “Optical scatterometry for process metrology,” Proc. SPIE CR72, 129–144 (1999).

ITRS Metrology2013.

H. W. Sun, P. C. Huang, Y. H. Tzeng, R. T. Huang, M. C. Chen, C. D. Lin, and C. Jin, “Extended phase matching of high harmonic generation driven by truncated beams in tight focusing geometry,” Proc. CLEO_QELS, FF2M.5 (2016).
[Crossref]

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernandez-Garcia, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaro -Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. PNAS 111(23), E2361–E2367 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A schematic diagram of the EUV scatterometer
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Theoretical reflectivity from an Au grating target with incident wavelengths (a) 500 and (b) 29 nm, for a fixed incidence angle of 45°, depth 10 nm, and 90° side-wall angles. The grating linewidth varies from 10 to 60 nm with a fixed pitch 100 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Theoretical reflectivity from an Au-grating target, for incident wavelengths (a) 500 and (b) 29 nm, a fixed incidence angle of 45°, pitch 100 nm (duty cycle 50%), and 90° side-wall angles. The grating depth varies from 10 to 50 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Theoretical first-order diffraction from an Au-grating as functions of (a) the CD, (b) depth and (c) side wall angle. The incident angle is 45°, and the pitch 100 nm. In (a), the CD ranges from 40 to 60 nm, the depth is 10 nm, and the side wall angle is 90°. In (b), the depth ranges from 10 to 50 nm, for a fixed CD of 50 nm and side wall angle of 90°. In (c), the sidewall angle ranges from 85° to 90°, the CD and the depth are 50 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Schematic diagram of the geometrical arrangement of the EUV scatterometer, operated in calibration mode. (b) Measured diffraction image spectrum from a gold-coated reflection grating with a density of 1200 lines per millimeter. The upper section is a typical diffraction image, as viewed in the CCD window. The lower panel plots the total CCD counts, summed vertically along each column of 2048 pixels.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Theoretical reflectivity ratio of first-order diffraction from an Au-grating plotted as functions of (a) the CD (b) the grating depth and (c) the side wall angle. In (a), the CD ranges from 40 to 60 nm with a constant depth of 10 nm and a fixed side wall angle of 90°; in (b), the depth varies from 10 to 50 nm for a constant CD of 50 nm and a fixed side wall angle of 90°; in (c), the side wall angle varies from 85° to 90° for a constant CD of 50 nm and a fixed grating depth of 50 nm. In those three cases, the incident angle is 45°, the pitch 100 nm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Schematic diagram of the geometrical configuration of the EUV scatterometer operated in measurement mode. (b) Measured diffraction image spectrum from an etched silicon grating with a density of 1200 lines per millimeter. The upper section is the diffraction image, as viewed in the CCD window. The lower panel plots the total CCD counts, summed vertically along each column of 2048 pixels.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Reconstructed grating profile based on the best match results, for parameters including CD, grating depth, and side-wall angle. (b) Cross-sectional SEM image.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Schematic diagrams of the geometrical arrangements of the EUV scatterometer with incident angles of (a) 56.25° and (b) 36.95°, used to collect the m =+ 1 and −1 diffracted beams, respectively. Corresponding acquired diffraction image spectra are given in (b) and (d).
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) Reconstructed grating profile based on the best match results, for parameters including CD, grating depth, and side-wall angle. (b) Cross-sectional SEM image.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 HHG orders and wavelength calibration

Tables Icon

Table 2 1200 lines/mm etched silicon grating match results

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Table 3 7200 lines/mm etched silicon grating match results

Equations (3)

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mλ=d(sin θ i +sin θ m )
± λ n =d( sin θ i +sin θ ±1 ( λ n ) )
θ +1 ( λ n )=arctan ( D n (m=+1) L ) ; θ 1 ( λ n )=arctan( D n (m=1) L )

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