Abstract

We demonstrate a compact (30 μm long) broadband bilayer inverse taper edge-coupler for silicon photonics with a 1.7 dB coupling loss from a commercially available focused fiber with 5 μm mode diameter. We compare the performance of our bilayer taper with a conventional SOI inverse taper coupler and show that our bilayer coupler achieves between 1.5 dB to 2 dB improvement in the coupling efficiencies for both the TE and TM polarizations. The dimensions and fabrication steps for our bilayer taper are simple and compatible with standard foundry processes.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (1)

2014 (3)

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, U. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–29 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, H. Yun, W. Shi, R. Bojko, N. A. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Focusing sub-wavelength grating couplers with low back reflections for rapid prototyping of silicon photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20652–20662 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, K. Luke, L.-W. Luo, P. A. Morton, and M. Lipson, “High coupling efficiency etched facet tapers in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(23), 2380–2382 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

J. K. Doylend and A. P. Knights, “The evolution of silicon photonics as an enabling technology for optical interconnection,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 504–525 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Wood, P. Sun, and R. M. Reano, “Compact cantilever couplers for low-loss fiber coupling to silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 20(1), 164–172 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, C. Young-Kai, and L. Tsung-Yang, “Low-loss and broadband cantilever couplers between standard cleaved fibers and high-index-contrast SiN or Si waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(3), 1744–1746 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Khilo, M. A. Popović, M. Araghchini, and F. X. Kärtner, “Efficient planar fiber-to-chip coupler based on two-stage adiabatic evolution,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15790–15806 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, J. F. Song, C. W. Tan, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Suspended optical fiber-to-waveguide mode size converter for silicon photonics,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7763–7769 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. B. Bakir, A. V. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers 2010,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

X. Chen and H. K. Tsang, “Nanoholes grating couplers for coupling between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 184–190 (2009).

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, E. P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, L. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, “Fabrication of lithographically defined optical coupling facets for silicon-on-insulator waveguides by inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 812–816 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Dai and S. He, “Bilevel mode converter between a silicon nanowire waveguide and a larger waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(6), 2428–2433 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, “Subwavelength waveguide grating for mode conversion and light coupling in integrated optics,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4695–4702 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

M. T. W. Ang, G. T. Reed, A. P. Vonsovici, A. G. R. Evans, P. R. Routley, T. Blackburn, and M. R. Josey, “Grating couplers using silicon-on-insulator,” Proc. SPIE 79, 3620 (1999).

Almeida, V. R.

Alonso-Ramos, C.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, U. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–29 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ang, M. T. W.

M. T. W. Ang, G. T. Reed, A. P. Vonsovici, A. G. R. Evans, P. R. Routley, T. Blackburn, and M. R. Josey, “Grating couplers using silicon-on-insulator,” Proc. SPIE 79, 3620 (1999).

Araghchini, M.

Bakir, B. B.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. B. Bakir, A. V. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers 2010,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

Barkai, A.

Bernabé, S.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Blackburn, T.

M. T. W. Ang, G. T. Reed, A. P. Vonsovici, A. G. R. Evans, P. R. Routley, T. Blackburn, and M. R. Josey, “Grating couplers using silicon-on-insulator,” Proc. SPIE 79, 3620 (1999).

Bock, P. J.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, U. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–29 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bogdanov, A.

K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, E. P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, L. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, “Fabrication of lithographically defined optical coupling facets for silicon-on-insulator waveguides by inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 812–816 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bojko, R.

Cardenas, J.

J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, K. Luke, L.-W. Luo, P. A. Morton, and M. Lipson, “High coupling efficiency etched facet tapers in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(23), 2380–2382 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chang, H.-H.

Cheben, P.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, U. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–29 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, “Subwavelength waveguide grating for mode conversion and light coupling in integrated optics,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4695–4702 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, C. Young-Kai, and L. Tsung-Yang, “Low-loss and broadband cantilever couplers between standard cleaved fibers and high-index-contrast SiN or Si waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(3), 1744–1746 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

X. Chen and H. K. Tsang, “Nanoholes grating couplers for coupling between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 184–190 (2009).

Chow-Chong, E. P.

K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, E. P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, L. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, “Fabrication of lithographically defined optical coupling facets for silicon-on-insulator waveguides by inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 812–816 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chrostowski, L.

Cohen, R.

Dai, D.

De Dobbelaere, P.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

de Gyves, A. V.

B. B. Bakir, A. V. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers 2010,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

Delâge, A.

K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, E. P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, L. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, “Fabrication of lithographically defined optical coupling facets for silicon-on-insulator waveguides by inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 812–816 (2006).
[Crossref]

Densmore, A.

Doerr, C. R.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, C. Young-Kai, and L. Tsung-Yang, “Low-loss and broadband cantilever couplers between standard cleaved fibers and high-index-contrast SiN or Si waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(3), 1744–1746 (2010).
[Crossref]

Doylend, J. K.

J. K. Doylend and A. P. Knights, “The evolution of silicon photonics as an enabling technology for optical interconnection,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 504–525 (2012).
[Crossref]

Elek, N.

Evans, A. G. R.

M. T. W. Ang, G. T. Reed, A. P. Vonsovici, A. G. R. Evans, P. R. Routley, T. Blackburn, and M. R. Josey, “Grating couplers using silicon-on-insulator,” Proc. SPIE 79, 3620 (1999).

Fang, Q.

Fedeli, J.-M.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. B. Bakir, A. V. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers 2010,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

Flueckiger, J.

Gabay, R.

Galán, J. V.

Gloeckner, S.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gualous, H.

Halir, R.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, U. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–29 (2014).
[Crossref]

He, S.

Huang, Y.

Hvam, J. M.

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
[Crossref]

Izhaky, N.

Jaeger, N. A.

Janz, S.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, U. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–29 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, E. P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, L. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, “Fabrication of lithographically defined optical coupling facets for silicon-on-insulator waveguides by inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 812–816 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, “Subwavelength waveguide grating for mode conversion and light coupling in integrated optics,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4695–4702 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jones, R.

Josey, M. R.

M. T. W. Ang, G. T. Reed, A. P. Vonsovici, A. G. R. Evans, P. R. Routley, T. Blackburn, and M. R. Josey, “Grating couplers using silicon-on-insulator,” Proc. SPIE 79, 3620 (1999).

Kärtner, F. X.

Khilo, A.

Kim, D.

Knights, A. P.

J. K. Doylend and A. P. Knights, “The evolution of silicon photonics as an enabling technology for optical interconnection,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 504–525 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kopp, C.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Koster, A.

Kwong, D.-L.

Lamontagne, B.

K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, E. P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, L. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, “Fabrication of lithographically defined optical coupling facets for silicon-on-insulator waveguides by inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 812–816 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lapointe, J.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, U. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–29 (2014).
[Crossref]

Laval, S.

Layadi, A.

Liow, T.-Y.

Lipson, M.

J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, K. Luke, L.-W. Luo, P. A. Morton, and M. Lipson, “High coupling efficiency etched facet tapers in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(23), 2380–2382 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett. 28(15), 1302–1304 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

Liu, L.

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, L. Y.

K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, E. P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, L. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, “Fabrication of lithographically defined optical coupling facets for silicon-on-insulator waveguides by inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 812–816 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lo, G. Q.

Luke, K.

J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, K. Luke, L.-W. Luo, P. A. Morton, and M. Lipson, “High coupling efficiency etched facet tapers in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(23), 2380–2382 (2014).
[Crossref]

Luo, L.-W.

J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, K. Luke, L.-W. Luo, P. A. Morton, and M. Lipson, “High coupling efficiency etched facet tapers in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(23), 2380–2382 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lyan, P.

B. B. Bakir, A. V. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers 2010,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

Malik, B. H.

Malloy, M.

K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, E. P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, L. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, “Fabrication of lithographically defined optical coupling facets for silicon-on-insulator waveguides by inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 812–816 (2006).
[Crossref]

Marshall, P.

K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, E. P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, L. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, “Fabrication of lithographically defined optical coupling facets for silicon-on-insulator waveguides by inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 812–816 (2006).
[Crossref]

Martí, J.

Masini, G.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

McNab, S.

Mekis, A.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Molina-Fernández, U.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, U. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–29 (2014).
[Crossref]

Moll, N.

Morita, H.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

Morton, P. A.

J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, K. Luke, L.-W. Luo, P. A. Morton, and M. Lipson, “High coupling efficiency etched facet tapers in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(23), 2380–2382 (2014).
[Crossref]

Narasimha, A.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Orobtchouk, R.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. B. Bakir, A. V. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers 2010,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Orobtchouk, A. Layadi, H. Gualous, D. Pascal, A. Koster, and S. Laval, “High-efficiency light coupling in a submicrometric silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 39(31), 5773–5777 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ortega-Moñux, A.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, U. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–29 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ou, H.

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
[Crossref]

Panepucci, R. R.

Paniccia, M.

Pascal, D.

Picard, M.

K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, E. P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, L. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, “Fabrication of lithographically defined optical coupling facets for silicon-on-insulator waveguides by inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 812–816 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pinguet, T.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Poitras, C. B.

J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, K. Luke, L.-W. Luo, P. A. Morton, and M. Lipson, “High coupling efficiency etched facet tapers in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(23), 2380–2382 (2014).
[Crossref]

Poon, J. K. S.

Popovic, M. A.

Porte, H.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Porzier, C.

B. B. Bakir, A. V. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers 2010,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

Post, E.

K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, E. P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, L. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, “Fabrication of lithographically defined optical coupling facets for silicon-on-insulator waveguides by inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 812–816 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pu, M.

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
[Crossref]

Reano, R. M.

Reed, G. T.

M. T. W. Ang, G. T. Reed, A. P. Vonsovici, A. G. R. Evans, P. R. Routley, T. Blackburn, and M. R. Josey, “Grating couplers using silicon-on-insulator,” Proc. SPIE 79, 3620 (1999).

Roman, A.

B. B. Bakir, A. V. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers 2010,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

Roth, D.

K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, E. P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, L. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, “Fabrication of lithographically defined optical coupling facets for silicon-on-insulator waveguides by inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 812–816 (2006).
[Crossref]

Routley, P. R.

M. T. W. Ang, G. T. Reed, A. P. Vonsovici, A. G. R. Evans, P. R. Routley, T. Blackburn, and M. R. Josey, “Grating couplers using silicon-on-insulator,” Proc. SPIE 79, 3620 (1999).

Sacher, W. D.

Sahni, S.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sánchez, G.

Sanchis, P.

Schmid, J. H.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, U. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–29 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schrank, F.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shi, W.

Shoji, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

Song, J. F.

Sun, P.

Syrett, B.

K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, E. P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, L. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, “Fabrication of lithographically defined optical coupling facets for silicon-on-insulator waveguides by inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 812–816 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tan, C. W.

Tekin, T.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tsang, H. K.

X. Chen and H. K. Tsang, “Nanoholes grating couplers for coupling between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 184–190 (2009).

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tsung-Yang, L.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, C. Young-Kai, and L. Tsung-Yang, “Low-loss and broadband cantilever couplers between standard cleaved fibers and high-index-contrast SiN or Si waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(3), 1744–1746 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vlasov, Y.

Vonsovici, A. P.

M. T. W. Ang, G. T. Reed, A. P. Vonsovici, A. G. R. Evans, P. R. Routley, T. Blackburn, and M. R. Josey, “Grating couplers using silicon-on-insulator,” Proc. SPIE 79, 3620 (1999).

Wang, X.

Wang, Y.

Wangüemert-Pérez, J. G.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, U. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–29 (2014).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wood, M.

Xu, D.-X.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, U. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–29 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, “Subwavelength waveguide grating for mode conversion and light coupling in integrated optics,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4695–4702 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamada, K.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yap, K. P.

K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, E. P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, L. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, “Fabrication of lithographically defined optical coupling facets for silicon-on-insulator waveguides by inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 812–816 (2006).
[Crossref]

Young-Kai, C.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, C. Young-Kai, and L. Tsung-Yang, “Low-loss and broadband cantilever couplers between standard cleaved fibers and high-index-contrast SiN or Si waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(3), 1744–1746 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, M. B.

Yun, H.

Yvind, K.

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zimmermann, L.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

C. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

X. Chen and H. K. Tsang, “Nanoholes grating couplers for coupling between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(3), 184–190 (2009).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, K. Luke, L.-W. Luo, P. A. Morton, and M. Lipson, “High coupling efficiency etched facet tapers in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(23), 2380–2382 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. B. Bakir, A. V. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers 2010,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, C. Young-Kai, and L. Tsung-Yang, “Low-loss and broadband cantilever couplers between standard cleaved fibers and high-index-contrast SiN or Si waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(3), 1744–1746 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

K. P. Yap, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Janz, A. Bogdanov, M. Picard, E. Post, E. P. Chow-Chong, M. Malloy, D. Roth, P. Marshall, L. Y. Liu, and B. Syrett, “Fabrication of lithographically defined optical coupling facets for silicon-on-insulator waveguides by inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 812–816 (2006).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (2)

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, U. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–29 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. K. Doylend and A. P. Knights, “The evolution of silicon photonics as an enabling technology for optical interconnection,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 504–525 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, J. F. Song, C. W. Tan, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Suspended optical fiber-to-waveguide mode size converter for silicon photonics,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7763–7769 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wood, P. Sun, and R. M. Reano, “Compact cantilever couplers for low-loss fiber coupling to silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 20(1), 164–172 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. McNab, N. Moll, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultra-low loss photonic integrated circuit with membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 11(22), 2927–2939 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. V. Galán, P. Sanchis, G. Sánchez, and J. Martí, “Polarization insensitive low-loss coupling technique between SOI waveguides and high mode field diameter single-mode fibers,” Opt. Express 15(11), 7058–7065 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Khilo, M. A. Popović, M. Araghchini, and F. X. Kärtner, “Efficient planar fiber-to-chip coupler based on two-stage adiabatic evolution,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15790–15806 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, H. Yun, W. Shi, R. Bojko, N. A. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Focusing sub-wavelength grating couplers with low back reflections for rapid prototyping of silicon photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20652–20662 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, “Subwavelength waveguide grating for mode conversion and light coupling in integrated optics,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4695–4702 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. T. W. Ang, G. T. Reed, A. P. Vonsovici, A. G. R. Evans, P. R. Routley, T. Blackburn, and M. R. Josey, “Grating couplers using silicon-on-insulator,” Proc. SPIE 79, 3620 (1999).

Other (2)

Lumerical Solutions, Inc., http://www.lumerical.com/tcad-products/fdtd/

C. M. C. Microsystems, Canada. http://www.cmc.ca/en/WhatWeOffer/Make/LaserCleaving.aspx

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Effective mode index as a function of Si waveguide width for a waveguide height of 220 nm (dashed line) and 150 nm (solid line) with an oxide over-layer on the SOI wafer.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematics of the proposed bilayer taper. (a) A 3D artistic impression. (b) A top view of the taper structure with different important design parameters. The green portion indicates the partially etched silicon with 150 nm height, while the orange portion indicates the full 220 nm height silicon section. TOx and BOx denotes the top oxide cladding and the bottom oxide layer of an SOI chip.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Simulated TE and TM mode coupling losses of the proposed bilayer taper when LTot = 30 μm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Top view schematics of the fabrication steps for the bilayer inverse taper including the metal alignment markers on the chip. (b) Fabrication steps of the bilayer inverse taper along the cross-sectional plane. The projection of only the front facet of the cross section at the plane is shown to avoid confusion.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematic diagram of the sample with three measurement groups of waveguides (M1, M2 and M3). Each measurement group has a “reference inverse taper” (top) and a bilayer inverse taper (bottom) Loffset is the offset distance between each measurement group. The sample was cleaved at the distance Lcleave from the left edge of the wafer. The right edge was cleaved abruptly, so all the waveguides terminated at the edge. M′ at the top is the group of facet cleaved waveguides for propagation loss measurement.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measurement setups for, (a) a free space coupling using objective input lens, (b) a focused single mode fiber input with 5 μm MFD.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measured spectral responses of the bilayer inverse taper and the reference inverse taper. Light was coupled from a non-polarization maintaining lensed fiber of 5 μm mode field diameter.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of the Bilayer Taper performance with other Inverse Taper designs in literature

Metrics