Abstract

In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate space-division-multiplexed (SDM) transmission of IEEE 802.11ac-compliant 3-spatial-stream WLAN signals over 3 spatial modes of conventional 50um graded-index (GI) multimode fiber (MMF) employing non-mode-selective 3D-waveguide photonic lantern. Two kinds of scenarios, including fiber-only transmission and fiber-wireless hybrid transmission, were investigated by measuring error vector magnitude (EVM) performance for each stream and condition number (CN) of the channel matrix. The experimental results show that, SDM-based MMF link could offer a CN< 20dB well-conditioned MIMO channel over up to 1km fiber length within 0-6GHz, achieving as low as 2.38%, 2.97% and 2.11% EVM performance for 1km MMF link at 2.4GHz, 5.8GHz, and 200m MMF link followed by 1m air distance at 2.7GHz, respectively. These results indicate the possibility to distribute wireless MIMO signals over existing in-building commercially-available MMFs with enormous cost-saving.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (2)

M. Morant, A. Macho, and R. Llorente, “On the suitability of multicore fiber for LTE–advanced MIMO optical fronthaul systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 676–682 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Mikroulis, M. P. Thakur, and J. E. Mitchell, “Evaluation of OOK and OFDM on an SMF-MMF-SMF link targeting a PON/60-GHz topology for beyond 4G,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 449–452 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (5)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

A. Tarighat, R. C. J. Hsu, A. Shah, A. H. Sayed, and B. Jalali, “Fundamentals and challenges of optical multiple-input multiple-output multimode fiber links,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45(5), 57–63 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

C. P. Tsekrekos, A. Martinez, F. M. Huijskens, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Design considerations for a transparent mode group diversity multiplexing link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(22), 2359–2361 (2006).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

H. R. Stuart, “Dispersive multiplexing in multimode optical fiber,” Science 289(5477), 281–283 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aighobahi, A. E.

Argyros, A.

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

Chen, H.

Chen, H. S.

Correa, R. A.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Crisp, M. J.

de Waardt, H.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ercan, B.

Esmaeelpour, M.

Fan, Y.

Fontaine, N. K.

Gnauck, A. H.

Gomes, N. J.

Gordon, G. S. D.

Guan, B.

Guan, B. B.

Hsu, R. C. J.

A. Tarighat, R. C. J. Hsu, A. Shah, A. H. Sayed, and B. Jalali, “Fundamentals and challenges of optical multiple-input multiple-output multimode fiber links,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45(5), 57–63 (2007).
[Crossref]

Huang, B.

Huijskens, F. M.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. P. Tsekrekos, A. Martinez, F. M. Huijskens, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Design considerations for a transparent mode group diversity multiplexing link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(22), 2359–2361 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jalali, B.

A. Tarighat, R. C. J. Hsu, A. Shah, A. H. Sayed, and B. Jalali, “Fundamentals and challenges of optical multiple-input multiple-output multimode fiber links,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45(5), 57–63 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jerzy, S.

M. Lukasz and S. Jerzy, “Two channels WiFi MIMO transmission over typical GI multimode fibers,” in Proceedings of IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2012), pp. 894–899.

Jun-ichi, K.

M. Kenji, T. Takayoshi, H. Takeshi, T. Katsutoshi, K. Shozo, H. Kazutaka, T. Tomohiro, K. Jun-ichi, Y. Naoto, and I. Katsumi, “Experimental demonstration of MIMO RF signal transmission in RoF-DAS over WDM-PON,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics - Jointly Held with the 2011 Asia-Pacific Microwave Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2011), pp.25–28.

Katsumi, I.

M. Kenji, T. Takayoshi, H. Takeshi, T. Katsutoshi, K. Shozo, H. Kazutaka, T. Tomohiro, K. Jun-ichi, Y. Naoto, and I. Katsumi, “Experimental demonstration of MIMO RF signal transmission in RoF-DAS over WDM-PON,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics - Jointly Held with the 2011 Asia-Pacific Microwave Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2011), pp.25–28.

Katsutoshi, T.

M. Kenji, T. Takayoshi, H. Takeshi, T. Katsutoshi, K. Shozo, H. Kazutaka, T. Tomohiro, K. Jun-ichi, Y. Naoto, and I. Katsumi, “Experimental demonstration of MIMO RF signal transmission in RoF-DAS over WDM-PON,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics - Jointly Held with the 2011 Asia-Pacific Microwave Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2011), pp.25–28.

Kazutaka, H.

M. Kenji, T. Takayoshi, H. Takeshi, T. Katsutoshi, K. Shozo, H. Kazutaka, T. Tomohiro, K. Jun-ichi, Y. Naoto, and I. Katsumi, “Experimental demonstration of MIMO RF signal transmission in RoF-DAS over WDM-PON,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics - Jointly Held with the 2011 Asia-Pacific Microwave Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2011), pp.25–28.

Kenji, M.

M. Kenji, T. Takayoshi, H. Takeshi, T. Katsutoshi, K. Shozo, H. Kazutaka, T. Tomohiro, K. Jun-ichi, Y. Naoto, and I. Katsumi, “Experimental demonstration of MIMO RF signal transmission in RoF-DAS over WDM-PON,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics - Jointly Held with the 2011 Asia-Pacific Microwave Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2011), pp.25–28.

Koonen, A. M. J.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, B. Guan, B. Huang, M. Esmaeelpour, A. H. Gnauck, S. Randel, S. J. B. Yoo, A. M. J. Koonen, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, and R. Lingle., “Mode-multiplexed transmission over conventional graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23(1), 235–246 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. J. Koonen and E. Tangdiongga, “Photonic home area networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(4), 591–604 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. G. H. van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. P. Tsekrekos, A. Martinez, F. M. Huijskens, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Design considerations for a transparent mode group diversity multiplexing link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(22), 2359–2361 (2006).
[Crossref]

Koonen, T.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Li, G.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Lingle, R.

Llorente, R.

Lopez, E. A.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lukasz, M.

M. Lukasz and S. Jerzy, “Two channels WiFi MIMO transmission over typical GI multimode fibers,” in Proceedings of IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2012), pp. 894–899.

Macho, A.

Martinez, A.

C. P. Tsekrekos, A. Martinez, F. M. Huijskens, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Design considerations for a transparent mode group diversity multiplexing link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(22), 2359–2361 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mikroulis, S.

S. Mikroulis, M. P. Thakur, and J. E. Mitchell, “Evaluation of OOK and OFDM on an SMF-MMF-SMF link targeting a PON/60-GHz topology for beyond 4G,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 449–452 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mitchell, J. E.

S. Mikroulis, M. P. Thakur, and J. E. Mitchell, “Evaluation of OOK and OFDM on an SMF-MMF-SMF link targeting a PON/60-GHz topology for beyond 4G,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 449–452 (2016).
[Crossref]

Morant, M.

Naoto, Y.

M. Kenji, T. Takayoshi, H. Takeshi, T. Katsutoshi, K. Shozo, H. Kazutaka, T. Tomohiro, K. Jun-ichi, Y. Naoto, and I. Katsumi, “Experimental demonstration of MIMO RF signal transmission in RoF-DAS over WDM-PON,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics - Jointly Held with the 2011 Asia-Pacific Microwave Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2011), pp.25–28.

Okonkwo, C. M.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Penty, R. V.

Prat, J.

Randel, S.

Ryf, R.

Salazar-Gil, J. R.

Sayed, A. H.

A. Tarighat, R. C. J. Hsu, A. Shah, A. H. Sayed, and B. Jalali, “Fundamentals and challenges of optical multiple-input multiple-output multimode fiber links,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45(5), 57–63 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schülzgen, A.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shah, A.

A. Tarighat, R. C. J. Hsu, A. Shah, A. H. Sayed, and B. Jalali, “Fundamentals and challenges of optical multiple-input multiple-output multimode fiber links,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45(5), 57–63 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shozo, K.

M. Kenji, T. Takayoshi, H. Takeshi, T. Katsutoshi, K. Shozo, H. Kazutaka, T. Tomohiro, K. Jun-ichi, Y. Naoto, and I. Katsumi, “Experimental demonstration of MIMO RF signal transmission in RoF-DAS over WDM-PON,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics - Jointly Held with the 2011 Asia-Pacific Microwave Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2011), pp.25–28.

Shubochkin, R.

Siuzdak, J.

Stuart, H. R.

H. R. Stuart, “Dispersive multiplexing in multimode optical fiber,” Science 289(5477), 281–283 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

Takayoshi, T.

M. Kenji, T. Takayoshi, H. Takeshi, T. Katsutoshi, K. Shozo, H. Kazutaka, T. Tomohiro, K. Jun-ichi, Y. Naoto, and I. Katsumi, “Experimental demonstration of MIMO RF signal transmission in RoF-DAS over WDM-PON,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics - Jointly Held with the 2011 Asia-Pacific Microwave Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2011), pp.25–28.

Takeshi, H.

M. Kenji, T. Takayoshi, H. Takeshi, T. Katsutoshi, K. Shozo, H. Kazutaka, T. Tomohiro, K. Jun-ichi, Y. Naoto, and I. Katsumi, “Experimental demonstration of MIMO RF signal transmission in RoF-DAS over WDM-PON,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics - Jointly Held with the 2011 Asia-Pacific Microwave Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2011), pp.25–28.

Tangdiongga, E.

Tarighat, A.

A. Tarighat, R. C. J. Hsu, A. Shah, A. H. Sayed, and B. Jalali, “Fundamentals and challenges of optical multiple-input multiple-output multimode fiber links,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45(5), 57–63 (2007).
[Crossref]

Thakur, M. P.

S. Mikroulis, M. P. Thakur, and J. E. Mitchell, “Evaluation of OOK and OFDM on an SMF-MMF-SMF link targeting a PON/60-GHz topology for beyond 4G,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 449–452 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tomohiro, T.

M. Kenji, T. Takayoshi, H. Takeshi, T. Katsutoshi, K. Shozo, H. Kazutaka, T. Tomohiro, K. Jun-ichi, Y. Naoto, and I. Katsumi, “Experimental demonstration of MIMO RF signal transmission in RoF-DAS over WDM-PON,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics - Jointly Held with the 2011 Asia-Pacific Microwave Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2011), pp.25–28.

Tsekrekos, C. P.

C. P. Tsekrekos, A. Martinez, F. M. Huijskens, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Design considerations for a transparent mode group diversity multiplexing link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(22), 2359–2361 (2006).
[Crossref]

van Uden, R. G. H.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

White, I. H.

Wilkinson, T. D.

Xia, C.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, K.

Yoo, S. J. B.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

A. Tarighat, R. C. J. Hsu, A. Shah, A. H. Sayed, and B. Jalali, “Fundamentals and challenges of optical multiple-input multiple-output multimode fiber links,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45(5), 57–63 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

C. P. Tsekrekos, A. Martinez, F. M. Huijskens, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Design considerations for a transparent mode group diversity multiplexing link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(22), 2359–2361 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Mikroulis, M. P. Thakur, and J. E. Mitchell, “Evaluation of OOK and OFDM on an SMF-MMF-SMF link targeting a PON/60-GHz topology for beyond 4G,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(4), 449–452 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (6)

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. G. H. van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Science (1)

H. R. Stuart, “Dispersive multiplexing in multimode optical fiber,” Science 289(5477), 281–283 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (10)

N. K. Fontaine, “Photonic lantern spatial multiplexers in space-division multiplexing,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (IEEE, 2013), pp.97–98.
[Crossref]

B. B. Guan, B. Ercan, N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. S. Chen, R. P. Scott, Y. M. Zhang, and S. J. B. Yoo, “15-spatial-mode photonic lanterns based on ultrafast laser inscription,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, 2015 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Mo.4.2.5.
[Crossref]

M. Lukasz and S. Jerzy, “Two channels WiFi MIMO transmission over typical GI multimode fibers,” in Proceedings of IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2012), pp. 894–899.

P. J. Winzer, “Spatial multiplexing: the next frontier in network capacity scaling,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, 2013 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper We.1.D.1.
[Crossref]

M. J. Crisp, S. Li, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Demonstration of radio over fibre distributed antenna network for combined in-building WLAN and 3G coverage,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, 2007 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper JThA81.
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup for SDM-based MIMO transmission over a single MMF (a); Picture of the 3D-waveguide photonic lantern (b); Optical spectrum of the DFB laser(c); Refractive index profile of the 50um GI-MMF (d).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 CN of the channel matrix (solid lines) and required average power penalty (dash lines) within 0-6GHz.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured channel coefficients and associated CNs as a function of subcarrier frequency within 80MHz bandwidth for different RoF links and carrier frequencies: (a) B2B at 2.4GHz; (b) 200m at 2.4GHz; (c) 1km at 2.4GHz; (d) B2B at 5.8GHz; (e) 200m at 5.8GHz; (f) 1km at 5.8GHz.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 EVM performance against RF input power (a) and received constellation diagrams (b) for 3x3 MIMO signals transmission at 2.4GHz.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 EVM performance against RF input power (a) and received constellation diagrams (b) for 3x3 MIMO signals transmission at 5.8GHz.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured channel coefficients and associated CNs as a function of subcarrier frequency within 80MHz bandwidth for B2B scenario with different optical tx power: (a) 6.5dBm; (b) 4.5dBm; (c) 2.5dBm; (d) 0.5dBm; (e) −1.5dBm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measured channel coefficients and associated CNs as a function of subcarrier frequency within 80MHz bandwidth for 200m MMF link with different optical tx power: (a) 6.5dBm; (b) 4.5dBm; (c) 2.5dBm; (d) 0.5dBm; (e) −1.5dBm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 EVM performance of fiber-wireless hybrid transmission for different optical tx power.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Parameters of 3x3 MIMO wireless signal setup.

Equations (3)

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C = log 2 { det [ I N + ρ N H H ] } b i t s / s / H z
C N ( d B ) = 20 × log 10 σ max σ min 0 d B
S N R j = S N R 1 i = 1 N | h j i | 2 , i = j = 1 , ... , N

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