Abstract

In situ investigation of microbial life in extreme environments can be carried out with microscopes capable of imaging 3-dimensional volumes and tracking particle motion. Here we present a lensless digital holographic microscope approach that provides roughly 1.5 micron resolution in a compact, robust package suitable for remote deployment. High resolution is achieved by generating high numerical-aperture input beams with radial gradient-index rod lenses. The ability to detect and track prokaryotes was explored using bacterial strains of two different sizes. In the larger strain, a variety of motions were seen, while the smaller strain was used to demonstrate a detection capability down to micron scales.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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2016 (2)

J. Nadeau, C. Lindensmith, J. W. Deming, V. I. Fernandez, and R. Stocker, “Microbial morphology and motility as biosignatures for outer planet missions,” Astrobiology 16(10), 755–774 (2016), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Lindensmith, S. Rider, M. Bedrossian, J. K. Wallace, E. Serabyn, G. M. Showalter, J. W. Deming, and J. L. Nadeau, “A submersible, off-axis holographic microscope for detection of microbial motility and morphology in aqueous and icy environemnts,” PLoS One 11(1), e0147700 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

2014 (2)

C. Remacha, B. S. Nickerson, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Tomography by point source digital holographic microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 53(16), 3520–3527 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Pushkarsky, Y. Liu, W. Weaver, T.-W. Su, O. Mudanyali, A. Ozcan, and D. Di Carlo, “Automated single-cell motility analysis on a chip using lensfree microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4717 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (1)

T.-W. Su, I. Choi, J. Feng, K. Huang, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Sperm trajectories form chiral ribbons,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1664 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

T.-W. Su, L. Xue, and A. Ozcan, “High-throughput lensfree 3D tracking of human sperms reveals rare statistics of helical trajectories,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(40), 16018–16022 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Edgett, R. A. Yingst, M. A. Ravine, M. A. Caplinger, J. N. Maki, F. T. Ghaemi, J. A. Schaffner, J. F. Bell, L. J. Edwards, K. E. Herkenhoff, E. Heydari, L. C. Kah, M. T. Lemmon, M. E. Minitti, T. S. Olson, T. J. Parker, S. K. Rowland, J. Schieber, R. J. Sullivan, D. Y. Sumner, P. C. Thomas, E. H. Jensen, J. J. Simmonds, A. J. Sengstacken, R. G. Willson, and W. Goetz, “Curiosity’s Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation,” Space Sci. Rev. 170(1-4), 259–317 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Jericho, H. J. Kreuzer, M. Kanka, and R. Riesenberg, “Quantitative phase and refractive index measurements with point-source digital in-line holographic microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 51(10), 1503–1515 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

K. Sato and O. Murata, “Lens-less holographic microscope with high resolving power and no-distortion,” Proc. SPIE 7904, 790402 (2011).
[Crossref]

U. A. Gurkan, S. Moon, H. Geckil, F. Xu, S. Wang, T. J. Lu, and U. Demirci, “Miniaturized lensless imaging systems for cell and microorganism visualization in point-of-care testing,” Biotechnol. J. 6(2), 138–149 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

S. Seo, T.-W. Su, D. K. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree holographic imaging for on-chip cytometry and diagnostics,” Lab Chip 9(6), 777–787 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. G. Mitchell and K. Kogure, “Bacterial motility: links to the environment and a driving force for microbial physics,” FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 55(1), 3–16 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

N. Thomas, B. S. Lüthi, S. F. Hviid, H. U. Keller, W. J. Markiewicz, T. Blümchen, A. T. Basilevsky, P. H. Smith, R. Tanner, C. Oquest, R. Reynolds, J.-L. Josset, S. Beauvivre, B. Hofmann, P. Rüffer, and C. T. Pillinger, “The microscope for Beagle 2,” Planet. Space Sci. 52(9), 853–866 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. Repetto, E. Piano, and C. Pontiggia, “Lensless digital holographic microscope with light-emitting diode illumination,” Opt. Lett. 29(10), 1132–1134 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Pu and H. Meng, “Intrinsic speckle noise in off-axis particle holography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21(7), 1221–1230 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

K. Junge, H. Eicken, and J. W. Deming, “Motility of Colwellia psychrerythraea strain 34H at subzero temperatures,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69(7), 4282–4284 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(20), 11301–11305 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Sherr, E. Sherr, and P. del Giorgio, “Enumeration of total and highly active bacteria,” Methods Microbiol. 30, 129–159 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1992 (1)

1965 (1)

G. W. Stroke, “Lensless Fourier-transform method for optical holography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6(10), 201–203 (1965).
[Crossref]

Arganda-Carreras, I.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basilevsky, A. T.

N. Thomas, B. S. Lüthi, S. F. Hviid, H. U. Keller, W. J. Markiewicz, T. Blümchen, A. T. Basilevsky, P. H. Smith, R. Tanner, C. Oquest, R. Reynolds, J.-L. Josset, S. Beauvivre, B. Hofmann, P. Rüffer, and C. T. Pillinger, “The microscope for Beagle 2,” Planet. Space Sci. 52(9), 853–866 (2004).
[Crossref]

Beauvivre, S.

N. Thomas, B. S. Lüthi, S. F. Hviid, H. U. Keller, W. J. Markiewicz, T. Blümchen, A. T. Basilevsky, P. H. Smith, R. Tanner, C. Oquest, R. Reynolds, J.-L. Josset, S. Beauvivre, B. Hofmann, P. Rüffer, and C. T. Pillinger, “The microscope for Beagle 2,” Planet. Space Sci. 52(9), 853–866 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bedrossian, M.

C. A. Lindensmith, S. Rider, M. Bedrossian, J. K. Wallace, E. Serabyn, G. M. Showalter, J. W. Deming, and J. L. Nadeau, “A submersible, off-axis holographic microscope for detection of microbial motility and morphology in aqueous and icy environemnts,” PLoS One 11(1), e0147700 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bell, J. F.

K. S. Edgett, R. A. Yingst, M. A. Ravine, M. A. Caplinger, J. N. Maki, F. T. Ghaemi, J. A. Schaffner, J. F. Bell, L. J. Edwards, K. E. Herkenhoff, E. Heydari, L. C. Kah, M. T. Lemmon, M. E. Minitti, T. S. Olson, T. J. Parker, S. K. Rowland, J. Schieber, R. J. Sullivan, D. Y. Sumner, P. C. Thomas, E. H. Jensen, J. J. Simmonds, A. J. Sengstacken, R. G. Willson, and W. Goetz, “Curiosity’s Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation,” Space Sci. Rev. 170(1-4), 259–317 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bishara, W.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blümchen, T.

N. Thomas, B. S. Lüthi, S. F. Hviid, H. U. Keller, W. J. Markiewicz, T. Blümchen, A. T. Basilevsky, P. H. Smith, R. Tanner, C. Oquest, R. Reynolds, J.-L. Josset, S. Beauvivre, B. Hofmann, P. Rüffer, and C. T. Pillinger, “The microscope for Beagle 2,” Planet. Space Sci. 52(9), 853–866 (2004).
[Crossref]

Boyer, K.

Brumley, D. R.

K. Son, D. R. Brumley, and R. Stocker, “Live from under the lens: exploring microbial motility with dynamic imaging and microfluidics,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 13(12), 761–775 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caplinger, M. A.

K. S. Edgett, R. A. Yingst, M. A. Ravine, M. A. Caplinger, J. N. Maki, F. T. Ghaemi, J. A. Schaffner, J. F. Bell, L. J. Edwards, K. E. Herkenhoff, E. Heydari, L. C. Kah, M. T. Lemmon, M. E. Minitti, T. S. Olson, T. J. Parker, S. K. Rowland, J. Schieber, R. J. Sullivan, D. Y. Sumner, P. C. Thomas, E. H. Jensen, J. J. Simmonds, A. J. Sengstacken, R. G. Willson, and W. Goetz, “Curiosity’s Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation,” Space Sci. Rev. 170(1-4), 259–317 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cardona, A.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Q.

Choi, I.

T.-W. Su, I. Choi, J. Feng, K. Huang, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Sperm trajectories form chiral ribbons,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1664 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cuche, E.

Cullen, D.

del Giorgio, P.

B. Sherr, E. Sherr, and P. del Giorgio, “Enumeration of total and highly active bacteria,” Methods Microbiol. 30, 129–159 (2001).
[Crossref]

Deming, J.

Deming, J. W.

J. Nadeau, C. Lindensmith, J. W. Deming, V. I. Fernandez, and R. Stocker, “Microbial morphology and motility as biosignatures for outer planet missions,” Astrobiology 16(10), 755–774 (2016), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Lindensmith, S. Rider, M. Bedrossian, J. K. Wallace, E. Serabyn, G. M. Showalter, J. W. Deming, and J. L. Nadeau, “A submersible, off-axis holographic microscope for detection of microbial motility and morphology in aqueous and icy environemnts,” PLoS One 11(1), e0147700 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Junge, H. Eicken, and J. W. Deming, “Motility of Colwellia psychrerythraea strain 34H at subzero temperatures,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69(7), 4282–4284 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Demirci, U.

U. A. Gurkan, S. Moon, H. Geckil, F. Xu, S. Wang, T. J. Lu, and U. Demirci, “Miniaturized lensless imaging systems for cell and microorganism visualization in point-of-care testing,” Biotechnol. J. 6(2), 138–149 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Depeursinge, C.

Di Carlo, D.

I. Pushkarsky, Y. Liu, W. Weaver, T.-W. Su, O. Mudanyali, A. Ozcan, and D. Di Carlo, “Automated single-cell motility analysis on a chip using lensfree microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4717 (2014).
[PubMed]

Edgett, K. S.

K. S. Edgett, R. A. Yingst, M. A. Ravine, M. A. Caplinger, J. N. Maki, F. T. Ghaemi, J. A. Schaffner, J. F. Bell, L. J. Edwards, K. E. Herkenhoff, E. Heydari, L. C. Kah, M. T. Lemmon, M. E. Minitti, T. S. Olson, T. J. Parker, S. K. Rowland, J. Schieber, R. J. Sullivan, D. Y. Sumner, P. C. Thomas, E. H. Jensen, J. J. Simmonds, A. J. Sengstacken, R. G. Willson, and W. Goetz, “Curiosity’s Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation,” Space Sci. Rev. 170(1-4), 259–317 (2012).
[Crossref]

Edwards, L. J.

K. S. Edgett, R. A. Yingst, M. A. Ravine, M. A. Caplinger, J. N. Maki, F. T. Ghaemi, J. A. Schaffner, J. F. Bell, L. J. Edwards, K. E. Herkenhoff, E. Heydari, L. C. Kah, M. T. Lemmon, M. E. Minitti, T. S. Olson, T. J. Parker, S. K. Rowland, J. Schieber, R. J. Sullivan, D. Y. Sumner, P. C. Thomas, E. H. Jensen, J. J. Simmonds, A. J. Sengstacken, R. G. Willson, and W. Goetz, “Curiosity’s Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation,” Space Sci. Rev. 170(1-4), 259–317 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eicken, H.

K. Junge, H. Eicken, and J. W. Deming, “Motility of Colwellia psychrerythraea strain 34H at subzero temperatures,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69(7), 4282–4284 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eliceiri, K.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erlinger, A.

S. Seo, T.-W. Su, D. K. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree holographic imaging for on-chip cytometry and diagnostics,” Lab Chip 9(6), 777–787 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, J.

T.-W. Su, I. Choi, J. Feng, K. Huang, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Sperm trajectories form chiral ribbons,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1664 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, S.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fernandez, V. I.

J. Nadeau, C. Lindensmith, J. W. Deming, V. I. Fernandez, and R. Stocker, “Microbial morphology and motility as biosignatures for outer planet missions,” Astrobiology 16(10), 755–774 (2016), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frise, E.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geckil, H.

U. A. Gurkan, S. Moon, H. Geckil, F. Xu, S. Wang, T. J. Lu, and U. Demirci, “Miniaturized lensless imaging systems for cell and microorganism visualization in point-of-care testing,” Biotechnol. J. 6(2), 138–149 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghaemi, F. T.

K. S. Edgett, R. A. Yingst, M. A. Ravine, M. A. Caplinger, J. N. Maki, F. T. Ghaemi, J. A. Schaffner, J. F. Bell, L. J. Edwards, K. E. Herkenhoff, E. Heydari, L. C. Kah, M. T. Lemmon, M. E. Minitti, T. S. Olson, T. J. Parker, S. K. Rowland, J. Schieber, R. J. Sullivan, D. Y. Sumner, P. C. Thomas, E. H. Jensen, J. J. Simmonds, A. J. Sengstacken, R. G. Willson, and W. Goetz, “Curiosity’s Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation,” Space Sci. Rev. 170(1-4), 259–317 (2012).
[Crossref]

Goetz, W.

K. S. Edgett, R. A. Yingst, M. A. Ravine, M. A. Caplinger, J. N. Maki, F. T. Ghaemi, J. A. Schaffner, J. F. Bell, L. J. Edwards, K. E. Herkenhoff, E. Heydari, L. C. Kah, M. T. Lemmon, M. E. Minitti, T. S. Olson, T. J. Parker, S. K. Rowland, J. Schieber, R. J. Sullivan, D. Y. Sumner, P. C. Thomas, E. H. Jensen, J. J. Simmonds, A. J. Sengstacken, R. G. Willson, and W. Goetz, “Curiosity’s Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation,” Space Sci. Rev. 170(1-4), 259–317 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gurkan, U. A.

U. A. Gurkan, S. Moon, H. Geckil, F. Xu, S. Wang, T. J. Lu, and U. Demirci, “Miniaturized lensless imaging systems for cell and microorganism visualization in point-of-care testing,” Biotechnol. J. 6(2), 138–149 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haddad, W. S.

Hartenstein, V.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herkenhoff, K. E.

K. S. Edgett, R. A. Yingst, M. A. Ravine, M. A. Caplinger, J. N. Maki, F. T. Ghaemi, J. A. Schaffner, J. F. Bell, L. J. Edwards, K. E. Herkenhoff, E. Heydari, L. C. Kah, M. T. Lemmon, M. E. Minitti, T. S. Olson, T. J. Parker, S. K. Rowland, J. Schieber, R. J. Sullivan, D. Y. Sumner, P. C. Thomas, E. H. Jensen, J. J. Simmonds, A. J. Sengstacken, R. G. Willson, and W. Goetz, “Curiosity’s Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation,” Space Sci. Rev. 170(1-4), 259–317 (2012).
[Crossref]

Heydari, E.

K. S. Edgett, R. A. Yingst, M. A. Ravine, M. A. Caplinger, J. N. Maki, F. T. Ghaemi, J. A. Schaffner, J. F. Bell, L. J. Edwards, K. E. Herkenhoff, E. Heydari, L. C. Kah, M. T. Lemmon, M. E. Minitti, T. S. Olson, T. J. Parker, S. K. Rowland, J. Schieber, R. J. Sullivan, D. Y. Sumner, P. C. Thomas, E. H. Jensen, J. J. Simmonds, A. J. Sengstacken, R. G. Willson, and W. Goetz, “Curiosity’s Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation,” Space Sci. Rev. 170(1-4), 259–317 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hofmann, B.

N. Thomas, B. S. Lüthi, S. F. Hviid, H. U. Keller, W. J. Markiewicz, T. Blümchen, A. T. Basilevsky, P. H. Smith, R. Tanner, C. Oquest, R. Reynolds, J.-L. Josset, S. Beauvivre, B. Hofmann, P. Rüffer, and C. T. Pillinger, “The microscope for Beagle 2,” Planet. Space Sci. 52(9), 853–866 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

Huang, K.

T.-W. Su, I. Choi, J. Feng, K. Huang, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Sperm trajectories form chiral ribbons,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1664 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hviid, S. F.

N. Thomas, B. S. Lüthi, S. F. Hviid, H. U. Keller, W. J. Markiewicz, T. Blümchen, A. T. Basilevsky, P. H. Smith, R. Tanner, C. Oquest, R. Reynolds, J.-L. Josset, S. Beauvivre, B. Hofmann, P. Rüffer, and C. T. Pillinger, “The microscope for Beagle 2,” Planet. Space Sci. 52(9), 853–866 (2004).
[Crossref]

Isikman, S. O.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jensen, E. H.

K. S. Edgett, R. A. Yingst, M. A. Ravine, M. A. Caplinger, J. N. Maki, F. T. Ghaemi, J. A. Schaffner, J. F. Bell, L. J. Edwards, K. E. Herkenhoff, E. Heydari, L. C. Kah, M. T. Lemmon, M. E. Minitti, T. S. Olson, T. J. Parker, S. K. Rowland, J. Schieber, R. J. Sullivan, D. Y. Sumner, P. C. Thomas, E. H. Jensen, J. J. Simmonds, A. J. Sengstacken, R. G. Willson, and W. Goetz, “Curiosity’s Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation,” Space Sci. Rev. 170(1-4), 259–317 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jericho, M. H.

M. H. Jericho, H. J. Kreuzer, M. Kanka, and R. Riesenberg, “Quantitative phase and refractive index measurements with point-source digital in-line holographic microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 51(10), 1503–1515 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(20), 11301–11305 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Josset, J.-L.

N. Thomas, B. S. Lüthi, S. F. Hviid, H. U. Keller, W. J. Markiewicz, T. Blümchen, A. T. Basilevsky, P. H. Smith, R. Tanner, C. Oquest, R. Reynolds, J.-L. Josset, S. Beauvivre, B. Hofmann, P. Rüffer, and C. T. Pillinger, “The microscope for Beagle 2,” Planet. Space Sci. 52(9), 853–866 (2004).
[Crossref]

Junge, K.

K. Junge, H. Eicken, and J. W. Deming, “Motility of Colwellia psychrerythraea strain 34H at subzero temperatures,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69(7), 4282–4284 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kah, L. C.

K. S. Edgett, R. A. Yingst, M. A. Ravine, M. A. Caplinger, J. N. Maki, F. T. Ghaemi, J. A. Schaffner, J. F. Bell, L. J. Edwards, K. E. Herkenhoff, E. Heydari, L. C. Kah, M. T. Lemmon, M. E. Minitti, T. S. Olson, T. J. Parker, S. K. Rowland, J. Schieber, R. J. Sullivan, D. Y. Sumner, P. C. Thomas, E. H. Jensen, J. J. Simmonds, A. J. Sengstacken, R. G. Willson, and W. Goetz, “Curiosity’s Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation,” Space Sci. Rev. 170(1-4), 259–317 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kanka, M.

Kaynig, V.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keller, H. U.

N. Thomas, B. S. Lüthi, S. F. Hviid, H. U. Keller, W. J. Markiewicz, T. Blümchen, A. T. Basilevsky, P. H. Smith, R. Tanner, C. Oquest, R. Reynolds, J.-L. Josset, S. Beauvivre, B. Hofmann, P. Rüffer, and C. T. Pillinger, “The microscope for Beagle 2,” Planet. Space Sci. 52(9), 853–866 (2004).
[Crossref]

Khademhosseini, B.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kogure, K.

J. G. Mitchell and K. Kogure, “Bacterial motility: links to the environment and a driving force for microbial physics,” FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 55(1), 3–16 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kreuzer, H. J.

Kühn, J.

Lau, R.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lemmon, M. T.

K. S. Edgett, R. A. Yingst, M. A. Ravine, M. A. Caplinger, J. N. Maki, F. T. Ghaemi, J. A. Schaffner, J. F. Bell, L. J. Edwards, K. E. Herkenhoff, E. Heydari, L. C. Kah, M. T. Lemmon, M. E. Minitti, T. S. Olson, T. J. Parker, S. K. Rowland, J. Schieber, R. J. Sullivan, D. Y. Sumner, P. C. Thomas, E. H. Jensen, J. J. Simmonds, A. J. Sengstacken, R. G. Willson, and W. Goetz, “Curiosity’s Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation,” Space Sci. Rev. 170(1-4), 259–317 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liewer, K.

Lindensmith, C.

J. Nadeau, C. Lindensmith, J. W. Deming, V. I. Fernandez, and R. Stocker, “Microbial morphology and motility as biosignatures for outer planet missions,” Astrobiology 16(10), 755–774 (2016), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Wallace, S. Rider, E. Serabyn, J. Kühn, K. Liewer, J. Deming, G. Showalter, C. Lindensmith, and J. Nadeau, “Robust, compact implementation of an off-axis digital holographic microscope,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17367–17378 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lindensmith, C. A.

C. A. Lindensmith, S. Rider, M. Bedrossian, J. K. Wallace, E. Serabyn, G. M. Showalter, J. W. Deming, and J. L. Nadeau, “A submersible, off-axis holographic microscope for detection of microbial motility and morphology in aqueous and icy environemnts,” PLoS One 11(1), e0147700 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

I. Pushkarsky, Y. Liu, W. Weaver, T.-W. Su, O. Mudanyali, A. Ozcan, and D. Di Carlo, “Automated single-cell motility analysis on a chip using lensfree microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4717 (2014).
[PubMed]

Longair, M.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Longworth, J. W.

Lu, T. J.

U. A. Gurkan, S. Moon, H. Geckil, F. Xu, S. Wang, T. J. Lu, and U. Demirci, “Miniaturized lensless imaging systems for cell and microorganism visualization in point-of-care testing,” Biotechnol. J. 6(2), 138–149 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luckhart, S.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lüthi, B. S.

N. Thomas, B. S. Lüthi, S. F. Hviid, H. U. Keller, W. J. Markiewicz, T. Blümchen, A. T. Basilevsky, P. H. Smith, R. Tanner, C. Oquest, R. Reynolds, J.-L. Josset, S. Beauvivre, B. Hofmann, P. Rüffer, and C. T. Pillinger, “The microscope for Beagle 2,” Planet. Space Sci. 52(9), 853–866 (2004).
[Crossref]

Maki, J. N.

K. S. Edgett, R. A. Yingst, M. A. Ravine, M. A. Caplinger, J. N. Maki, F. T. Ghaemi, J. A. Schaffner, J. F. Bell, L. J. Edwards, K. E. Herkenhoff, E. Heydari, L. C. Kah, M. T. Lemmon, M. E. Minitti, T. S. Olson, T. J. Parker, S. K. Rowland, J. Schieber, R. J. Sullivan, D. Y. Sumner, P. C. Thomas, E. H. Jensen, J. J. Simmonds, A. J. Sengstacken, R. G. Willson, and W. Goetz, “Curiosity’s Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation,” Space Sci. Rev. 170(1-4), 259–317 (2012).
[Crossref]

Markiewicz, W. J.

N. Thomas, B. S. Lüthi, S. F. Hviid, H. U. Keller, W. J. Markiewicz, T. Blümchen, A. T. Basilevsky, P. H. Smith, R. Tanner, C. Oquest, R. Reynolds, J.-L. Josset, S. Beauvivre, B. Hofmann, P. Rüffer, and C. T. Pillinger, “The microscope for Beagle 2,” Planet. Space Sci. 52(9), 853–866 (2004).
[Crossref]

Marquet, P.

Mavandadi, S.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLeod, E.

T.-W. Su, I. Choi, J. Feng, K. Huang, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Sperm trajectories form chiral ribbons,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1664 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McPherson, A.

Meinertzhagen, I. A.

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(20), 11301–11305 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meng, H.

Minitti, M. E.

K. S. Edgett, R. A. Yingst, M. A. Ravine, M. A. Caplinger, J. N. Maki, F. T. Ghaemi, J. A. Schaffner, J. F. Bell, L. J. Edwards, K. E. Herkenhoff, E. Heydari, L. C. Kah, M. T. Lemmon, M. E. Minitti, T. S. Olson, T. J. Parker, S. K. Rowland, J. Schieber, R. J. Sullivan, D. Y. Sumner, P. C. Thomas, E. H. Jensen, J. J. Simmonds, A. J. Sengstacken, R. G. Willson, and W. Goetz, “Curiosity’s Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation,” Space Sci. Rev. 170(1-4), 259–317 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mitchell, J. G.

J. G. Mitchell and K. Kogure, “Bacterial motility: links to the environment and a driving force for microbial physics,” FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 55(1), 3–16 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moon, S.

U. A. Gurkan, S. Moon, H. Geckil, F. Xu, S. Wang, T. J. Lu, and U. Demirci, “Miniaturized lensless imaging systems for cell and microorganism visualization in point-of-care testing,” Biotechnol. J. 6(2), 138–149 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mudanyali, O.

I. Pushkarsky, Y. Liu, W. Weaver, T.-W. Su, O. Mudanyali, A. Ozcan, and D. Di Carlo, “Automated single-cell motility analysis on a chip using lensfree microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4717 (2014).
[PubMed]

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murata, O.

K. Sato and O. Murata, “Lens-less holographic microscope with high resolving power and no-distortion,” Proc. SPIE 7904, 790402 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nadeau, J.

J. Nadeau, C. Lindensmith, J. W. Deming, V. I. Fernandez, and R. Stocker, “Microbial morphology and motility as biosignatures for outer planet missions,” Astrobiology 16(10), 755–774 (2016), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Wallace, S. Rider, E. Serabyn, J. Kühn, K. Liewer, J. Deming, G. Showalter, C. Lindensmith, and J. Nadeau, “Robust, compact implementation of an off-axis digital holographic microscope,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17367–17378 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nadeau, J. L.

C. A. Lindensmith, S. Rider, M. Bedrossian, J. K. Wallace, E. Serabyn, G. M. Showalter, J. W. Deming, and J. L. Nadeau, “A submersible, off-axis holographic microscope for detection of microbial motility and morphology in aqueous and icy environemnts,” PLoS One 11(1), e0147700 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nickerson, B. S.

Oh, C.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olson, T. S.

K. S. Edgett, R. A. Yingst, M. A. Ravine, M. A. Caplinger, J. N. Maki, F. T. Ghaemi, J. A. Schaffner, J. F. Bell, L. J. Edwards, K. E. Herkenhoff, E. Heydari, L. C. Kah, M. T. Lemmon, M. E. Minitti, T. S. Olson, T. J. Parker, S. K. Rowland, J. Schieber, R. J. Sullivan, D. Y. Sumner, P. C. Thomas, E. H. Jensen, J. J. Simmonds, A. J. Sengstacken, R. G. Willson, and W. Goetz, “Curiosity’s Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation,” Space Sci. Rev. 170(1-4), 259–317 (2012).
[Crossref]

Oquest, C.

N. Thomas, B. S. Lüthi, S. F. Hviid, H. U. Keller, W. J. Markiewicz, T. Blümchen, A. T. Basilevsky, P. H. Smith, R. Tanner, C. Oquest, R. Reynolds, J.-L. Josset, S. Beauvivre, B. Hofmann, P. Rüffer, and C. T. Pillinger, “The microscope for Beagle 2,” Planet. Space Sci. 52(9), 853–866 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ozcan, A.

I. Pushkarsky, Y. Liu, W. Weaver, T.-W. Su, O. Mudanyali, A. Ozcan, and D. Di Carlo, “Automated single-cell motility analysis on a chip using lensfree microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4717 (2014).
[PubMed]

T.-W. Su, I. Choi, J. Feng, K. Huang, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Sperm trajectories form chiral ribbons,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1664 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-W. Su, L. Xue, and A. Ozcan, “High-throughput lensfree 3D tracking of human sperms reveals rare statistics of helical trajectories,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(40), 16018–16022 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Seo, T.-W. Su, D. K. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree holographic imaging for on-chip cytometry and diagnostics,” Lab Chip 9(6), 777–787 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oztoprak, C.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parker, T. J.

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N. Thomas, B. S. Lüthi, S. F. Hviid, H. U. Keller, W. J. Markiewicz, T. Blümchen, A. T. Basilevsky, P. H. Smith, R. Tanner, C. Oquest, R. Reynolds, J.-L. Josset, S. Beauvivre, B. Hofmann, P. Rüffer, and C. T. Pillinger, “The microscope for Beagle 2,” Planet. Space Sci. 52(9), 853–866 (2004).
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J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
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Pushkarsky, I.

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N. Thomas, B. S. Lüthi, S. F. Hviid, H. U. Keller, W. J. Markiewicz, T. Blümchen, A. T. Basilevsky, P. H. Smith, R. Tanner, C. Oquest, R. Reynolds, J.-L. Josset, S. Beauvivre, B. Hofmann, P. Rüffer, and C. T. Pillinger, “The microscope for Beagle 2,” Planet. Space Sci. 52(9), 853–866 (2004).
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Rider, S.

C. A. Lindensmith, S. Rider, M. Bedrossian, J. K. Wallace, E. Serabyn, G. M. Showalter, J. W. Deming, and J. L. Nadeau, “A submersible, off-axis holographic microscope for detection of microbial motility and morphology in aqueous and icy environemnts,” PLoS One 11(1), e0147700 (2016).
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J. K. Wallace, S. Rider, E. Serabyn, J. Kühn, K. Liewer, J. Deming, G. Showalter, C. Lindensmith, and J. Nadeau, “Robust, compact implementation of an off-axis digital holographic microscope,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17367–17378 (2015).
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Rowland, S. K.

K. S. Edgett, R. A. Yingst, M. A. Ravine, M. A. Caplinger, J. N. Maki, F. T. Ghaemi, J. A. Schaffner, J. F. Bell, L. J. Edwards, K. E. Herkenhoff, E. Heydari, L. C. Kah, M. T. Lemmon, M. E. Minitti, T. S. Olson, T. J. Parker, S. K. Rowland, J. Schieber, R. J. Sullivan, D. Y. Sumner, P. C. Thomas, E. H. Jensen, J. J. Simmonds, A. J. Sengstacken, R. G. Willson, and W. Goetz, “Curiosity’s Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation,” Space Sci. Rev. 170(1-4), 259–317 (2012).
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J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
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N. Thomas, B. S. Lüthi, S. F. Hviid, H. U. Keller, W. J. Markiewicz, T. Blümchen, A. T. Basilevsky, P. H. Smith, R. Tanner, C. Oquest, R. Reynolds, J.-L. Josset, S. Beauvivre, B. Hofmann, P. Rüffer, and C. T. Pillinger, “The microscope for Beagle 2,” Planet. Space Sci. 52(9), 853–866 (2004).
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J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
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K. S. Edgett, R. A. Yingst, M. A. Ravine, M. A. Caplinger, J. N. Maki, F. T. Ghaemi, J. A. Schaffner, J. F. Bell, L. J. Edwards, K. E. Herkenhoff, E. Heydari, L. C. Kah, M. T. Lemmon, M. E. Minitti, T. S. Olson, T. J. Parker, S. K. Rowland, J. Schieber, R. J. Sullivan, D. Y. Sumner, P. C. Thomas, E. H. Jensen, J. J. Simmonds, A. J. Sengstacken, R. G. Willson, and W. Goetz, “Curiosity’s Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation,” Space Sci. Rev. 170(1-4), 259–317 (2012).
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J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
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J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
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K. S. Edgett, R. A. Yingst, M. A. Ravine, M. A. Caplinger, J. N. Maki, F. T. Ghaemi, J. A. Schaffner, J. F. Bell, L. J. Edwards, K. E. Herkenhoff, E. Heydari, L. C. Kah, M. T. Lemmon, M. E. Minitti, T. S. Olson, T. J. Parker, S. K. Rowland, J. Schieber, R. J. Sullivan, D. Y. Sumner, P. C. Thomas, E. H. Jensen, J. J. Simmonds, A. J. Sengstacken, R. G. Willson, and W. Goetz, “Curiosity’s Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation,” Space Sci. Rev. 170(1-4), 259–317 (2012).
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Showalter, G. M.

C. A. Lindensmith, S. Rider, M. Bedrossian, J. K. Wallace, E. Serabyn, G. M. Showalter, J. W. Deming, and J. L. Nadeau, “A submersible, off-axis holographic microscope for detection of microbial motility and morphology in aqueous and icy environemnts,” PLoS One 11(1), e0147700 (2016).
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Sikora, U.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
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K. S. Edgett, R. A. Yingst, M. A. Ravine, M. A. Caplinger, J. N. Maki, F. T. Ghaemi, J. A. Schaffner, J. F. Bell, L. J. Edwards, K. E. Herkenhoff, E. Heydari, L. C. Kah, M. T. Lemmon, M. E. Minitti, T. S. Olson, T. J. Parker, S. K. Rowland, J. Schieber, R. J. Sullivan, D. Y. Sumner, P. C. Thomas, E. H. Jensen, J. J. Simmonds, A. J. Sengstacken, R. G. Willson, and W. Goetz, “Curiosity’s Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation,” Space Sci. Rev. 170(1-4), 259–317 (2012).
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N. Thomas, B. S. Lüthi, S. F. Hviid, H. U. Keller, W. J. Markiewicz, T. Blümchen, A. T. Basilevsky, P. H. Smith, R. Tanner, C. Oquest, R. Reynolds, J.-L. Josset, S. Beauvivre, B. Hofmann, P. Rüffer, and C. T. Pillinger, “The microscope for Beagle 2,” Planet. Space Sci. 52(9), 853–866 (2004).
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K. Son, D. R. Brumley, and R. Stocker, “Live from under the lens: exploring microbial motility with dynamic imaging and microfluidics,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 13(12), 761–775 (2015).
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W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
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Su, T.-W.

I. Pushkarsky, Y. Liu, W. Weaver, T.-W. Su, O. Mudanyali, A. Ozcan, and D. Di Carlo, “Automated single-cell motility analysis on a chip using lensfree microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4717 (2014).
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T.-W. Su, I. Choi, J. Feng, K. Huang, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Sperm trajectories form chiral ribbons,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1664 (2013).
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T.-W. Su, L. Xue, and A. Ozcan, “High-throughput lensfree 3D tracking of human sperms reveals rare statistics of helical trajectories,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(40), 16018–16022 (2012).
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S. Seo, T.-W. Su, D. K. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree holographic imaging for on-chip cytometry and diagnostics,” Lab Chip 9(6), 777–787 (2009).
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Sullivan, R. J.

K. S. Edgett, R. A. Yingst, M. A. Ravine, M. A. Caplinger, J. N. Maki, F. T. Ghaemi, J. A. Schaffner, J. F. Bell, L. J. Edwards, K. E. Herkenhoff, E. Heydari, L. C. Kah, M. T. Lemmon, M. E. Minitti, T. S. Olson, T. J. Parker, S. K. Rowland, J. Schieber, R. J. Sullivan, D. Y. Sumner, P. C. Thomas, E. H. Jensen, J. J. Simmonds, A. J. Sengstacken, R. G. Willson, and W. Goetz, “Curiosity’s Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation,” Space Sci. Rev. 170(1-4), 259–317 (2012).
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K. S. Edgett, R. A. Yingst, M. A. Ravine, M. A. Caplinger, J. N. Maki, F. T. Ghaemi, J. A. Schaffner, J. F. Bell, L. J. Edwards, K. E. Herkenhoff, E. Heydari, L. C. Kah, M. T. Lemmon, M. E. Minitti, T. S. Olson, T. J. Parker, S. K. Rowland, J. Schieber, R. J. Sullivan, D. Y. Sumner, P. C. Thomas, E. H. Jensen, J. J. Simmonds, A. J. Sengstacken, R. G. Willson, and W. Goetz, “Curiosity’s Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation,” Space Sci. Rev. 170(1-4), 259–317 (2012).
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Tanner, R.

N. Thomas, B. S. Lüthi, S. F. Hviid, H. U. Keller, W. J. Markiewicz, T. Blümchen, A. T. Basilevsky, P. H. Smith, R. Tanner, C. Oquest, R. Reynolds, J.-L. Josset, S. Beauvivre, B. Hofmann, P. Rüffer, and C. T. Pillinger, “The microscope for Beagle 2,” Planet. Space Sci. 52(9), 853–866 (2004).
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K. S. Edgett, R. A. Yingst, M. A. Ravine, M. A. Caplinger, J. N. Maki, F. T. Ghaemi, J. A. Schaffner, J. F. Bell, L. J. Edwards, K. E. Herkenhoff, E. Heydari, L. C. Kah, M. T. Lemmon, M. E. Minitti, T. S. Olson, T. J. Parker, S. K. Rowland, J. Schieber, R. J. Sullivan, D. Y. Sumner, P. C. Thomas, E. H. Jensen, J. J. Simmonds, A. J. Sengstacken, R. G. Willson, and W. Goetz, “Curiosity’s Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation,” Space Sci. Rev. 170(1-4), 259–317 (2012).
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J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
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Tomancak, P.

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Tseng, D.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
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Tseng, D. K.

S. Seo, T.-W. Su, D. K. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree holographic imaging for on-chip cytometry and diagnostics,” Lab Chip 9(6), 777–787 (2009).
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C. A. Lindensmith, S. Rider, M. Bedrossian, J. K. Wallace, E. Serabyn, G. M. Showalter, J. W. Deming, and J. L. Nadeau, “A submersible, off-axis holographic microscope for detection of microbial motility and morphology in aqueous and icy environemnts,” PLoS One 11(1), e0147700 (2016).
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J. K. Wallace, S. Rider, E. Serabyn, J. Kühn, K. Liewer, J. Deming, G. Showalter, C. Lindensmith, and J. Nadeau, “Robust, compact implementation of an off-axis digital holographic microscope,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17367–17378 (2015).
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U. A. Gurkan, S. Moon, H. Geckil, F. Xu, S. Wang, T. J. Lu, and U. Demirci, “Miniaturized lensless imaging systems for cell and microorganism visualization in point-of-care testing,” Biotechnol. J. 6(2), 138–149 (2011).
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Weaver, W.

I. Pushkarsky, Y. Liu, W. Weaver, T.-W. Su, O. Mudanyali, A. Ozcan, and D. Di Carlo, “Automated single-cell motility analysis on a chip using lensfree microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4717 (2014).
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J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
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K. S. Edgett, R. A. Yingst, M. A. Ravine, M. A. Caplinger, J. N. Maki, F. T. Ghaemi, J. A. Schaffner, J. F. Bell, L. J. Edwards, K. E. Herkenhoff, E. Heydari, L. C. Kah, M. T. Lemmon, M. E. Minitti, T. S. Olson, T. J. Parker, S. K. Rowland, J. Schieber, R. J. Sullivan, D. Y. Sumner, P. C. Thomas, E. H. Jensen, J. J. Simmonds, A. J. Sengstacken, R. G. Willson, and W. Goetz, “Curiosity’s Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation,” Space Sci. Rev. 170(1-4), 259–317 (2012).
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Xu, F.

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T.-W. Su, L. Xue, and A. Ozcan, “High-throughput lensfree 3D tracking of human sperms reveals rare statistics of helical trajectories,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(40), 16018–16022 (2012).
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Yaglidere, O.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
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K. S. Edgett, R. A. Yingst, M. A. Ravine, M. A. Caplinger, J. N. Maki, F. T. Ghaemi, J. A. Schaffner, J. F. Bell, L. J. Edwards, K. E. Herkenhoff, E. Heydari, L. C. Kah, M. T. Lemmon, M. E. Minitti, T. S. Olson, T. J. Parker, S. K. Rowland, J. Schieber, R. J. Sullivan, D. Y. Sumner, P. C. Thomas, E. H. Jensen, J. J. Simmonds, A. J. Sengstacken, R. G. Willson, and W. Goetz, “Curiosity’s Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation,” Space Sci. Rev. 170(1-4), 259–317 (2012).
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S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
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Appl. Opt. (5)

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G. W. Stroke, “Lensless Fourier-transform method for optical holography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6(10), 201–203 (1965).
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Astrobiology (1)

J. Nadeau, C. Lindensmith, J. W. Deming, V. I. Fernandez, and R. Stocker, “Microbial morphology and motility as biosignatures for outer planet missions,” Astrobiology 16(10), 755–774 (2016), doi:.
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Biotechnol. J. (1)

U. A. Gurkan, S. Moon, H. Geckil, F. Xu, S. Wang, T. J. Lu, and U. Demirci, “Miniaturized lensless imaging systems for cell and microorganism visualization in point-of-care testing,” Biotechnol. J. 6(2), 138–149 (2011).
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FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. (1)

J. G. Mitchell and K. Kogure, “Bacterial motility: links to the environment and a driving force for microbial physics,” FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 55(1), 3–16 (2006).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Lab Chip (3)

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
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S. Seo, T.-W. Su, D. K. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree holographic imaging for on-chip cytometry and diagnostics,” Lab Chip 9(6), 777–787 (2009).
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O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
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Methods Microbiol. (1)

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Nat. Methods (1)

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J. Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 676–682 (2012).
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Nat. Rev. Microbiol. (1)

K. Son, D. R. Brumley, and R. Stocker, “Live from under the lens: exploring microbial motility with dynamic imaging and microfluidics,” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 13(12), 761–775 (2015).
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Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Planet. Space Sci. (1)

N. Thomas, B. S. Lüthi, S. F. Hviid, H. U. Keller, W. J. Markiewicz, T. Blümchen, A. T. Basilevsky, P. H. Smith, R. Tanner, C. Oquest, R. Reynolds, J.-L. Josset, S. Beauvivre, B. Hofmann, P. Rüffer, and C. T. Pillinger, “The microscope for Beagle 2,” Planet. Space Sci. 52(9), 853–866 (2004).
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PLoS One (1)

C. A. Lindensmith, S. Rider, M. Bedrossian, J. K. Wallace, E. Serabyn, G. M. Showalter, J. W. Deming, and J. L. Nadeau, “A submersible, off-axis holographic microscope for detection of microbial motility and morphology in aqueous and icy environemnts,” PLoS One 11(1), e0147700 (2016).
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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (3)

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
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W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(20), 11301–11305 (2001).
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T.-W. Su, L. Xue, and A. Ozcan, “High-throughput lensfree 3D tracking of human sperms reveals rare statistics of helical trajectories,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(40), 16018–16022 (2012).
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Proc. SPIE (1)

K. Sato and O. Murata, “Lens-less holographic microscope with high resolving power and no-distortion,” Proc. SPIE 7904, 790402 (2011).
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Sci. Rep. (2)

T.-W. Su, I. Choi, J. Feng, K. Huang, E. McLeod, and A. Ozcan, “Sperm trajectories form chiral ribbons,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1664 (2013).
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I. Pushkarsky, Y. Liu, W. Weaver, T.-W. Su, O. Mudanyali, A. Ozcan, and D. Di Carlo, “Automated single-cell motility analysis on a chip using lensfree microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4717 (2014).
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Space Sci. Rev. (1)

K. S. Edgett, R. A. Yingst, M. A. Ravine, M. A. Caplinger, J. N. Maki, F. T. Ghaemi, J. A. Schaffner, J. F. Bell, L. J. Edwards, K. E. Herkenhoff, E. Heydari, L. C. Kah, M. T. Lemmon, M. E. Minitti, T. S. Olson, T. J. Parker, S. K. Rowland, J. Schieber, R. J. Sullivan, D. Y. Sumner, P. C. Thomas, E. H. Jensen, J. J. Simmonds, A. J. Sengstacken, R. G. Willson, and W. Goetz, “Curiosity’s Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation,” Space Sci. Rev. 170(1-4), 259–317 (2012).
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Other (5)

M. K. Kim, Digital Holographic Microscopy Principles, Techniques, and Applications (Springer, 2011).

E. Serabyn, K. Liewer, K. Wallace, S. Rider, C. Lindensmith, and J. Nadeau “Lensless digital holgraphic microscopy for microbe detection,” in Imaging and Applied Optics 2016, OSA Technical Digest (online) (2016), paper DTh3F.4.

E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Addison Wesley, 2002).

http://www.lynceetec.com/koala-acquisition-analysis/

T. Colomb, “Numerical aberrations compensation and polarization imaging in digital holographic microscopy,” thesis no. 3455 (Institut d'imagerie et optique appliquée, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 2006).

Supplementary Material (4)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: AVI (23305 KB)      Visualization 1
» Visualization 2: AVI (27139 KB)      Visualization 2
» Visualization 3: AVI (15567 KB)      Visualization 3
» Visualization 4: AVI (12507 KB)      Visualization 4

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic layout of our dual-beam off-axis DHM, (b) Solid model of our DHM, and (c) Photograph of the assembled DHM used for this work. The (yellow) SM fiber laser input is at the left, and the Ethernet camera (Baumer model TGX50-P) output (orange) is to the right.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Reconstructed image of the central region of an Air Force target acquired with our DHM, (b) horizontal crosscut through the image intersecting target elements 8,3 and 7,4, and (c) horizontal crosscut through elements 6,4, 8,4 and 7,5. Arrows show the crosscut locations.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Bacterial strains imaged with our lensless DHM. (a) B. subtilis in intensity (video shown in Visualization 1). (b) B. subtilis in phase (video in Visualization 2). (c) Colwellia in intensity (video in Visualization 3; a Colwellia phase video is shown in Visualization 4). The arrows indicate cells in or near focus. (d) A Colwellia time track. (e) Zoomed-in image of B. subtilis in a 100 µm deep chamber. (f) Zoomed in image of B. subtilis in an 800 µm deep chamber.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 3D visualizations. 4a) xz image showing a cross section through the reconstructed PSF of a B. subtilis cell. (b) Image of B. subtilis culture at a single time. Individual cells can be identified by their extended PSFs. (c) 3D tracks of 30 s of cell motion of a Colwellia culture. Cells were identified using a maximum intensity projection. Non-motile cells (green) clustered near z = 0, while trajectories of motile cells spanned the volume. Time is color-coded.

Equations (2)

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L=f λ b 2p,
FOV d = fs f .

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