Abstract

Recent progress in the generation of ultra-short laser pulses has enabled the measurement of photoionization time delays with attosecond precision. For single photoemission time delays the most common techniques are based on attosecond streaking and the reconstruction of attosecond beating by interference of two-photon transitions (RABBITT). These are pump-probe techniques employing an extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) single attosecond pump pulse for streaking or an attosecond pump pulse train for RABBITT, and a phase-locked infrared (IR) probe pulse. These techniques can only extract relative timing information between electrons originating from different initial states within the same atom or different atoms. Here we address the question whether the two techniques give identical timing information. We present a complete study, supported by both experiments and simulations, comparing these two techniques for the measurement of the photoemission time delay difference between valence electrons emitted from the Ne 2p and Ar 3p ground states. We highlight not only the differences and similarities between the two techniques, but also critically investigate the reliability of the methods used to extract the timing information.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  18. Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 011401 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. Gagnon and V. S. Yakovlev, “The robustness of attosecond streaking measurements,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17678–17693 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. H. Wei, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Critical evaluation of attosecond time delays retrieved from photoelectron streaking measurements,” Phys. Rev. A 93(5), 053412 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  21. R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy: a ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330(2-3), 95–192 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Combining attosecond XUV pulses with coincidence spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(10), 103113 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. E. P. Wigner, “Lower Limit for the Energy Derivative of the Scattering Phase Shift,” Phys. Rev. 98(1), 145–147 (1955).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  26. J. M. Dahlström, T. Carette, and E. Lindroth, “Diagrammatic approach to attosecond delays in photoionization,” Phys. Rev. A 86(6), 061402 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  27. V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, N. Karpowicz, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond streaking enables the measurement of quantum phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(7), 073001 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  32. T. Carette, J. M. Dahlström, L. Argenti, and E. Lindroth, “Multiconfigurational Hartree-Fock close-coupling ansatz: Application to the argon photoionization cross section and delays,” Phys. Rev. A 87(2), 023420 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  33. S. B. Schoun, R. Chirla, J. Wheeler, C. Roedig, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Attosecond pulse shaping around a Cooper minimum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(15), 153001 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. M. Kotur, D. Guénot, Á. Jiménez-Galán, D. Kroon, E. W. Larsen, M. Louisy, S. Bengtsson, M. Miranda, J. Mauritsson, C. L. Arnold, S. E. Canton, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Carette, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, A. Maquet, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and A. L’Huillier, “Spectral phase measurement of a Fano resonance using tunable attosecond pulses,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10566 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J.-F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, L. Argenti, R. Taïeb, F. Martín, and P. Salières, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Science 354(6313), 734–738 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. M. Chini, S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, and Z. Chang, “Characterizing ultrabroadband attosecond lasers,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13006–13016 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. P. D. Keathley, S. Bhardwaj, J. Moses, G. Laurent, and F. X. Kärtner, “Volkov transform generalized projection algorithm for attosecond pulse characterization,” New J. Phys. 18(7), 073009 (2016).
    [Crossref]

2016 (4)

H. Wei, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Critical evaluation of attosecond time delays retrieved from photoelectron streaking measurements,” Phys. Rev. A 93(5), 053412 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Kotur, D. Guénot, Á. Jiménez-Galán, D. Kroon, E. W. Larsen, M. Louisy, S. Bengtsson, M. Miranda, J. Mauritsson, C. L. Arnold, S. E. Canton, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Carette, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, A. Maquet, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and A. L’Huillier, “Spectral phase measurement of a Fano resonance using tunable attosecond pulses,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10566 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J.-F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, L. Argenti, R. Taïeb, F. Martín, and P. Salières, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Science 354(6313), 734–738 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. D. Keathley, S. Bhardwaj, J. Moses, G. Laurent, and F. X. Kärtner, “Volkov transform generalized projection algorithm for attosecond pulse characterization,” New J. Phys. 18(7), 073009 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance effects in photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Locher, L. Castiglioni, M. Lucchini, M. Greif, L. Gallmann, J. Osterwalder, M. Hengsberger, and U. Keller, “Energy-dependent photoemission delays from noble metal surfaces by attosecond interferometry,” Optica 2(5), 405–410 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Cirelli, M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Energy-dependent photoemission time delays of noble gas atoms using coincidence attosecond streaking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(5), 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Lucchini, A. Ludwig, L. Kasmi, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Semi-classical approach to compute RABBITT traces in multi-dimensional complex field distributions,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8867–8879 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, and J. Burgdörfer, “Attosecond chronoscopy of photoemission,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87(3), 765–802 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

C. Palatchi, J. M. Dahlström, A. S. Kheifets, I. A. Ivanov, D. M. Canaday, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Atomic delay in helium, neon, argon and krypton,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. 47(24), 245003 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Guenot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. LHuillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. B 47(24), 245602 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. S. Landsman, M. Weger, J. Maurer, R. Boge, A. Ludwig, S. Heuser, C. Cirelli, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast resolution of tunneling delay time,” Optica 1(5), 343–349 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. B. Schoun, R. Chirla, J. Wheeler, C. Roedig, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Attosecond pulse shaping around a Cooper minimum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(15), 153001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Combining attosecond XUV pulses with coincidence spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(10), 103113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

A. S. Kheifets, “Time delay in valence-shell photoionization of noble-gas atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 87(6), 063404 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Carette, J. M. Dahlström, L. Argenti, and E. Lindroth, “Multiconfigurational Hartree-Fock close-coupling ansatz: Application to the argon photoionization cross section and delays,” Phys. Rev. A 87(2), 023420 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

J. M. Dahlström, T. Carette, and E. Lindroth, “Diagrammatic approach to attosecond delays in photoionization,” Phys. Rev. A 86(6), 061402 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing Single-Photon Ionization on the Attosecond Time Scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, N. Karpowicz, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond streaking enables the measurement of quantum phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(7), 073001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chini, S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, and Z. Chang, “Characterizing ultrabroadband attosecond lasers,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13006–13016 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carré, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mével, P. Salières, R. Taïeb, and Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 011404 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Gagnon and V. S. Yakovlev, “The robustness of attosecond streaking measurements,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17678–17693 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 25–32 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 011401 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

H. G. Muller, “Reconstruction of attosecond harmonic beating by interference of two-photon transitions,” Appl. Phys. B 74(S1), S17–S21 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173904 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy: a ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330(2-3), 95–192 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

D. J. Kane, “Recent progress toward real-time measurement of ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 421–431 (1999).
[Crossref]

1960 (1)

F. T. Smith, “Lifetime Matrix in Collision Theory,” Phys. Rev. 118(1), 349–356 (1960).
[Crossref]

1955 (1)

E. P. Wigner, “Lower Limit for the Energy Derivative of the Scattering Phase Shift,” Phys. Rev. 98(1), 145–147 (1955).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

C. Palatchi, J. M. Dahlström, A. S. Kheifets, I. A. Ivanov, D. M. Canaday, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Atomic delay in helium, neon, argon and krypton,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. 47(24), 245003 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. B. Schoun, R. Chirla, J. Wheeler, C. Roedig, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Attosecond pulse shaping around a Cooper minimum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(15), 153001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Argenti, L.

M. Kotur, D. Guénot, Á. Jiménez-Galán, D. Kroon, E. W. Larsen, M. Louisy, S. Bengtsson, M. Miranda, J. Mauritsson, C. L. Arnold, S. E. Canton, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Carette, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, A. Maquet, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and A. L’Huillier, “Spectral phase measurement of a Fano resonance using tunable attosecond pulses,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10566 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J.-F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, L. Argenti, R. Taïeb, F. Martín, and P. Salières, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Science 354(6313), 734–738 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Carette, J. M. Dahlström, L. Argenti, and E. Lindroth, “Multiconfigurational Hartree-Fock close-coupling ansatz: Application to the argon photoionization cross section and delays,” Phys. Rev. A 87(2), 023420 (2013).
[Crossref]

Arnold, C. L.

M. Kotur, D. Guénot, Á. Jiménez-Galán, D. Kroon, E. W. Larsen, M. Louisy, S. Bengtsson, M. Miranda, J. Mauritsson, C. L. Arnold, S. E. Canton, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Carette, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, A. Maquet, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and A. L’Huillier, “Spectral phase measurement of a Fano resonance using tunable attosecond pulses,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10566 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Guenot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. LHuillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. B 47(24), 245602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Augé, F.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azzeer, A. M.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balcou, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balogh, E.

D. Guenot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. LHuillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. B 47(24), 245602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baltuška, A.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barreau, L.

V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J.-F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, L. Argenti, R. Taïeb, F. Martín, and P. Salières, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Science 354(6313), 734–738 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bengtsson, S.

M. Kotur, D. Guénot, Á. Jiménez-Galán, D. Kroon, E. W. Larsen, M. Louisy, S. Bengtsson, M. Miranda, J. Mauritsson, C. L. Arnold, S. E. Canton, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Carette, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, A. Maquet, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and A. L’Huillier, “Spectral phase measurement of a Fano resonance using tunable attosecond pulses,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10566 (2016).
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Bhardwaj, S.

P. D. Keathley, S. Bhardwaj, J. Moses, G. Laurent, and F. X. Kärtner, “Volkov transform generalized projection algorithm for attosecond pulse characterization,” New J. Phys. 18(7), 073009 (2016).
[Crossref]

Blümel, L.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boge, R.

C. Cirelli, M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Energy-dependent photoemission time delays of noble gas atoms using coincidence attosecond streaking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(5), 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance effects in photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Landsman, M. Weger, J. Maurer, R. Boge, A. Ludwig, S. Heuser, C. Cirelli, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast resolution of tunneling delay time,” Optica 1(5), 343–349 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Combining attosecond XUV pulses with coincidence spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(10), 103113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brabec, T.

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173904 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breger, P.

S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carré, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mével, P. Salières, R. Taïeb, and Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 011404 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burgdörfer, J.

R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, and J. Burgdörfer, “Attosecond chronoscopy of photoemission,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87(3), 765–802 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Büttiker, M.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caillat, J.

V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J.-F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, L. Argenti, R. Taïeb, F. Martín, and P. Salières, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Science 354(6313), 734–738 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing Single-Photon Ionization on the Attosecond Time Scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carré, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mével, P. Salières, R. Taïeb, and Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 011404 (2009).
[Crossref]

Calegari, F.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Canaday, D. M.

C. Palatchi, J. M. Dahlström, A. S. Kheifets, I. A. Ivanov, D. M. Canaday, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Atomic delay in helium, neon, argon and krypton,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. 47(24), 245003 (2014).
[Crossref]

Canton, S. E.

M. Kotur, D. Guénot, Á. Jiménez-Galán, D. Kroon, E. W. Larsen, M. Louisy, S. Bengtsson, M. Miranda, J. Mauritsson, C. L. Arnold, S. E. Canton, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Carette, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, A. Maquet, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and A. L’Huillier, “Spectral phase measurement of a Fano resonance using tunable attosecond pulses,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10566 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carette, T.

M. Kotur, D. Guénot, Á. Jiménez-Galán, D. Kroon, E. W. Larsen, M. Louisy, S. Bengtsson, M. Miranda, J. Mauritsson, C. L. Arnold, S. E. Canton, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Carette, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, A. Maquet, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and A. L’Huillier, “Spectral phase measurement of a Fano resonance using tunable attosecond pulses,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10566 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance effects in photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Guenot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. LHuillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. B 47(24), 245602 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Carette, J. M. Dahlström, L. Argenti, and E. Lindroth, “Multiconfigurational Hartree-Fock close-coupling ansatz: Application to the argon photoionization cross section and delays,” Phys. Rev. A 87(2), 023420 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. M. Dahlström, T. Carette, and E. Lindroth, “Diagrammatic approach to attosecond delays in photoionization,” Phys. Rev. A 86(6), 061402 (2012).
[Crossref]

Carré, B.

V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J.-F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, L. Argenti, R. Taïeb, F. Martín, and P. Salières, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Science 354(6313), 734–738 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carré, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mével, P. Salières, R. Taïeb, and Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 011404 (2009).
[Crossref]

Castiglioni, L.

Cavalieri, A. L.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, Z.

Chini, M.

Chirla, R.

S. B. Schoun, R. Chirla, J. Wheeler, C. Roedig, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Attosecond pulse shaping around a Cooper minimum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(15), 153001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cirelli, C.

C. Cirelli, M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Energy-dependent photoemission time delays of noble gas atoms using coincidence attosecond streaking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(5), 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance effects in photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Landsman, M. Weger, J. Maurer, R. Boge, A. Ludwig, S. Heuser, C. Cirelli, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast resolution of tunneling delay time,” Optica 1(5), 343–349 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Combining attosecond XUV pulses with coincidence spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(10), 103113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Constant, E.

S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carré, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mével, P. Salières, R. Taïeb, and Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 011404 (2009).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dahlström, J. M.

M. Kotur, D. Guénot, Á. Jiménez-Galán, D. Kroon, E. W. Larsen, M. Louisy, S. Bengtsson, M. Miranda, J. Mauritsson, C. L. Arnold, S. E. Canton, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Carette, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, A. Maquet, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and A. L’Huillier, “Spectral phase measurement of a Fano resonance using tunable attosecond pulses,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10566 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Palatchi, J. M. Dahlström, A. S. Kheifets, I. A. Ivanov, D. M. Canaday, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Atomic delay in helium, neon, argon and krypton,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. 47(24), 245003 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Guenot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. LHuillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. B 47(24), 245602 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Carette, J. M. Dahlström, L. Argenti, and E. Lindroth, “Multiconfigurational Hartree-Fock close-coupling ansatz: Application to the argon photoionization cross section and delays,” Phys. Rev. A 87(2), 023420 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. M. Dahlström, T. Carette, and E. Lindroth, “Diagrammatic approach to attosecond delays in photoionization,” Phys. Rev. A 86(6), 061402 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing Single-Photon Ionization on the Attosecond Time Scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DiMauro, L. F.

S. B. Schoun, R. Chirla, J. Wheeler, C. Roedig, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Attosecond pulse shaping around a Cooper minimum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(15), 153001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Palatchi, J. M. Dahlström, A. S. Kheifets, I. A. Ivanov, D. M. Canaday, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Atomic delay in helium, neon, argon and krypton,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. 47(24), 245003 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dörner, R.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy: a ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330(2-3), 95–192 (2000).
[Crossref]

Drescher, M.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Echenique, P. M.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eckle, P.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ernstorfer, R.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fabre, B.

S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carré, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mével, P. Salières, R. Taïeb, and Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 011404 (2009).
[Crossref]

Feist, J.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fiess, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flammini, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fordell, T.

D. Guenot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. LHuillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. B 47(24), 245602 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing Single-Photon Ionization on the Attosecond Time Scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaarde, M. B.

S. B. Schoun, R. Chirla, J. Wheeler, C. Roedig, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Attosecond pulse shaping around a Cooper minimum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(15), 153001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gagnon, J.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, N. Karpowicz, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond streaking enables the measurement of quantum phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(7), 073001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gagnon and V. S. Yakovlev, “The robustness of attosecond streaking measurements,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17678–17693 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 25–32 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gallmann, L.

C. Cirelli, M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Energy-dependent photoemission time delays of noble gas atoms using coincidence attosecond streaking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(5), 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance effects in photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lucchini, A. Ludwig, L. Kasmi, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Semi-classical approach to compute RABBITT traces in multi-dimensional complex field distributions,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8867–8879 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Locher, L. Castiglioni, M. Lucchini, M. Greif, L. Gallmann, J. Osterwalder, M. Hengsberger, and U. Keller, “Energy-dependent photoemission delays from noble metal surfaces by attosecond interferometry,” Optica 2(5), 405–410 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. S. Landsman, M. Weger, J. Maurer, R. Boge, A. Ludwig, S. Heuser, C. Cirelli, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast resolution of tunneling delay time,” Optica 1(5), 343–349 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Combining attosecond XUV pulses with coincidence spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(10), 103113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gilbertson, S.

Gisselbrecht, M.

M. Kotur, D. Guénot, Á. Jiménez-Galán, D. Kroon, E. W. Larsen, M. Louisy, S. Bengtsson, M. Miranda, J. Mauritsson, C. L. Arnold, S. E. Canton, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Carette, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, A. Maquet, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and A. L’Huillier, “Spectral phase measurement of a Fano resonance using tunable attosecond pulses,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10566 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Guenot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. LHuillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. B 47(24), 245602 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing Single-Photon Ionization on the Attosecond Time Scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goulielmakis, E.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 25–32 (2008).
[Crossref]

Greif, M.

Gruson, V.

V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J.-F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, L. Argenti, R. Taïeb, F. Martín, and P. Salières, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Science 354(6313), 734–738 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guenot, D.

D. Guenot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. LHuillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. B 47(24), 245602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guénot, D.

M. Kotur, D. Guénot, Á. Jiménez-Galán, D. Kroon, E. W. Larsen, M. Louisy, S. Bengtsson, M. Miranda, J. Mauritsson, C. L. Arnold, S. E. Canton, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Carette, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, A. Maquet, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and A. L’Huillier, “Spectral phase measurement of a Fano resonance using tunable attosecond pulses,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10566 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing Single-Photon Ionization on the Attosecond Time Scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haessler, S.

S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carré, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mével, P. Salières, R. Taïeb, and Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 011404 (2009).
[Crossref]

Heinzmann, U.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hendel, S.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hengsberger, M.

Hentschel, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hergott, J.-F.

V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J.-F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, L. Argenti, R. Taïeb, F. Martín, and P. Salières, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Science 354(6313), 734–738 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heuser, S.

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance effects in photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Cirelli, M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Energy-dependent photoemission time delays of noble gas atoms using coincidence attosecond streaking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(5), 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Combining attosecond XUV pulses with coincidence spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(10), 103113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Landsman, M. Weger, J. Maurer, R. Boge, A. Ludwig, S. Heuser, C. Cirelli, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast resolution of tunneling delay time,” Optica 1(5), 343–349 (2014).
[Crossref]

Higuet, J.

S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carré, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mével, P. Salières, R. Taïeb, and Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 011404 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hofstetter, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horvath, B.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Itatani, J.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ivanov, I. A.

C. Palatchi, J. M. Dahlström, A. S. Kheifets, I. A. Ivanov, D. M. Canaday, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Atomic delay in helium, neon, argon and krypton,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. 47(24), 245003 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, M. Y.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jagutzki, O.

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy: a ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330(2-3), 95–192 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jiménez-Galan, Á.

V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J.-F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, L. Argenti, R. Taïeb, F. Martín, and P. Salières, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Science 354(6313), 734–738 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiménez-Galán, Á.

M. Kotur, D. Guénot, Á. Jiménez-Galán, D. Kroon, E. W. Larsen, M. Louisy, S. Bengtsson, M. Miranda, J. Mauritsson, C. L. Arnold, S. E. Canton, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Carette, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, A. Maquet, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and A. L’Huillier, “Spectral phase measurement of a Fano resonance using tunable attosecond pulses,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10566 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnsson, P.

D. Guenot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. LHuillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. B 47(24), 245602 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing Single-Photon Ionization on the Attosecond Time Scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kane, D. J.

D. J. Kane, “Recent progress toward real-time measurement of ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 421–431 (1999).
[Crossref]

Karpowicz, N.

V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, N. Karpowicz, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond streaking enables the measurement of quantum phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(7), 073001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kärtner, F. X.

P. D. Keathley, S. Bhardwaj, J. Moses, G. Laurent, and F. X. Kärtner, “Volkov transform generalized projection algorithm for attosecond pulse characterization,” New J. Phys. 18(7), 073009 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kasmi, L.

Keathley, P. D.

P. D. Keathley, S. Bhardwaj, J. Moses, G. Laurent, and F. X. Kärtner, “Volkov transform generalized projection algorithm for attosecond pulse characterization,” New J. Phys. 18(7), 073009 (2016).
[Crossref]

Keller, U.

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance effects in photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lucchini, A. Ludwig, L. Kasmi, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Semi-classical approach to compute RABBITT traces in multi-dimensional complex field distributions,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8867–8879 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Locher, L. Castiglioni, M. Lucchini, M. Greif, L. Gallmann, J. Osterwalder, M. Hengsberger, and U. Keller, “Energy-dependent photoemission delays from noble metal surfaces by attosecond interferometry,” Optica 2(5), 405–410 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Cirelli, M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Energy-dependent photoemission time delays of noble gas atoms using coincidence attosecond streaking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(5), 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Combining attosecond XUV pulses with coincidence spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(10), 103113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Landsman, M. Weger, J. Maurer, R. Boge, A. Ludwig, S. Heuser, C. Cirelli, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast resolution of tunneling delay time,” Optica 1(5), 343–349 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khan, S. D.

Kheifets, A. S.

D. Guenot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. LHuillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. B 47(24), 245602 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Palatchi, J. M. Dahlström, A. S. Kheifets, I. A. Ivanov, D. M. Canaday, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Atomic delay in helium, neon, argon and krypton,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. 47(24), 245003 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. S. Kheifets, “Time delay in valence-shell photoionization of noble-gas atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 87(6), 063404 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kienberger, R.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kitzler, M.

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173904 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kleineberg, U.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klünder, K.

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing Single-Photon Ionization on the Attosecond Time Scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Komninos, Y.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Korbman, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kotur, M.

M. Kotur, D. Guénot, Á. Jiménez-Galán, D. Kroon, E. W. Larsen, M. Louisy, S. Bengtsson, M. Miranda, J. Mauritsson, C. L. Arnold, S. E. Canton, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Carette, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, A. Maquet, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and A. L’Huillier, “Spectral phase measurement of a Fano resonance using tunable attosecond pulses,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10566 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Guenot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. LHuillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. B 47(24), 245602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Krausz, F.

V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, N. Karpowicz, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond streaking enables the measurement of quantum phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(7), 073001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173904 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kroon, D.

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M. Lucchini, A. Ludwig, L. Kasmi, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Semi-classical approach to compute RABBITT traces in multi-dimensional complex field distributions,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8867–8879 (2015).
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[Crossref]

Sansone, G.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schafer, K. J.

S. B. Schoun, R. Chirla, J. Wheeler, C. Roedig, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Attosecond pulse shaping around a Cooper minimum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(15), 153001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt-Böcking, H.

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy: a ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330(2-3), 95–192 (2000).
[Crossref]

Schoun, S. B.

S. B. Schoun, R. Chirla, J. Wheeler, C. Roedig, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Attosecond pulse shaping around a Cooper minimum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(15), 153001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schultze, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scrinzi, A.

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173904 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, F. T.

F. T. Smith, “Lifetime Matrix in Collision Theory,” Phys. Rev. 118(1), 349–356 (1960).
[Crossref]

Spielberger, L.

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy: a ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330(2-3), 95–192 (2000).
[Crossref]

Spielmann, C.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Staudte, A.

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swoboda, M.

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing Single-Photon Ionization on the Attosecond Time Scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taïeb, R.

V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J.-F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, L. Argenti, R. Taïeb, F. Martín, and P. Salières, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Science 354(6313), 734–738 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing Single-Photon Ionization on the Attosecond Time Scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carré, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mével, P. Salières, R. Taïeb, and Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 011404 (2009).
[Crossref]

Toma, E. S.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ullrich, J.

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy: a ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330(2-3), 95–192 (2000).
[Crossref]

Uphues, T.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Varjù, K.

D. Guenot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. LHuillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. B 47(24), 245602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Velotta, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weger, M.

Wei, H.

H. Wei, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Critical evaluation of attosecond time delays retrieved from photoelectron streaking measurements,” Phys. Rev. A 93(5), 053412 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wheeler, J.

S. B. Schoun, R. Chirla, J. Wheeler, C. Roedig, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Attosecond pulse shaping around a Cooper minimum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(15), 153001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wigner, E. P.

E. P. Wigner, “Lower Limit for the Energy Derivative of the Scattering Phase Shift,” Phys. Rev. 98(1), 145–147 (1955).
[Crossref]

Yakovlev, V. S.

V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, N. Karpowicz, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond streaking enables the measurement of quantum phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(7), 073001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gagnon and V. S. Yakovlev, “The robustness of attosecond streaking measurements,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17678–17693 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 25–32 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yudin, G. L.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

H. G. Muller, “Reconstruction of attosecond harmonic beating by interference of two-photon transitions,” Appl. Phys. B 74(S1), S17–S21 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92(1), 25–32 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. J. Kane, “Recent progress toward real-time measurement of ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 421–431 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Cirelli, M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Energy-dependent photoemission time delays of noble gas atoms using coincidence attosecond streaking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(5), 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. B (1)

D. Guenot, D. Kroon, E. Balogh, E. W. Larsen, M. Kotur, M. Miranda, T. Fordell, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, M. Gisselbrecht, K. Varjù, C. L. Arnold, T. Carette, A. S. Kheifets, E. Lindroth, A. LHuillier, and J. M. Dahlström, “Measurements of relative photoemission time delays in noble gas atoms,” J. Phys. B 47(24), 245602 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. (1)

C. Palatchi, J. M. Dahlström, A. S. Kheifets, I. A. Ivanov, D. M. Canaday, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Atomic delay in helium, neon, argon and krypton,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. 47(24), 245003 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

M. Kotur, D. Guénot, Á. Jiménez-Galán, D. Kroon, E. W. Larsen, M. Louisy, S. Bengtsson, M. Miranda, J. Mauritsson, C. L. Arnold, S. E. Canton, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Carette, J. M. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, A. Maquet, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and A. L’Huillier, “Spectral phase measurement of a Fano resonance using tunable attosecond pulses,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10566 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (2)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

P. D. Keathley, S. Bhardwaj, J. Moses, G. Laurent, and F. X. Kärtner, “Volkov transform generalized projection algorithm for attosecond pulse characterization,” New J. Phys. 18(7), 073009 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Optica (2)

Phys. Rep. (1)

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy: a ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330(2-3), 95–192 (2000).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (2)

E. P. Wigner, “Lower Limit for the Energy Derivative of the Scattering Phase Shift,” Phys. Rev. 98(1), 145–147 (1955).
[Crossref]

F. T. Smith, “Lifetime Matrix in Collision Theory,” Phys. Rev. 118(1), 349–356 (1960).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (6)

J. M. Dahlström, T. Carette, and E. Lindroth, “Diagrammatic approach to attosecond delays in photoionization,” Phys. Rev. A 86(6), 061402 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Wei, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Critical evaluation of attosecond time delays retrieved from photoelectron streaking measurements,” Phys. Rev. A 93(5), 053412 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 011401 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. S. Kheifets, “Time delay in valence-shell photoionization of noble-gas atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 87(6), 063404 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Carette, J. M. Dahlström, L. Argenti, and E. Lindroth, “Multiconfigurational Hartree-Fock close-coupling ansatz: Application to the argon photoionization cross section and delays,” Phys. Rev. A 87(2), 023420 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Haessler, B. Fabre, J. Higuet, J. Caillat, T. Ruchon, P. Breger, B. Carré, E. Constant, A. Maquet, E. Mével, P. Salières, R. Taïeb, and Y. Mairesse, “Phase-resolved attosecond near-threshold photoionization of molecular nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 80(1), 011404 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Klünder, J. M. Dahlström, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Fordell, M. Swoboda, D. Guénot, P. Johnsson, J. Caillat, J. Mauritsson, A. Maquet, R. Taïeb, and A. L’Huillier, “Probing Single-Photon Ionization on the Attosecond Time Scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, T. Carette, E. Lindroth, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Resonance effects in photoemission time delays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(13), 133001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Schoun, R. Chirla, J. Wheeler, C. Roedig, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Attosecond pulse shaping around a Cooper minimum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(15), 153001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, N. Karpowicz, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond streaking enables the measurement of quantum phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(7), 073001 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum theory of attosecond XUV pulse measurement by laser dressed photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173904 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, and J. Burgdörfer, “Attosecond chronoscopy of photoemission,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87(3), 765–802 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. Sabbar, S. Heuser, R. Boge, M. Lucchini, L. Gallmann, C. Cirelli, and U. Keller, “Combining attosecond XUV pulses with coincidence spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(10), 103113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (5)

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J.-F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, L. Argenti, R. Taïeb, F. Martín, and P. Salières, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Science 354(6313), 734–738 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Eckle, A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H. G. Muller, M. Büttiker, and U. Keller, “Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in helium,” Science 322(5907), 1525–1529 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, T. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 a) Schematic view of the processes underlying a RABBITT measurement: the black solid curve represents the photoelectron spectrum generated by the interaction between Ar atoms and the pump-probe beams: the XUV-APT (spectrum in the top inset, blue solid curve) and the IR. The blue arrows indicate two transitions, both from the Ar 3p ground state to the continuum via absorption of an XUV photon belonging to either the 19th high-order harmonic (HH) or the 21st. In the presence of the IR field the 20th sideband (SB) will be populated via absorption of one IR photon from HH 19 or by emission of one IR photon from HH 21 (red arrows). Recording the electron spectra for different XUV-IR delays leads to a typical spectrogram shown in b). c) Represents the continuous distribution of photoelectrons (blue shaded area) produced by interaction of a XUV-SAP (spectrum in the inset, solid blue curve) with Ar atoms. If an additional IR field is present, the full spectrum shifts proportional to the vector potential of the IR field (pink/red areas). By recording the electron spectra as a function of the pump-probe delay we obtain a streaking trace as shown in d).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 RABBITT traces for Ar 3p (a) and Ne 2p (b) measured with an XUV-APT pump and an IR probe with a center wavelength of 772 nm. The blue circle dashed lines in (c) and (d) represent the photon-energy-integrated signals of SB 20 for Ar and Ne, corresponding to the highlighted areas in Fig. (a) and (b), minus their DC component, while the red solid lines represent the frequency-filtered SB phases. e) and f) show the Fourier transform (black solid line) of the raw SB signal (blue circle dashed lines in (c) and (d)), the frequency filter (magenta solid line) and the resulted frequency-filtered SB signal (red dashed line) as a function of the frequency expressed in PHz.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 LSGPA nested reconstruction algorithm. a) and c) show the simulated streaking traces of Ar and Ne, respectively; b) and d) show the reconstructed traces based on the nested-loop method. e) shows the relative Ar-Ne delay, ΔτAr-Ne, for the nested-loop (blue solid curve) and patched (red dotted curve) reconstructed methods. The input is the dashed black curve.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulation experiments for a given input delay (grey solid curve): Difference in group delay between Ar and Ne retrieved by FROG-CRAB from simulated streaking traces (dashed curves) and RABBITT traces (scattered data points with different shapes corresponding to different IR wavelengths) using the same input delay but using different XUV chirp values with a GDD of 0 fs2, 0.01 fs2 and 0.02 fs2 (black, blue and red).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulation experiments testing the “CMA-error” hypothesis: FROG-CRAB retrieved group delay differences between Ar and Ne from simulated streaking traces with (solid) and without (dashed) the CMA for different chirp values: 0 fs2 (black), 0.01 fs2 (blue) and 0.02 fs2 (red). The simulation input is the grey solid curve.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulated Ar streaking traces for an unchirped XUV pulse (a and c) and with an XUV chirp of 0.02 fs2 (b and d) with (c and d) and without (a and b) applying the CMA. As one can observe, a main effect of the CMA is that the streaking amplitude towards low energies becomes the same as towards high energies. This effect is displayed in e) and f) which represent the spectrogram difference a) - c) and b) - d), respectively. Two temporal regions are emphasized by the dashed black lines and numbers: region (1) is the time zero XUV-IR overlap while region (2) indicates large pump-probe delays at which there is almost no interaction between the two fields.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Comparison between RABBITT-like and streaking-like sampling when assuming a moderately fast oscillating dipole phase: (a) represents the input phase [32], while (b) reports the first derivative of this phase in the finite difference approximation according to the RABBITT-like [Eq. (4)] and streaking-like [Eq. (6)] definitions obtaining the red and blue curves, respectively. The correct delay curve corresponding to the given phase is shown in black. The red and blue arrows in (a) display graphically the different sampling performed by the finite differentiation done for the case of RABBITT (red arrows) and streaking (blue arrows).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Comparison between experiments and theory: average difference in group delay between Ar and Ne as retrieved by FROG-CRAB from experimental streaking traces (blue solid curve) and by RABBITT (colored symbols) compared to the theoretical prediction (solid black curve). Additionally, the reconstructed difference in Ar-Ne group delay from the simulated streaking trace with an XUV attochirp of 0.02 fs2 (dashed blue curve), and the experimental data points (dark green scattered squares) published in [14] are shown. Our averaged experimental chirp retrieved by the FROG-CRAB algorithm is 0.0195 ± 0.006 fs2. The experimental delay difference shown for the streaking method is the result of the average of 17 independent measurements and the blue shaded area is the relative standard deviation. In case of the RABBITT data, the average has been weighted considering the standard deviation σi of the fit function [Eq. (7)] and corresponding weighted errorbars [Eq. (8)]. The 772-nm data points are the results from an average of 6 traces (yellow circles), the 765-nm data was averaged over 7 traces (red circles) and the 760-nm data over 9 traces (light green circles).

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S B 2q (t)cos( 2 ω IR tΔ φ XUV Δ φ at )
τ at = φ at E Δ φ at ΔE
Δ τ ArNe = E ( φ at Ar φ at Ne ) Δ φ at Ar Δ φ at Ne ΔE = = ( Δ φ W Ar +Δ φ cc Ar )( Δ φ W Ne +Δ φ cc Ne ) ΔE
f (t) S B 2q = A 2q e ( t t 0 σ ) 2 cos( 2πftΔ θ 2q )
Δ τ 2q ArNe (ω) Δ θ 2q Ar Δ θ 2q Ne 2 ω IR
S FROG (ω, t d )= | + P(t t d )G(t) e iωt dt | 2
S( p , t d )= | + E XUV (t t d ) d p (t) e iφ( p ,t) e i( p 2 /2+ I p )t dt | 2
φ( p ,t)= t + dt'[ p A IR (t')+ A IR 2 (t')/2 ]
dφ(E) dE = φ(E+ΔE)φ(EΔE) 2ΔE +O(Δ E 2 )
x ¯ w = i=1 N x i σ i 2 i=1 N 1 σ i 2
δ x tot = δ x w 2 +δ σ w 2 = N i=1 N ( x i x ¯ w ) 2 σ i 2 ( N1 ) i=1 N 1 σ i 2 + ( i=1 N 1 σ i i=1 N 1 σ i 2 ) 2

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