Abstract

The development of low-frequency-driven liquid crystal displays (LCDs) has recently received intense attention to open up low-power consumption display devices, such as portable displays, advertising panels and price tags. In fringe-field switching (FFS) LCD mode, a unidirectional electric field gives rise to head-tail symmetry breaking in liquid crystals, so that the flexoelectric effect, a coupling between the elastic distortion and the electric polarization, becomes enormously significant. The effect is thus linked to an unusual optical effect, which badly damages the quality of images by image-flickering, and this image-flickering is mainly caused by transmittance difference between the applied signal frames. Here, we intensively investigate the mechanism of the transmittance deviation, and propose an essential and promising approach to solve the poor image-quality, that is, symmetrization of electric fields between the frames. The result of our work clearly demonstrates that the field-symmetry is crucial to reduce the image-flickering, and it can be obtained by optimization of the thickness of an insulation layer with respect to the ratio of the space between electrodes to the electrode width.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

S.-W. Oh, J.-H. Park, J.-M. Baek, T.-H. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effect of electrode spacing on image flicker in fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 43(7), 972–979 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, D.-K. Yang, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35254 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

2014 (3)

2013 (1)

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

K. S. Ha, C. W. Woo, S. S. Bhattacharyya, H. J. Yun, H. S. Jin, Y.-K. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of optical bounce associated with two- step molecular reorientation in the fringe-field switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 39(1), 39–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881 (1998).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

W. Helfreich, “The Strength of Piezoelectricity in Liquid Crystals,” Z. Naturforsch. A 26(5), 833–835 (1971).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

R. B. Meyer, “Piezoelectric Effects in Liquid Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22(18), 918–921 (1969).
[Crossref]

Baba, H.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baek, J.-H.

Baek, J.-M.

S.-W. Oh, J.-H. Park, J.-M. Baek, T.-H. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effect of electrode spacing on image flicker in fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 43(7), 972–979 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bhattacharyya, S. S.

K. S. Ha, C. W. Woo, S. S. Bhattacharyya, H. J. Yun, H. S. Jin, Y.-K. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of optical bounce associated with two- step molecular reorientation in the fringe-field switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 39(1), 39–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bos, P. J.

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, D.-K. Yang, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35254 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, F. Peng, M. Hu, and S.-T. Wu, “Flexoelectric effect and human eye perception on the image flickering of a liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 42(12), 1730–1737 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Xu, F. Peng, H. Chen, J. Yuan, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “Image sticking in liquid crystal displays with lateral electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(19), 193102 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, F. Peng, Z. Luo, D. Xu, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “High performance liquid crystal displays with a low dielectric constant material,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(11), 2262 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choi, E.-J.

Choi, H. C.

Choi, J.-C.

Choi, T.-H.

S.-W. Oh, J.-H. Park, J.-M. Baek, T.-H. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effect of electrode spacing on image flicker in fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 43(7), 972–979 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Kim, T.-H. Choi, T.-H. Yoon, E.-J. Choi, and J.-H. Lee, “Elimination of image flicker in fringe-field switching liquid crystal display driven with low frequency electric field,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30586–30591 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chubachi, Y.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, C.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fukai, S.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ha, K. S.

K. S. Ha, C. W. Woo, S. S. Bhattacharyya, H. J. Yun, H. S. Jin, Y.-K. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of optical bounce associated with two- step molecular reorientation in the fringe-field switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 39(1), 39–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ha, Y. M.

Hatsumi, R.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Helfreich, W.

W. Helfreich, “The Strength of Piezoelectricity in Liquid Crystals,” Z. Naturforsch. A 26(5), 833–835 (1971).
[Crossref]

Hirakata, Y.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hu, M.

H. Chen, F. Peng, M. Hu, and S.-T. Wu, “Flexoelectric effect and human eye perception on the image flickering of a liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 42(12), 1730–1737 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jang, Y.-K.

K. S. Ha, C. W. Woo, S. S. Bhattacharyya, H. J. Yun, H. S. Jin, Y.-K. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of optical bounce associated with two- step molecular reorientation in the fringe-field switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 39(1), 39–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jikumaru, M.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jin, H. S.

K. S. Ha, C. W. Woo, S. S. Bhattacharyya, H. J. Yun, H. S. Jin, Y.-K. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of optical bounce associated with two- step molecular reorientation in the fringe-field switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 39(1), 39–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.-W.

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, D.-K. Yang, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35254 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H. Y.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.-R.

Kim, J.-W.

Kim, M. S.

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, D.-K. Yang, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35254 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koyama, J.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kubota, D.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kubota, Y.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kusunoki, K.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, D.-J.

Lee, J. H.

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, D.-K. Yang, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35254 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.-H.

Lee, S. H.

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, D.-K. Yang, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35254 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Ha, C. W. Woo, S. S. Bhattacharyya, H. J. Yun, H. S. Jin, Y.-K. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of optical bounce associated with two- step molecular reorientation in the fringe-field switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 39(1), 39–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. L.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-L.

D. Xu, F. Peng, H. Chen, J. Yuan, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “Image sticking in liquid crystal displays with lateral electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(19), 193102 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, F. Peng, Z. Luo, D. Xu, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “High performance liquid crystal displays with a low dielectric constant material,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(11), 2262 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, M.-C.

H. Chen, F. Peng, Z. Luo, D. Xu, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “High performance liquid crystal displays with a low dielectric constant material,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(11), 2262 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Xu, F. Peng, H. Chen, J. Yuan, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “Image sticking in liquid crystal displays with lateral electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(19), 193102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Luo, Z.

Meyer, R. B.

R. B. Meyer, “Piezoelectric Effects in Liquid Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22(18), 918–921 (1969).
[Crossref]

Moriya, K.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Oh, S.-W.

S.-W. Oh, J.-H. Park, J.-M. Baek, T.-H. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effect of electrode spacing on image flicker in fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 43(7), 972–979 (2016).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, J.-H. Park, J.-H. Lee, and T.-H. Yoon, “Elimination of image flicker in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display by applying a bipolar voltage wave,” Opt. Express 23(18), 24013–24018 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J.-H.

S.-W. Oh, J.-H. Park, J.-M. Baek, T.-H. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effect of electrode spacing on image flicker in fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 43(7), 972–979 (2016).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, J.-H. Park, J.-H. Lee, and T.-H. Yoon, “Elimination of image flicker in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display by applying a bipolar voltage wave,” Opt. Express 23(18), 24013–24018 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J.-S.

Peng, F.

H. Chen, F. Peng, M. Hu, and S.-T. Wu, “Flexoelectric effect and human eye perception on the image flickering of a liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 42(12), 1730–1737 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Xu, F. Peng, H. Chen, J. Yuan, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “Image sticking in liquid crystal displays with lateral electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(19), 193102 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, F. Peng, Z. Luo, D. Xu, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “High performance liquid crystal displays with a low dielectric constant material,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(11), 2262 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ranjkesh, A.

Shim, G.-Y.

Tsai, W.-C.

H. Chen, F. Peng, Z. Luo, D. Xu, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “High performance liquid crystal displays with a low dielectric constant material,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(11), 2262 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Xu, F. Peng, H. Chen, J. Yuan, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “Image sticking in liquid crystal displays with lateral electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(19), 193102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Woo, C. W.

K. S. Ha, C. W. Woo, S. S. Bhattacharyya, H. J. Yun, H. S. Jin, Y.-K. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of optical bounce associated with two- step molecular reorientation in the fringe-field switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 39(1), 39–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.-T.

H. Chen, F. Peng, M. Hu, and S.-T. Wu, “Flexoelectric effect and human eye perception on the image flickering of a liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 42(12), 1730–1737 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Xu, F. Peng, H. Chen, J. Yuan, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “Image sticking in liquid crystal displays with lateral electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(19), 193102 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, F. Peng, Z. Luo, D. Xu, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “High performance liquid crystal displays with a low dielectric constant material,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(11), 2262 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, D.

H. Chen, F. Peng, Z. Luo, D. Xu, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “High performance liquid crystal displays with a low dielectric constant material,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(11), 2262 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Xu, F. Peng, H. Chen, J. Yuan, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “Image sticking in liquid crystal displays with lateral electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(19), 193102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, A.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yamazaki, S.

R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, D.-K.

M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, D.-K. Yang, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35254 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, T.-H.

Yuan, J.

D. Xu, F. Peng, H. Chen, J. Yuan, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “Image sticking in liquid crystal displays with lateral electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(19), 193102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yun, H. J.

K. S. Ha, C. W. Woo, S. S. Bhattacharyya, H. J. Yun, H. S. Jin, Y.-K. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of optical bounce associated with two- step molecular reorientation in the fringe-field switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 39(1), 39–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

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[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Xu, F. Peng, H. Chen, J. Yuan, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “Image sticking in liquid crystal displays with lateral electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(19), 193102 (2014).
[Crossref]

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R. Hatsumi, S. Fukai, Y. Kubota, A. Yamashita, M. Jikumaru, H. Baba, K. Moriya, D. Kubota, K. Kusunoki, Y. Hirakata, J. Koyama, S. Yamazaki, Y. Chubachi, and C. Fujiwara, “FFS-mode OS-LCD for reducing eye strain,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 21(10), 442–450 (2013).
[Crossref]

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S.-W. Oh, J.-H. Park, J.-M. Baek, T.-H. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Effect of electrode spacing on image flicker in fringe-field-switching liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 43(7), 972–979 (2016).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

K. S. Ha, C. W. Woo, S. S. Bhattacharyya, H. J. Yun, H. S. Jin, Y.-K. Jang, and S. H. Lee, “Analysis of optical bounce associated with two- step molecular reorientation in the fringe-field switching mode,” Liq. Cryst. 39(1), 39–45 (2012).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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M. S. Kim, P. J. Bos, D.-W. Kim, D.-K. Yang, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35254 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. H. Lee and Y. J. Lim, “FFS Technology,” in Handbook of Visual Display Technology (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2015), pp. 1–21.

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H. S. Choi, J. H. Kim, H. G. Ham, Y. J. Lim, J. M. Lee, H. S. Jin, R. Manda, M. S. Kim, D.-K. Yang, and S. H. Lee, “P-131: Studies on Flickering in Low Frequency Driven Fringe-Field Switching (FFS) Liquid Crystal Display,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 47, 1610–1613 (2016).
[Crossref]

K.-C. Chu, C.-W. Huang, R.-F. Lin, C.-H. Tsai, J.-N. Yeh, S.-Y. Su, C.-J. Ou, S.-C. F. Jiang, and W.-C. Tsai, “24.1: A Method for Analyzing the Eye Strain in Fringe-Field-Switching LCD under Low-Frequency Driving,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 45, 308–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Tsuruma, Y. Goto, A. Higashi, M. Watanabe, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tomooka, and H. Kikkawa, “Novel image sticking model in the fringe field switching mode based on the flexoelectric effect,” in EuroDisplay (2011), pp. 13–16.

I. H. Jeong, I. W. Jang, D. H. Kim, J. S. Han, B. V. Kumar, S. H. Lee, S. H. Ahn, S. H. Cho, and C. Yi, “P.101: Investigation on Flexoelectric Effect in the Fringe Field Switching Mode,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 44, 1368–1371 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Flexoelectric effect in a fringe-field switching (FFS) liquid crystal cell. (a-c) Cell schematics and POM images driven at f = (a) 60 Hz and (b, c) 1 Hz at 6.2 V (50% of maximum transmittance) in (b) positive and (c) negative frames. The red arrows represent the direction of electric fields. (d-f) Simulated optical appearance and director fields at (a) es (eb) = 0 (0) and (b, c) es (eb) = 15 (−5) in (b) positive and (c) negative frames at 6.2 V.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental investigation of the flexoelectric effect in FFS and IPS modes driven by 1 Hz at 6.2 V. POM images of positive and negative frames in (a) FFS and (b) IPS modes. Scale bars are 40 μm. (c) Local transmittance curves with respect to the location in the insets in (a, b).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Symmetry argument of applied electric fields and local transmittance in FFS and IPS modes. (a) Schematic illustration of the field symmetry for positive and negative frames. The mirror inversion of the fields is the same for both frames in IPS but not in FFS mode. (b) Experimental comparison between the local transmittance and its horizontal mirror inversion.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Effect of the thickness of an insulation layer. (a) Voltage-dependent transmittance without and with flexoelectric effect in positive and negative frames. (b) Schematic description of the field-symmetrization by changing the insulation layer. (c) Voltage-dependent transmittance difference ΔT / Tavg with respect to the thickness of the insulation layer.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Symmetrization of the applied electric fields by changing the insulation layer thickness at maximum transmittance. Gray lines indicate the magnitude difference with respect to the h.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a-e) Calculated transmittance difference ΔT / Tavg with respect to the ratio between the space between electrodes to the electrode width (l / w) at various thicknesses of the insulation layer at maximum transmittance. The black arrows indicate the minimum ΔT / Tavg. (f) Non-linear relation between the optimized l / w as a function of the h.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Comparison of reduced image-flickering for two structural conditions (l / w = 1.3, w = 3.5 μm, h = 0.3 μm for (a,c)) and (l / w = 1.7, w = 3.5 μm, h = 0.3 μm for (b,d)). (a,b) Voltage-dependent and (c,d) time-dependent transmittances when there are (a,c) image-flickering and (b,d) reduced image-flickering. The red circles in (c-d) indicate some known phenomenon during electro-optic switching in FFS mode, so called optical bounce [19].

Equations (4)

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P f = e s n( n )+ e b n×( ×n ),
f elas = 1 2 ( K 11 [ n ] 2 + K 22 [ n( ×n ) ] 2 + K 33 [ n×( ×n ) ] 2 ),
f dielec = 1 2 ε 0 Δε ( nE ) 2 ,
f flexo =[ e s n( n )+ e b n×( ×n ) ]E.

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