Abstract

In vivo flow cytometry provides a non-invasive way of probing the biology of circulating cells during disease progression and studying cellular response to therapy. However, current methods provide little morphological information which potentially could be new biological marker for early disease diagnosis, and fail to reveal intercellular interactions. Here we report a multi-color, multiphoton in vivo imaging flow cytometry, to image circulating cells within the vasculature of scattering tissues at high spatiotemporal resolution. We apply it in imaging of cellular dynamics in bone marrow through the intact mouse skull, in situ deformability cytometry, distinguishing cellular clusters, and simultaneously monitoring multiple types of trafficking cells based on their morphologies and fluorescence emission colors.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. S. R. Walsh, E. J. Cook, F. Goulder, T. A. Justin, and N. J. Keeling, “Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio as a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer,” J. Surg. Oncol. 91(3), 181–184 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (7)

J. H. Park, W. Sun, and M. Cui, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of mouse brain through the intact skull,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(30), 9236–9241 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Kong and M. Cui, “In vivo neuroimaging through the highly scattering tissue via iterative multi-photon adaptive compensation technique,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6145–6150 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Kong and M. Cui, “In vivo deep tissue imaging via iterative multi-photon adaptive compensation technique,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 99, 1 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Choi, D. N. Wadduwage, T. Y. Tu, P. Matsudaira, and P. T. C. So, “Three-dimensional image cytometer based on widefield structured light microscopy and high-speed remote depth scanning,” Cytometry A 87(1), 49–60 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. He, D. Xu, H. Qin, S. Yang, and D. Xing, “In vivo cell characteristic extraction and identification by photoacoustic flow cytography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(10), 3748–3756 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Kong, J. Tang, J. P. Little, Y. Yu, T. Lämmermann, C. P. Lin, R. N. Germain, and M. Cui, “Continuous volumetric imaging via an optical phase-locked ultrasound lens,” Nat. Methods 12(8), 759–762 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Otto, P. Rosendahl, A. Mietke, S. Golfier, C. Herold, D. Klaue, S. Girardo, S. Pagliara, A. Ekpenyong, A. Jacobi, M. Wobus, N. Töpfner, U. F. Keyser, J. Mansfeld, E. Fischer-Friedrich, and J. Guck, “Real-time deformability cytometry: On-the-fly cell mechanical phenotyping,” Nat. Methods 12(3), 199–202 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

M. Duocastella, G. Vicidomini, and A. Diaspro, “Simultaneous multiplane confocal microscopy using acoustic tunable lenses,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19293–19301 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Turcotte, C. Alt, L. J. Mortensen, and C. P. Lin, “Characterization of multiphoton microscopy in the bone marrow following intravital laser osteotomy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3578–3588 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Aceto, A. Bardia, D. T. Miyamoto, M. C. Donaldson, B. S. Wittner, J. A. Spencer, M. Yu, A. Pely, A. Engstrom, H. Zhu, B. W. Brannigan, R. Kapur, S. L. Stott, T. Shioda, S. Ramaswamy, D. T. Ting, C. P. Lin, M. Toner, D. A. Haber, and S. Maheswaran, “Circulating tumor cell clusters are oligoclonal precursors of breast cancer metastasis,” Cell 158(5), 1110–1122 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Nedosekin, V. V. Verkhusha, A. V. Melerzanov, V. P. Zharov, and E. I. Galanzha, “In vivo photoswitchable flow cytometry for direct tracking of single circulating tumor cells,” Chem. Biol. 21(6), 792–801 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Kong and M. Cui, “In vivo fluorescence microscopy via iterative multi-photon adaptive compensation technique,” Opt. Express 22(20), 23786–23794 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

Y. Zeng, B. Yan, Q. Sun, S. K. Teh, W. Zhang, Z. Wen, and J. Y. Qu, “Label-free in vivo imaging of human leukocytes using two-photon excited endogenous fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(4), 040504 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Daly and M. J. Leahy, “‘Go with the flow ’: A review of methods and advancements in blood flow imaging,” J. Biophotonics 6(3), 217–255 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Lämmermann, P. V. Afonso, B. R. Angermann, J. M. Wang, W. Kastenmüller, C. A. Parent, and R. N. Germain, “Neutrophil swarms require ltb4 and integrins at sites of cell death in vivo,” Nature 498(7454), 371–375 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Tokgoz, M. Kayrak, Z. Akpinar, A. Seyithanoğlu, F. Güney, and B. Yürüten, “Neutrophil lymphocyte ratio as a predictor of stroke,” J. Stroke Cerebrovasc. Dis. 22(7), 1169–1174 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

J. Tang, R. N. Germain, and M. Cui, “Superpenetration optical microscopy by iterative multiphoton adaptive compensation technique,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(22), 8434–8439 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Gossett, H. T. K. Tse, S. A. Lee, Y. Ying, A. G. Lindgren, O. O. Yang, J. Rao, A. T. Clark, and D. Di Carlo, “Hydrodynamic stretching of single cells for large population mechanical phenotyping,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(20), 7630–7635 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Katona, G. Szalay, P. Maák, A. Kaszás, M. Veress, D. Hillier, B. Chiovini, E. S. Vizi, B. Roska, and B. Rózsa, “Fast two-photon in vivo imaging with three-dimensional random-access scanning in large tissue volumes,” Nat. Methods 9(2), 201–208 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-C. Fan, J. Yan, G.-D. Liu, X.-Y. Tan, X.-F. Weng, W.-Z. Wu, J. Zhou, and X.-B. Wei, “Real-time monitoring of rare circulating hepatocellular carcinoma cells in an orthotopic model by in vivo flow cytometry assesses resection on metastasis,” Cancer Res. 72(10), 2683–2691 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Botcherby, C. W. Smith, M. M. Kohl, D. Débarre, M. J. Booth, R. Juškaitis, O. Paulsen, and T. Wilson, “Aberration-free three-dimensional multiphoton imaging of neuronal activity at khz rates,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(8), 2919–2924 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

F. Anselmi, C. Ventalon, A. Bègue, D. Ogden, and V. Emiliani, “Three-dimensional imaging and photostimulation by remote-focusing and holographic light patterning,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(49), 19504–19509 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Pitsillides, J. M. Runnels, J. A. Spencer, L. Zhi, M. X. Wu, and C. P. Lin, “Cell labeling approaches for fluorescence-based in vivo flow cytometry,” Cytometry A 79A(10), 758–765 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. R. Tkaczyk and A. H. Tkaczyk, “Multiphoton flow cytometry strategies and applications,” Cytometry A 79(10), 775–788 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Morgan, “Can new optical techniques for in vivo imaging and flow cytometry of the microcirculation benefit sickle cell disease research?” Cytometry A 79A(10), 766–774 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. V. Tuchin, A. Tárnok, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo flow cytometry: A horizon of opportunities,” Cytometry A 79(10), 737–745 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Niesner and A. E. Hauser, “Recent advances in dynamic intravital multi-photon microscopy,” Cytometry A 79(10), 789–798 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

C. Li, R. K. Pastila, C. Pitsillides, J. M. Runnels, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, and C. P. Lin, “Imaging leukocyte trafficking in vivo with two-photon-excited endogenous tryptophan fluorescence,” Opt. Express 18(2), 988–999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Chang, J. Y. Ye, T. P. Thomas, Z. Cao, A. Kotlyar, E. R. Tkaczyk, J. R. Baker, and T. B. Norris, “Fiber-optic multiphoton flow cytometry in whole blood and in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 047004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

W. Min, S. Lu, S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging chromophores with undetectable fluorescence by stimulated emission microscopy,” Nature 461(7267), 1105–1109 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lo Celso, J. W. Wu, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo imaging of hematopoietic stem cells and their microenvironment,” J. Biophotonics 2(11), 619–631 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

G. Duemani Reddy, K. Kelleher, R. Fink, and P. Saggau, “Three-dimensional random access multiphoton microscopy for functional imaging of neuronal activity,” Nat. Neurosci. 11(6), 713–720 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. R. Tkaczyk, C. F. Zhong, J. Y. Ye, A. Myc, T. Thomas, Z. Cao, R. Duran-Struuck, K. E. Luker, G. D. Luker, T. B. Norris, and J. R. Baker., “In vivo monitoring of multiple circulating cell populations using two-photon flow cytometry,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 888–894 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Veilleux, J. A. Spencer, D. P. Biss, D. Cote, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo cell tracking with video rate multimodality laser scanning microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(1), 10–18 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

W. He, H. Wang, L. C. Hartmann, J.-X. Cheng, and P. S. Low, “In vivo quantitation of rare circulating tumor cells by multiphoton intravital flow cytometry,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(28), 11760–11765 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Boutrus, C. Greiner, D. Hwu, M. Chan, C. Kuperwasser, C. P. Lin, and I. Georgakoudi, “Portable two-color in vivo flow cytometer for real-time detection of fluorescently-labeled circulating cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 020507 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, Y. Menyaev, and V. V. Tuchin, “In vivo high-speed imaging of individual cells in fast blood flow,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054034 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lee, C. Alt, C. M. Pitsillides, M. Puoris’haag, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo imaging flow cytometer,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7789–7800 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. R. Walsh, E. J. Cook, F. Goulder, T. A. Justin, and N. J. Keeling, “Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio as a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer,” J. Surg. Oncol. 91(3), 181–184 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

I. Georgakoudi, N. Solban, J. Novak, W. L. Rice, X. Wei, T. Hasan, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo flow cytometry: a new method for enumerating circulating cancer cells,” Cancer Res. 64(15), 5044–5047 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

S. Jung, J. Aliberti, P. Graemmel, M. J. Sunshine, G. W. Kreutzberg, A. Sher, and D. R. Littman, “Analysis of fractalkine receptor cx(3)crl function by targeted deletion and green fluorescent protein reporter gene insertion,” Mol. Cell. Biol. 20(11), 4106–4114 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aceto, N.

N. Aceto, A. Bardia, D. T. Miyamoto, M. C. Donaldson, B. S. Wittner, J. A. Spencer, M. Yu, A. Pely, A. Engstrom, H. Zhu, B. W. Brannigan, R. Kapur, S. L. Stott, T. Shioda, S. Ramaswamy, D. T. Ting, C. P. Lin, M. Toner, D. A. Haber, and S. Maheswaran, “Circulating tumor cell clusters are oligoclonal precursors of breast cancer metastasis,” Cell 158(5), 1110–1122 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Afonso, P. V.

T. Lämmermann, P. V. Afonso, B. R. Angermann, J. M. Wang, W. Kastenmüller, C. A. Parent, and R. N. Germain, “Neutrophil swarms require ltb4 and integrins at sites of cell death in vivo,” Nature 498(7454), 371–375 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akpinar, Z.

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T. Lämmermann, P. V. Afonso, B. R. Angermann, J. M. Wang, W. Kastenmüller, C. A. Parent, and R. N. Germain, “Neutrophil swarms require ltb4 and integrins at sites of cell death in vivo,” Nature 498(7454), 371–375 (2013).
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J. Tang, R. N. Germain, and M. Cui, “Superpenetration optical microscopy by iterative multiphoton adaptive compensation technique,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(22), 8434–8439 (2012).
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S. Tokgoz, M. Kayrak, Z. Akpinar, A. Seyithanoğlu, F. Güney, and B. Yürüten, “Neutrophil lymphocyte ratio as a predictor of stroke,” J. Stroke Cerebrovasc. Dis. 22(7), 1169–1174 (2013).
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N. Aceto, A. Bardia, D. T. Miyamoto, M. C. Donaldson, B. S. Wittner, J. A. Spencer, M. Yu, A. Pely, A. Engstrom, H. Zhu, B. W. Brannigan, R. Kapur, S. L. Stott, T. Shioda, S. Ramaswamy, D. T. Ting, C. P. Lin, M. Toner, D. A. Haber, and S. Maheswaran, “Circulating tumor cell clusters are oligoclonal precursors of breast cancer metastasis,” Cell 158(5), 1110–1122 (2014).
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W. He, H. Wang, L. C. Hartmann, J.-X. Cheng, and P. S. Low, “In vivo quantitation of rare circulating tumor cells by multiphoton intravital flow cytometry,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(28), 11760–11765 (2007).
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He, W.

W. He, H. Wang, L. C. Hartmann, J.-X. Cheng, and P. S. Low, “In vivo quantitation of rare circulating tumor cells by multiphoton intravital flow cytometry,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(28), 11760–11765 (2007).
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O. Otto, P. Rosendahl, A. Mietke, S. Golfier, C. Herold, D. Klaue, S. Girardo, S. Pagliara, A. Ekpenyong, A. Jacobi, M. Wobus, N. Töpfner, U. F. Keyser, J. Mansfeld, E. Fischer-Friedrich, and J. Guck, “Real-time deformability cytometry: On-the-fly cell mechanical phenotyping,” Nat. Methods 12(3), 199–202 (2015).
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W. Min, S. Lu, S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging chromophores with undetectable fluorescence by stimulated emission microscopy,” Nature 461(7267), 1105–1109 (2009).
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S. Boutrus, C. Greiner, D. Hwu, M. Chan, C. Kuperwasser, C. P. Lin, and I. Georgakoudi, “Portable two-color in vivo flow cytometer for real-time detection of fluorescently-labeled circulating cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 020507 (2007).
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S. Jung, J. Aliberti, P. Graemmel, M. J. Sunshine, G. W. Kreutzberg, A. Sher, and D. R. Littman, “Analysis of fractalkine receptor cx(3)crl function by targeted deletion and green fluorescent protein reporter gene insertion,” Mol. Cell. Biol. 20(11), 4106–4114 (2000).
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E. J. Botcherby, C. W. Smith, M. M. Kohl, D. Débarre, M. J. Booth, R. Juškaitis, O. Paulsen, and T. Wilson, “Aberration-free three-dimensional multiphoton imaging of neuronal activity at khz rates,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(8), 2919–2924 (2012).
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S. R. Walsh, E. J. Cook, F. Goulder, T. A. Justin, and N. J. Keeling, “Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio as a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer,” J. Surg. Oncol. 91(3), 181–184 (2005).
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C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
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Kastenmüller, W.

T. Lämmermann, P. V. Afonso, B. R. Angermann, J. M. Wang, W. Kastenmüller, C. A. Parent, and R. N. Germain, “Neutrophil swarms require ltb4 and integrins at sites of cell death in vivo,” Nature 498(7454), 371–375 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaszás, A.

G. Katona, G. Szalay, P. Maák, A. Kaszás, M. Veress, D. Hillier, B. Chiovini, E. S. Vizi, B. Roska, and B. Rózsa, “Fast two-photon in vivo imaging with three-dimensional random-access scanning in large tissue volumes,” Nat. Methods 9(2), 201–208 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Katona, G.

G. Katona, G. Szalay, P. Maák, A. Kaszás, M. Veress, D. Hillier, B. Chiovini, E. S. Vizi, B. Roska, and B. Rózsa, “Fast two-photon in vivo imaging with three-dimensional random-access scanning in large tissue volumes,” Nat. Methods 9(2), 201–208 (2012).
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Kayrak, M.

S. Tokgoz, M. Kayrak, Z. Akpinar, A. Seyithanoğlu, F. Güney, and B. Yürüten, “Neutrophil lymphocyte ratio as a predictor of stroke,” J. Stroke Cerebrovasc. Dis. 22(7), 1169–1174 (2013).
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Keeling, N. J.

S. R. Walsh, E. J. Cook, F. Goulder, T. A. Justin, and N. J. Keeling, “Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio as a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer,” J. Surg. Oncol. 91(3), 181–184 (2005).
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Kelleher, K.

G. Duemani Reddy, K. Kelleher, R. Fink, and P. Saggau, “Three-dimensional random access multiphoton microscopy for functional imaging of neuronal activity,” Nat. Neurosci. 11(6), 713–720 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keyser, U. F.

O. Otto, P. Rosendahl, A. Mietke, S. Golfier, C. Herold, D. Klaue, S. Girardo, S. Pagliara, A. Ekpenyong, A. Jacobi, M. Wobus, N. Töpfner, U. F. Keyser, J. Mansfeld, E. Fischer-Friedrich, and J. Guck, “Real-time deformability cytometry: On-the-fly cell mechanical phenotyping,” Nat. Methods 12(3), 199–202 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klaue, D.

O. Otto, P. Rosendahl, A. Mietke, S. Golfier, C. Herold, D. Klaue, S. Girardo, S. Pagliara, A. Ekpenyong, A. Jacobi, M. Wobus, N. Töpfner, U. F. Keyser, J. Mansfeld, E. Fischer-Friedrich, and J. Guck, “Real-time deformability cytometry: On-the-fly cell mechanical phenotyping,” Nat. Methods 12(3), 199–202 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kohl, M. M.

E. J. Botcherby, C. W. Smith, M. M. Kohl, D. Débarre, M. J. Booth, R. Juškaitis, O. Paulsen, and T. Wilson, “Aberration-free three-dimensional multiphoton imaging of neuronal activity at khz rates,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(8), 2919–2924 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kong, L.

Kotlyar, A.

Y.-C. Chang, J. Y. Ye, T. P. Thomas, Z. Cao, A. Kotlyar, E. R. Tkaczyk, J. R. Baker, and T. B. Norris, “Fiber-optic multiphoton flow cytometry in whole blood and in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 047004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kreutzberg, G. W.

S. Jung, J. Aliberti, P. Graemmel, M. J. Sunshine, G. W. Kreutzberg, A. Sher, and D. R. Littman, “Analysis of fractalkine receptor cx(3)crl function by targeted deletion and green fluorescent protein reporter gene insertion,” Mol. Cell. Biol. 20(11), 4106–4114 (2000).
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Kuperwasser, C.

S. Boutrus, C. Greiner, D. Hwu, M. Chan, C. Kuperwasser, C. P. Lin, and I. Georgakoudi, “Portable two-color in vivo flow cytometer for real-time detection of fluorescently-labeled circulating cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 020507 (2007).
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Lämmermann, T.

L. Kong, J. Tang, J. P. Little, Y. Yu, T. Lämmermann, C. P. Lin, R. N. Germain, and M. Cui, “Continuous volumetric imaging via an optical phase-locked ultrasound lens,” Nat. Methods 12(8), 759–762 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Lämmermann, P. V. Afonso, B. R. Angermann, J. M. Wang, W. Kastenmüller, C. A. Parent, and R. N. Germain, “Neutrophil swarms require ltb4 and integrins at sites of cell death in vivo,” Nature 498(7454), 371–375 (2013).
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Leahy, M. J.

S. M. Daly and M. J. Leahy, “‘Go with the flow ’: A review of methods and advancements in blood flow imaging,” J. Biophotonics 6(3), 217–255 (2013).
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Lee, H.

Lee, S. A.

D. R. Gossett, H. T. K. Tse, S. A. Lee, Y. Ying, A. G. Lindgren, O. O. Yang, J. Rao, A. T. Clark, and D. Di Carlo, “Hydrodynamic stretching of single cells for large population mechanical phenotyping,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(20), 7630–7635 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, C.

Lin, C. P.

L. Kong, J. Tang, J. P. Little, Y. Yu, T. Lämmermann, C. P. Lin, R. N. Germain, and M. Cui, “Continuous volumetric imaging via an optical phase-locked ultrasound lens,” Nat. Methods 12(8), 759–762 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Aceto, A. Bardia, D. T. Miyamoto, M. C. Donaldson, B. S. Wittner, J. A. Spencer, M. Yu, A. Pely, A. Engstrom, H. Zhu, B. W. Brannigan, R. Kapur, S. L. Stott, T. Shioda, S. Ramaswamy, D. T. Ting, C. P. Lin, M. Toner, D. A. Haber, and S. Maheswaran, “Circulating tumor cell clusters are oligoclonal precursors of breast cancer metastasis,” Cell 158(5), 1110–1122 (2014).
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R. Turcotte, C. Alt, L. J. Mortensen, and C. P. Lin, “Characterization of multiphoton microscopy in the bone marrow following intravital laser osteotomy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3578–3588 (2014).
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C. M. Pitsillides, J. M. Runnels, J. A. Spencer, L. Zhi, M. X. Wu, and C. P. Lin, “Cell labeling approaches for fluorescence-based in vivo flow cytometry,” Cytometry A 79A(10), 758–765 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, R. K. Pastila, C. Pitsillides, J. M. Runnels, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, and C. P. Lin, “Imaging leukocyte trafficking in vivo with two-photon-excited endogenous tryptophan fluorescence,” Opt. Express 18(2), 988–999 (2010).
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C. Lo Celso, J. W. Wu, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo imaging of hematopoietic stem cells and their microenvironment,” J. Biophotonics 2(11), 619–631 (2009).
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I. Veilleux, J. A. Spencer, D. P. Biss, D. Cote, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo cell tracking with video rate multimodality laser scanning microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(1), 10–18 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Boutrus, C. Greiner, D. Hwu, M. Chan, C. Kuperwasser, C. P. Lin, and I. Georgakoudi, “Portable two-color in vivo flow cytometer for real-time detection of fluorescently-labeled circulating cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 020507 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lee, C. Alt, C. M. Pitsillides, M. Puoris’haag, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo imaging flow cytometer,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7789–7800 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, N. Solban, J. Novak, W. L. Rice, X. Wei, T. Hasan, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo flow cytometry: a new method for enumerating circulating cancer cells,” Cancer Res. 64(15), 5044–5047 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lindgren, A. G.

D. R. Gossett, H. T. K. Tse, S. A. Lee, Y. Ying, A. G. Lindgren, O. O. Yang, J. Rao, A. T. Clark, and D. Di Carlo, “Hydrodynamic stretching of single cells for large population mechanical phenotyping,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(20), 7630–7635 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Little, J. P.

L. Kong, J. Tang, J. P. Little, Y. Yu, T. Lämmermann, C. P. Lin, R. N. Germain, and M. Cui, “Continuous volumetric imaging via an optical phase-locked ultrasound lens,” Nat. Methods 12(8), 759–762 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Littman, D. R.

S. Jung, J. Aliberti, P. Graemmel, M. J. Sunshine, G. W. Kreutzberg, A. Sher, and D. R. Littman, “Analysis of fractalkine receptor cx(3)crl function by targeted deletion and green fluorescent protein reporter gene insertion,” Mol. Cell. Biol. 20(11), 4106–4114 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, G.-D.

Z.-C. Fan, J. Yan, G.-D. Liu, X.-Y. Tan, X.-F. Weng, W.-Z. Wu, J. Zhou, and X.-B. Wei, “Real-time monitoring of rare circulating hepatocellular carcinoma cells in an orthotopic model by in vivo flow cytometry assesses resection on metastasis,” Cancer Res. 72(10), 2683–2691 (2012).
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Lo Celso, C.

C. Lo Celso, J. W. Wu, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo imaging of hematopoietic stem cells and their microenvironment,” J. Biophotonics 2(11), 619–631 (2009).
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Low, P. S.

W. He, H. Wang, L. C. Hartmann, J.-X. Cheng, and P. S. Low, “In vivo quantitation of rare circulating tumor cells by multiphoton intravital flow cytometry,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(28), 11760–11765 (2007).
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Lu, S.

W. Min, S. Lu, S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging chromophores with undetectable fluorescence by stimulated emission microscopy,” Nature 461(7267), 1105–1109 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luker, G. D.

E. R. Tkaczyk, C. F. Zhong, J. Y. Ye, A. Myc, T. Thomas, Z. Cao, R. Duran-Struuck, K. E. Luker, G. D. Luker, T. B. Norris, and J. R. Baker., “In vivo monitoring of multiple circulating cell populations using two-photon flow cytometry,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 888–894 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luker, K. E.

E. R. Tkaczyk, C. F. Zhong, J. Y. Ye, A. Myc, T. Thomas, Z. Cao, R. Duran-Struuck, K. E. Luker, G. D. Luker, T. B. Norris, and J. R. Baker., “In vivo monitoring of multiple circulating cell populations using two-photon flow cytometry,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 888–894 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maák, P.

G. Katona, G. Szalay, P. Maák, A. Kaszás, M. Veress, D. Hillier, B. Chiovini, E. S. Vizi, B. Roska, and B. Rózsa, “Fast two-photon in vivo imaging with three-dimensional random-access scanning in large tissue volumes,” Nat. Methods 9(2), 201–208 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maheswaran, S.

N. Aceto, A. Bardia, D. T. Miyamoto, M. C. Donaldson, B. S. Wittner, J. A. Spencer, M. Yu, A. Pely, A. Engstrom, H. Zhu, B. W. Brannigan, R. Kapur, S. L. Stott, T. Shioda, S. Ramaswamy, D. T. Ting, C. P. Lin, M. Toner, D. A. Haber, and S. Maheswaran, “Circulating tumor cell clusters are oligoclonal precursors of breast cancer metastasis,” Cell 158(5), 1110–1122 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mansfeld, J.

O. Otto, P. Rosendahl, A. Mietke, S. Golfier, C. Herold, D. Klaue, S. Girardo, S. Pagliara, A. Ekpenyong, A. Jacobi, M. Wobus, N. Töpfner, U. F. Keyser, J. Mansfeld, E. Fischer-Friedrich, and J. Guck, “Real-time deformability cytometry: On-the-fly cell mechanical phenotyping,” Nat. Methods 12(3), 199–202 (2015).
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Matsudaira, P.

H. Choi, D. N. Wadduwage, T. Y. Tu, P. Matsudaira, and P. T. C. So, “Three-dimensional image cytometer based on widefield structured light microscopy and high-speed remote depth scanning,” Cytometry A 87(1), 49–60 (2015).
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Melerzanov, A. V.

D. A. Nedosekin, V. V. Verkhusha, A. V. Melerzanov, V. P. Zharov, and E. I. Galanzha, “In vivo photoswitchable flow cytometry for direct tracking of single circulating tumor cells,” Chem. Biol. 21(6), 792–801 (2014).
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Menyaev, Y.

V. P. Zharov, E. I. Galanzha, Y. Menyaev, and V. V. Tuchin, “In vivo high-speed imaging of individual cells in fast blood flow,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054034 (2006).
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Mietke, A.

O. Otto, P. Rosendahl, A. Mietke, S. Golfier, C. Herold, D. Klaue, S. Girardo, S. Pagliara, A. Ekpenyong, A. Jacobi, M. Wobus, N. Töpfner, U. F. Keyser, J. Mansfeld, E. Fischer-Friedrich, and J. Guck, “Real-time deformability cytometry: On-the-fly cell mechanical phenotyping,” Nat. Methods 12(3), 199–202 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Min, W.

W. Min, S. Lu, S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging chromophores with undetectable fluorescence by stimulated emission microscopy,” Nature 461(7267), 1105–1109 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miyamoto, D. T.

N. Aceto, A. Bardia, D. T. Miyamoto, M. C. Donaldson, B. S. Wittner, J. A. Spencer, M. Yu, A. Pely, A. Engstrom, H. Zhu, B. W. Brannigan, R. Kapur, S. L. Stott, T. Shioda, S. Ramaswamy, D. T. Ting, C. P. Lin, M. Toner, D. A. Haber, and S. Maheswaran, “Circulating tumor cell clusters are oligoclonal precursors of breast cancer metastasis,” Cell 158(5), 1110–1122 (2014).
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Morgan, S. P.

S. P. Morgan, “Can new optical techniques for in vivo imaging and flow cytometry of the microcirculation benefit sickle cell disease research?” Cytometry A 79A(10), 766–774 (2011).
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Mortensen, L. J.

Myc, A.

E. R. Tkaczyk, C. F. Zhong, J. Y. Ye, A. Myc, T. Thomas, Z. Cao, R. Duran-Struuck, K. E. Luker, G. D. Luker, T. B. Norris, and J. R. Baker., “In vivo monitoring of multiple circulating cell populations using two-photon flow cytometry,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 888–894 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nedosekin, D. A.

D. A. Nedosekin, V. V. Verkhusha, A. V. Melerzanov, V. P. Zharov, and E. I. Galanzha, “In vivo photoswitchable flow cytometry for direct tracking of single circulating tumor cells,” Chem. Biol. 21(6), 792–801 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niesner, R. A.

R. A. Niesner and A. E. Hauser, “Recent advances in dynamic intravital multi-photon microscopy,” Cytometry A 79(10), 789–798 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Norris, T. B.

Y.-C. Chang, J. Y. Ye, T. P. Thomas, Z. Cao, A. Kotlyar, E. R. Tkaczyk, J. R. Baker, and T. B. Norris, “Fiber-optic multiphoton flow cytometry in whole blood and in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 047004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. R. Tkaczyk, C. F. Zhong, J. Y. Ye, A. Myc, T. Thomas, Z. Cao, R. Duran-Struuck, K. E. Luker, G. D. Luker, T. B. Norris, and J. R. Baker., “In vivo monitoring of multiple circulating cell populations using two-photon flow cytometry,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 888–894 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Novak, J.

I. Georgakoudi, N. Solban, J. Novak, W. L. Rice, X. Wei, T. Hasan, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo flow cytometry: a new method for enumerating circulating cancer cells,” Cancer Res. 64(15), 5044–5047 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ogden, D.

F. Anselmi, C. Ventalon, A. Bègue, D. Ogden, and V. Emiliani, “Three-dimensional imaging and photostimulation by remote-focusing and holographic light patterning,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(49), 19504–19509 (2011).
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Otto, O.

O. Otto, P. Rosendahl, A. Mietke, S. Golfier, C. Herold, D. Klaue, S. Girardo, S. Pagliara, A. Ekpenyong, A. Jacobi, M. Wobus, N. Töpfner, U. F. Keyser, J. Mansfeld, E. Fischer-Friedrich, and J. Guck, “Real-time deformability cytometry: On-the-fly cell mechanical phenotyping,” Nat. Methods 12(3), 199–202 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pagliara, S.

O. Otto, P. Rosendahl, A. Mietke, S. Golfier, C. Herold, D. Klaue, S. Girardo, S. Pagliara, A. Ekpenyong, A. Jacobi, M. Wobus, N. Töpfner, U. F. Keyser, J. Mansfeld, E. Fischer-Friedrich, and J. Guck, “Real-time deformability cytometry: On-the-fly cell mechanical phenotyping,” Nat. Methods 12(3), 199–202 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parent, C. A.

T. Lämmermann, P. V. Afonso, B. R. Angermann, J. M. Wang, W. Kastenmüller, C. A. Parent, and R. N. Germain, “Neutrophil swarms require ltb4 and integrins at sites of cell death in vivo,” Nature 498(7454), 371–375 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J. H.

J. H. Park, W. Sun, and M. Cui, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of mouse brain through the intact skull,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(30), 9236–9241 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pastila, R. K.

Paulsen, O.

E. J. Botcherby, C. W. Smith, M. M. Kohl, D. Débarre, M. J. Booth, R. Juškaitis, O. Paulsen, and T. Wilson, “Aberration-free three-dimensional multiphoton imaging of neuronal activity at khz rates,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(8), 2919–2924 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pely, A.

N. Aceto, A. Bardia, D. T. Miyamoto, M. C. Donaldson, B. S. Wittner, J. A. Spencer, M. Yu, A. Pely, A. Engstrom, H. Zhu, B. W. Brannigan, R. Kapur, S. L. Stott, T. Shioda, S. Ramaswamy, D. T. Ting, C. P. Lin, M. Toner, D. A. Haber, and S. Maheswaran, “Circulating tumor cell clusters are oligoclonal precursors of breast cancer metastasis,” Cell 158(5), 1110–1122 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pitsillides, C.

Pitsillides, C. M.

C. M. Pitsillides, J. M. Runnels, J. A. Spencer, L. Zhi, M. X. Wu, and C. P. Lin, “Cell labeling approaches for fluorescence-based in vivo flow cytometry,” Cytometry A 79A(10), 758–765 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lee, C. Alt, C. M. Pitsillides, M. Puoris’haag, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo imaging flow cytometer,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7789–7800 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puoris’haag, M.

Qin, H.

Qu, J. Y.

Y. Zeng, B. Yan, Q. Sun, S. K. Teh, W. Zhang, Z. Wen, and J. Y. Qu, “Label-free in vivo imaging of human leukocytes using two-photon excited endogenous fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(4), 040504 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramaswamy, S.

N. Aceto, A. Bardia, D. T. Miyamoto, M. C. Donaldson, B. S. Wittner, J. A. Spencer, M. Yu, A. Pely, A. Engstrom, H. Zhu, B. W. Brannigan, R. Kapur, S. L. Stott, T. Shioda, S. Ramaswamy, D. T. Ting, C. P. Lin, M. Toner, D. A. Haber, and S. Maheswaran, “Circulating tumor cell clusters are oligoclonal precursors of breast cancer metastasis,” Cell 158(5), 1110–1122 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rao, J.

D. R. Gossett, H. T. K. Tse, S. A. Lee, Y. Ying, A. G. Lindgren, O. O. Yang, J. Rao, A. T. Clark, and D. Di Carlo, “Hydrodynamic stretching of single cells for large population mechanical phenotyping,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(20), 7630–7635 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rice, W. L.

I. Georgakoudi, N. Solban, J. Novak, W. L. Rice, X. Wei, T. Hasan, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo flow cytometry: a new method for enumerating circulating cancer cells,” Cancer Res. 64(15), 5044–5047 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosendahl, P.

O. Otto, P. Rosendahl, A. Mietke, S. Golfier, C. Herold, D. Klaue, S. Girardo, S. Pagliara, A. Ekpenyong, A. Jacobi, M. Wobus, N. Töpfner, U. F. Keyser, J. Mansfeld, E. Fischer-Friedrich, and J. Guck, “Real-time deformability cytometry: On-the-fly cell mechanical phenotyping,” Nat. Methods 12(3), 199–202 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roska, B.

G. Katona, G. Szalay, P. Maák, A. Kaszás, M. Veress, D. Hillier, B. Chiovini, E. S. Vizi, B. Roska, and B. Rózsa, “Fast two-photon in vivo imaging with three-dimensional random-access scanning in large tissue volumes,” Nat. Methods 9(2), 201–208 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roy, R.

W. Min, S. Lu, S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging chromophores with undetectable fluorescence by stimulated emission microscopy,” Nature 461(7267), 1105–1109 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rózsa, B.

G. Katona, G. Szalay, P. Maák, A. Kaszás, M. Veress, D. Hillier, B. Chiovini, E. S. Vizi, B. Roska, and B. Rózsa, “Fast two-photon in vivo imaging with three-dimensional random-access scanning in large tissue volumes,” Nat. Methods 9(2), 201–208 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Runnels, J. M.

C. M. Pitsillides, J. M. Runnels, J. A. Spencer, L. Zhi, M. X. Wu, and C. P. Lin, “Cell labeling approaches for fluorescence-based in vivo flow cytometry,” Cytometry A 79A(10), 758–765 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, R. K. Pastila, C. Pitsillides, J. M. Runnels, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, and C. P. Lin, “Imaging leukocyte trafficking in vivo with two-photon-excited endogenous tryptophan fluorescence,” Opt. Express 18(2), 988–999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saar, B. G.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saggau, P.

G. Duemani Reddy, K. Kelleher, R. Fink, and P. Saggau, “Three-dimensional random access multiphoton microscopy for functional imaging of neuronal activity,” Nat. Neurosci. 11(6), 713–720 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seyithanoglu, A.

S. Tokgoz, M. Kayrak, Z. Akpinar, A. Seyithanoğlu, F. Güney, and B. Yürüten, “Neutrophil lymphocyte ratio as a predictor of stroke,” J. Stroke Cerebrovasc. Dis. 22(7), 1169–1174 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sher, A.

S. Jung, J. Aliberti, P. Graemmel, M. J. Sunshine, G. W. Kreutzberg, A. Sher, and D. R. Littman, “Analysis of fractalkine receptor cx(3)crl function by targeted deletion and green fluorescent protein reporter gene insertion,” Mol. Cell. Biol. 20(11), 4106–4114 (2000).
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Xu, D.

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, S.

Ye, J. Y.

Y.-C. Chang, J. Y. Ye, T. P. Thomas, Z. Cao, A. Kotlyar, E. R. Tkaczyk, J. R. Baker, and T. B. Norris, “Fiber-optic multiphoton flow cytometry in whole blood and in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 047004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Tokgoz, M. Kayrak, Z. Akpinar, A. Seyithanoğlu, F. Güney, and B. Yürüten, “Neutrophil lymphocyte ratio as a predictor of stroke,” J. Stroke Cerebrovasc. Dis. 22(7), 1169–1174 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. Zeng, B. Yan, Q. Sun, S. K. Teh, W. Zhang, Z. Wen, and J. Y. Qu, “Label-free in vivo imaging of human leukocytes using two-photon excited endogenous fluorescence,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(4), 040504 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. A. Nedosekin, V. V. Verkhusha, A. V. Melerzanov, V. P. Zharov, and E. I. Galanzha, “In vivo photoswitchable flow cytometry for direct tracking of single circulating tumor cells,” Chem. Biol. 21(6), 792–801 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. V. Tuchin, A. Tárnok, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo flow cytometry: A horizon of opportunities,” Cytometry A 79(10), 737–745 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Zhu, H.

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Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Cancer Res. (2)

I. Georgakoudi, N. Solban, J. Novak, W. L. Rice, X. Wei, T. Hasan, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo flow cytometry: a new method for enumerating circulating cancer cells,” Cancer Res. 64(15), 5044–5047 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-C. Fan, J. Yan, G.-D. Liu, X.-Y. Tan, X.-F. Weng, W.-Z. Wu, J. Zhou, and X.-B. Wei, “Real-time monitoring of rare circulating hepatocellular carcinoma cells in an orthotopic model by in vivo flow cytometry assesses resection on metastasis,” Cancer Res. 72(10), 2683–2691 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cell (1)

N. Aceto, A. Bardia, D. T. Miyamoto, M. C. Donaldson, B. S. Wittner, J. A. Spencer, M. Yu, A. Pely, A. Engstrom, H. Zhu, B. W. Brannigan, R. Kapur, S. L. Stott, T. Shioda, S. Ramaswamy, D. T. Ting, C. P. Lin, M. Toner, D. A. Haber, and S. Maheswaran, “Circulating tumor cell clusters are oligoclonal precursors of breast cancer metastasis,” Cell 158(5), 1110–1122 (2014).
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Supplementary Material (9)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MP4 (3669 KB)      Volume view of the vasculature in the bone marrow of mouse skull.
» Visualization 2: MP4 (14489 KB)      GFP-expressing cells traffic and migrate inside the bone marrow.
» Visualization 3: MP4 (2658 KB)      Neutrophil flowing through the vascular junction.
» Visualization 4: MP4 (5474 KB)      Neutrophils traffic through the vasculature of mouse ear.
» Visualization 5: MP4 (35 KB)      Typical results of cross-sectional imaging of neutrophil trafficking at 2 kHz frame rate.
» Visualization 6: MP4 (112 KB)      Voltex (left) and ObliqueSlice (right) views of the cell morphology in Fig 6a.
» Visualization 7: MP4 (56 KB)      Voltex (left) and ObliqueSlice (right) views of the cell morphology in Fig 6b.
» Visualization 8: MP4 (69 KB)      Voltex (left) and ObliqueSlice (right) views of the cell morphology in Fig 6c.
» Visualization 9: MP4 (3931 KB)      Typical results of multi-color cross-sectional imaging of cells trafficking at 2 kHz frame rate.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Vasculature in the mouse brain cortex (x × y × z: 250 × 250 × 200 µm3). (b) Zoom-in view of the volume in (a). The flow cytometry can be done by cross-sectional imaging of the vessel (solid rectangular), and the flow speed/morphology dynamics can be recorded by volumetric imaging along the vascular axis (dash line).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Diagram of the experimental setup. DBS: dichroic beam splitter, PBS: polarization beam splitter, QWP: quarter wave plate, UL: ultrasound lens, RL: relay lens, M: mirror, PLL: phase-locked loop, PD: photodiode, MPM: multi-photon microscope, fs: femtosecond, CW: continuous wave. (b) Raw data acquired by cross-sectional scanning of a 1 µm fluorescent bead. PMT: photomultiplier tube. Ref: reference signal that indicates the axial scanning position. (c) The reconstructed image with the raw data in (b).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Volume view of the vasculature in the bone marrow of mouse skull (Visualization 1). The whole volume is shown in a1 (volume size: 300 × 300 × 121 µm3), and the lower half of the volume is shown in a2. Blue: second harmonic generation signal of the bone matrix, red: Q-dot 655 labeled blood plasma, green: GFP-expressing cells. (b) Snapshots of a GFP-expressing cell (shown as the brown sphere) flowing through the vessel in the bone marrow, imaged at 7 Hz (Visualization 2). Volume size: 210 × 105 × 40 µm3. t1 = t0 + 4.7 s, t2 = t1 + 31.1 s, t3 = t2 + 18.4 s, t4 = t3 + 0.14 s, t5 = t4 + 0.14 s. t0 corresponds to Stack 3460 in Visualization 2. Dash line: the trafficking trace of the cell. (c) Centroids (circle dots) and long axes of the cell (curves of same colors with the corresponding centroids) highlighted in the red dot-dash circle in (b) (time separation: 14.3 s), from Stacks 3600, 3700, 3800, 3900, 4000, 4100, and 4200 in Visualization 2. We shifted the trace of the cell’s centroid to the red dot-dash line to show the time sequence.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Snapshots of a neutrophil flowing through the vascular junction, recorded at 28 Hz. Volume size: 151 × 28 × 40 µm3. Magenta: SR101 stained brain tissue, green: neutrophils. The volumes are from Stack 854-861 in Visualization 3. (b) Snapshots of a neutrophil crawling along the vessel wall. The neutrophil went into the circulation finally, as shown in Fig.(b6). The volumes are from Stack 418, 419, 420, 429, 439, and 449 in Visualization 3. Same imaging parameters as in (a).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Snapshots of two neutrophils (highlighted with a red dot-dash line) trafficking through the vasculature of mouse ear, imaged at 31 Hz. Four consecutive volumes from Stack 5174-5177 in Visualization 4 are shown in a1, a2, a3, and a4. Volume size: 168 × 28 × 40 µm3. Green: neutrophils, magenta: dsRed-expressing tissue. (b) Histogram of the time separation between neutrophils consecutively trafficking through the cross-sectional imaging plane. Inset: A neutrophil and a potential cluster imaged at 2 kHz cross-sectional frame rate, as shown in Visualization 5. Size: 28 × 40 µm2 recorded in 20 ms.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a-c) Cell morphologies (ObliqueSlice view in Amira) are distinguishable at high temporal and spatial resolutions. A potential cluster is shown in (b). Slices of three cross-sectional imaging sections (Visualization 6, Visualization 7, andVisualization 8) are shown in (a), (b), and (c). They were at 20 µm, 24 µm and 20 µm depth of the imaging volumes, respectively. Size: 22.4 × 40 µm2 recorded in 20 ms at 2 kHz cross-sectional frame rate. (d) Temporal distribution of the lymphocytes with dendra2 expression in mitochondria and GFP-expressing neutrophils trafficking through the cross-sectional imaging plane.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Multicolor in vivo imaging of circulating cells. Size: 42 × 40 µm2 recorded in 75 ms at 2 kHz cross-sectional frame rate. Magenta: SR101 stained blood cells, green: neutrophils. (b) Closely spaced neutrophil and SR101 stained blood cell. Size: 42 × 40 µm2 recorded in 20 ms at 2 kHz cross-sectional frame rate. (c) Temporal distribution of neutrophils and SR101 stained blood cells trafficking through the cross-sectional imaging plane. Typical result is shown in Visualization 9 (timestamps are in ms).

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