Abstract

We proposed a new device structure to dynamically tune the correlated color temperature (CCT) of a white light-emitting-diode (WLED). The key component is a dynamic color filter, consisting of a liquid crystal (LC) cell sandwiched between two cholesteric LC films whose Bragg reflection band covers the blue wavelength of the WLED. When a voltage is applied to the LC cell, the transmittance of blue light is changed, while the longer wavelength part remains unaffected, resulting in a tunable CCT. Validated by experiment, our design exhibits several advantages, such as reasonably wide tuning range (6916K to 3253K), low operation voltage (~3.2 V), simple device configuration, and low cost. It is a strong contender for next generation smart lighting.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

2015 (4)

2014 (2)

H. Chen, F. Peng, Z. Luo, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, M. C. Li, S. L. Lee, and W. C. Tsai, “High performance liquid crystal displays with a low dielectric constant material,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(11), 2262–2273 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek, “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(9), 809–836 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

J. Y. Tsao, I. Brener, D. F. Kelley, and S. K. Lyo, “Quantum-dot-based solid-state lighting with electric-field-tunable chromaticity,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(6), 419–426 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, and S. T. Wu, “Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 74–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

T. W. Murphy., “Maximum spectral luminous efficacy of white light,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(10), 104909 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 13–23 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Hecht, “Changing the lights: are LEDs ready to become the market standard,” Opt. Photonics News 23(3), 44–50 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 543–548 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lyutich, A. P. Stupak, M. V. Artem’ev, and S. V. Gaponenko, “Effect of an electric field on photoluminescence of cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 77(1), 120–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lutich, A. P. Stupak, S. Y. Prislopsky, E. K. Rusakov, M. V. Artemyev, S. V. Gaponenko, and H. V. Demir, “Luminescence in quantum-confined cadmium selenide nanocrystals and nanorods in external electric fields,” Semiconductors 43(8), 1008–1016 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

F. So, J. Kido, and P. Burrows, “Organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 33(7), 663–669 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2005 (2)

J. Li, G. Baird, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Refractive index matching between liquid crystals and photopolymers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13(12), 1017–1026 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, G. Kurilcik, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breive, J. Krupic, A. Rupsys, A. Novickovas, P. Vitta, A. Navickas, V. Raskauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Quadrichromatic white solid-state lamp with digital feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 185–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Ohno, “Color rendering and luminous efficacy of white LED spectra,” Proc. SPIE 5530, 88–98 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light‐emitting devices for solid‐state lighting,” Adv. Mater. 16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Muthu, F. J. P. Schuurmans, and M. D. Pashley, “Red, green, and blue LEDs for white light illumination,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 333–338 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

N. Tamaoki, “Cholesteric liquid crystals for color information technology,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1135–1147 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

S. A. Empedocles and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantum-confined stark effect in single CdSe nanocrystallite quantum dots,” Science 278(5346), 2114–2117 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(2), L797–L799 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela‐class high‐brightness InGaN/AlGaN double‐heterostructure blue‐light‐emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “High-power GaN pn junction blue-light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(2), L1998–L2001 (1991).
[Crossref]

An, Z.

Artem’ev, M. V.

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lyutich, A. P. Stupak, M. V. Artem’ev, and S. V. Gaponenko, “Effect of an electric field on photoluminescence of cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 77(1), 120–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Artemyev, M. V.

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lutich, A. P. Stupak, S. Y. Prislopsky, E. K. Rusakov, M. V. Artemyev, S. V. Gaponenko, and H. V. Demir, “Luminescence in quantum-confined cadmium selenide nanocrystals and nanorods in external electric fields,” Semiconductors 43(8), 1008–1016 (2009).
[Crossref]

Baird, G.

J. Li, G. Baird, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Refractive index matching between liquid crystals and photopolymers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13(12), 1017–1026 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bawendi, M. G.

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 13–23 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. A. Empedocles and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantum-confined stark effect in single CdSe nanocrystallite quantum dots,” Science 278(5346), 2114–2117 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhat, J. C.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bliznikas, Z.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, G. Kurilcik, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breive, J. Krupic, A. Rupsys, A. Novickovas, P. Vitta, A. Navickas, V. Raskauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Quadrichromatic white solid-state lamp with digital feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 185–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

Breive, K.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, G. Kurilcik, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breive, J. Krupic, A. Rupsys, A. Novickovas, P. Vitta, A. Navickas, V. Raskauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Quadrichromatic white solid-state lamp with digital feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 185–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

Brener, I.

J. Y. Tsao, I. Brener, D. F. Kelley, and S. K. Lyo, “Quantum-dot-based solid-state lighting with electric-field-tunable chromaticity,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(6), 419–426 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bulovic, V.

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 13–23 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[Crossref]

Burrows, P.

F. So, J. Kido, and P. Burrows, “Organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 33(7), 663–669 (2008).
[Crossref]

Caruge, J. M.

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, and S. T. Wu, “Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 74–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

Collins, D.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Coltrin, M. E.

J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek, “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(9), 809–836 (2014).
[Crossref]

Crawford, M. H.

J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek, “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(9), 809–836 (2014).
[Crossref]

D’Andrade, B. W.

B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light‐emitting devices for solid‐state lighting,” Adv. Mater. 16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
[Crossref]

Demir, H. V.

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lutich, A. P. Stupak, S. Y. Prislopsky, E. K. Rusakov, M. V. Artemyev, S. V. Gaponenko, and H. V. Demir, “Luminescence in quantum-confined cadmium selenide nanocrystals and nanorods in external electric fields,” Semiconductors 43(8), 1008–1016 (2009).
[Crossref]

Empedocles, S. A.

S. A. Empedocles and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantum-confined stark effect in single CdSe nanocrystallite quantum dots,” Science 278(5346), 2114–2117 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, A. J.

J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek, “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(9), 809–836 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fletcher, R. M.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Forrest, S. R.

B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light‐emitting devices for solid‐state lighting,” Adv. Mater. 16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gaponenko, S. V.

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lyutich, A. P. Stupak, M. V. Artem’ev, and S. V. Gaponenko, “Effect of an electric field on photoluminescence of cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 77(1), 120–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lutich, A. P. Stupak, S. Y. Prislopsky, E. K. Rusakov, M. V. Artemyev, S. V. Gaponenko, and H. V. Demir, “Luminescence in quantum-confined cadmium selenide nanocrystals and nanorods in external electric fields,” Semiconductors 43(8), 1008–1016 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gaska, R.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, G. Kurilcik, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breive, J. Krupic, A. Rupsys, A. Novickovas, P. Vitta, A. Navickas, V. Raskauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Quadrichromatic white solid-state lamp with digital feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 185–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gou, F.

Gurinovich, L. I.

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lyutich, A. P. Stupak, M. V. Artem’ev, and S. V. Gaponenko, “Effect of an electric field on photoluminescence of cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 77(1), 120–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lutich, A. P. Stupak, S. Y. Prislopsky, E. K. Rusakov, M. V. Artemyev, S. V. Gaponenko, and H. V. Demir, “Luminescence in quantum-confined cadmium selenide nanocrystals and nanorods in external electric fields,” Semiconductors 43(8), 1008–1016 (2009).
[Crossref]

Halpert, J. E.

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hecht, J.

J. Hecht, “Changing the lights: are LEDs ready to become the market standard,” Opt. Photonics News 23(3), 44–50 (2012).
[Crossref]

Holcomb, M. O.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Holloway, P. H.

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 543–548 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hong, Q.

Hu, M.

Huang, Y.

Ivanauskas, F.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, G. Kurilcik, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breive, J. Krupic, A. Rupsys, A. Novickovas, P. Vitta, A. Navickas, V. Raskauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Quadrichromatic white solid-state lamp with digital feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 185–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(2), L797–L799 (1995).
[Crossref]

Karlicek, R. F.

J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek, “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(9), 809–836 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kelley, D. F.

J. Y. Tsao, I. Brener, D. F. Kelley, and S. K. Lyo, “Quantum-dot-based solid-state lighting with electric-field-tunable chromaticity,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(6), 419–426 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kido, J.

F. So, J. Kido, and P. Burrows, “Organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 33(7), 663–669 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. K.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koleske, D. D.

J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek, “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(9), 809–836 (2014).
[Crossref]

Krupic, J.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, G. Kurilcik, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breive, J. Krupic, A. Rupsys, A. Novickovas, P. Vitta, A. Navickas, V. Raskauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Quadrichromatic white solid-state lamp with digital feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 185–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kurilcik, G.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, G. Kurilcik, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breive, J. Krupic, A. Rupsys, A. Novickovas, P. Vitta, A. Navickas, V. Raskauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Quadrichromatic white solid-state lamp with digital feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 185–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. L.

Li, J.

Li, M. C.

Lin, Y. H.

J. Li, G. Baird, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Refractive index matching between liquid crystals and photopolymers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13(12), 1017–1026 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Ludowise, M. J.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Luo, Z.

Lutich, A. A.

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lutich, A. P. Stupak, S. Y. Prislopsky, E. K. Rusakov, M. V. Artemyev, S. V. Gaponenko, and H. V. Demir, “Luminescence in quantum-confined cadmium selenide nanocrystals and nanorods in external electric fields,” Semiconductors 43(8), 1008–1016 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lyo, S. K.

J. Y. Tsao, I. Brener, D. F. Kelley, and S. K. Lyo, “Quantum-dot-based solid-state lighting with electric-field-tunable chromaticity,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(6), 419–426 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lyutich, A. A.

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lyutich, A. P. Stupak, M. V. Artem’ev, and S. V. Gaponenko, “Effect of an electric field on photoluminescence of cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 77(1), 120–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

Martin, P. S.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mukai, T.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela‐class high‐brightness InGaN/AlGaN double‐heterostructure blue‐light‐emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “High-power GaN pn junction blue-light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(2), L1998–L2001 (1991).
[Crossref]

Murphy, T. W.

T. W. Murphy., “Maximum spectral luminous efficacy of white light,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(10), 104909 (2012).
[Crossref]

Muthu, S.

S. Muthu, F. J. P. Schuurmans, and M. D. Pashley, “Red, green, and blue LEDs for white light illumination,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 333–338 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nagahama, S. I.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(2), L797–L799 (1995).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(2), L797–L799 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela‐class high‐brightness InGaN/AlGaN double‐heterostructure blue‐light‐emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “High-power GaN pn junction blue-light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(2), L1998–L2001 (1991).
[Crossref]

Navickas, A.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, G. Kurilcik, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breive, J. Krupic, A. Rupsys, A. Novickovas, P. Vitta, A. Navickas, V. Raskauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Quadrichromatic white solid-state lamp with digital feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 185–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

Novickovas, A.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, G. Kurilcik, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breive, J. Krupic, A. Rupsys, A. Novickovas, P. Vitta, A. Navickas, V. Raskauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Quadrichromatic white solid-state lamp with digital feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 185–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ohno, Y.

Y. Ohno, “Color rendering and luminous efficacy of white LED spectra,” Proc. SPIE 5530, 88–98 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pashley, M. D.

S. Muthu, F. J. P. Schuurmans, and M. D. Pashley, “Red, green, and blue LEDs for white light illumination,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 333–338 (2002).
[Crossref]

Peng, F.

Prislopsky, S. Y.

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lutich, A. P. Stupak, S. Y. Prislopsky, E. K. Rusakov, M. V. Artemyev, S. V. Gaponenko, and H. V. Demir, “Luminescence in quantum-confined cadmium selenide nanocrystals and nanorods in external electric fields,” Semiconductors 43(8), 1008–1016 (2009).
[Crossref]

Qian, L.

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 543–548 (2011).
[Crossref]

Raskauskas, V.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, G. Kurilcik, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breive, J. Krupic, A. Rupsys, A. Novickovas, P. Vitta, A. Navickas, V. Raskauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Quadrichromatic white solid-state lamp with digital feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 185–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ren, H.

J. Li, G. Baird, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Refractive index matching between liquid crystals and photopolymers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13(12), 1017–1026 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rudaz, S. L.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rupsys, A.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, G. Kurilcik, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breive, J. Krupic, A. Rupsys, A. Novickovas, P. Vitta, A. Navickas, V. Raskauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Quadrichromatic white solid-state lamp with digital feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 185–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rusakov, E. K.

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lutich, A. P. Stupak, S. Y. Prislopsky, E. K. Rusakov, M. V. Artemyev, S. V. Gaponenko, and H. V. Demir, “Luminescence in quantum-confined cadmium selenide nanocrystals and nanorods in external electric fields,” Semiconductors 43(8), 1008–1016 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuurmans, F. J. P.

S. Muthu, F. J. P. Schuurmans, and M. D. Pashley, “Red, green, and blue LEDs for white light illumination,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 333–338 (2002).
[Crossref]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(2), L797–L799 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela‐class high‐brightness InGaN/AlGaN double‐heterostructure blue‐light‐emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “High-power GaN pn junction blue-light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(2), L1998–L2001 (1991).
[Crossref]

Shirasaki, Y.

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 13–23 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shur, M. S.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, G. Kurilcik, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breive, J. Krupic, A. Rupsys, A. Novickovas, P. Vitta, A. Navickas, V. Raskauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Quadrichromatic white solid-state lamp with digital feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 185–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

So, F.

F. So, J. Kido, and P. Burrows, “Organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 33(7), 663–669 (2008).
[Crossref]

Steigerwald, D. A.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Stupak, A. P.

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lyutich, A. P. Stupak, M. V. Artem’ev, and S. V. Gaponenko, “Effect of an electric field on photoluminescence of cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 77(1), 120–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lutich, A. P. Stupak, S. Y. Prislopsky, E. K. Rusakov, M. V. Artemyev, S. V. Gaponenko, and H. V. Demir, “Luminescence in quantum-confined cadmium selenide nanocrystals and nanorods in external electric fields,” Semiconductors 43(8), 1008–1016 (2009).
[Crossref]

Subramania, G. S.

J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek, “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(9), 809–836 (2014).
[Crossref]

Supran, G. J.

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 13–23 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tamaoki, N.

N. Tamaoki, “Cholesteric liquid crystals for color information technology,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1135–1147 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tsai, W. C.

Tsao, J. Y.

J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek, “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(9), 809–836 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Tsao, I. Brener, D. F. Kelley, and S. K. Lyo, “Quantum-dot-based solid-state lighting with electric-field-tunable chromaticity,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(6), 419–426 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vaicekauskas, R.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, G. Kurilcik, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breive, J. Krupic, A. Rupsys, A. Novickovas, P. Vitta, A. Navickas, V. Raskauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Quadrichromatic white solid-state lamp with digital feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 185–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

Vitta, P.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, G. Kurilcik, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breive, J. Krupic, A. Rupsys, A. Novickovas, P. Vitta, A. Navickas, V. Raskauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Quadrichromatic white solid-state lamp with digital feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 185–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, G. T.

J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek, “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(9), 809–836 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wierer, J. J.

J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek, “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(9), 809–836 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wood, V.

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. T.

Wu, S.-T.

Xu, D.

Xu, S.

Xue, J.

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 543–548 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y.

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 543–548 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

Zhu, R.

Zukauskas, A.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, G. Kurilcik, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breive, J. Krupic, A. Rupsys, A. Novickovas, P. Vitta, A. Navickas, V. Raskauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Quadrichromatic white solid-state lamp with digital feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 185–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (2)

N. Tamaoki, “Cholesteric liquid crystals for color information technology,” Adv. Mater. 13(15), 1135–1147 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light‐emitting devices for solid‐state lighting,” Adv. Mater. 16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania, G. T. Wang, J. J. Wierer, and R. F. Karlicek, “Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(9), 809–836 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela‐class high‐brightness InGaN/AlGaN double‐heterostructure blue‐light‐emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. Muthu, F. J. P. Schuurmans, and M. D. Pashley, “Red, green, and blue LEDs for white light illumination,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 333–338 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. W. Murphy., “Maximum spectral luminous efficacy of white light,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(10), 104909 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lyutich, A. P. Stupak, M. V. Artem’ev, and S. V. Gaponenko, “Effect of an electric field on photoluminescence of cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 77(1), 120–125 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (2)

J. Y. Tsao, I. Brener, D. F. Kelley, and S. K. Lyo, “Quantum-dot-based solid-state lighting with electric-field-tunable chromaticity,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(6), 419–426 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, and S. T. Wu, “Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(2), 74–77 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

J. Li, G. Baird, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Refractive index matching between liquid crystals and photopolymers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13(12), 1017–1026 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(2), L797–L799 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “High-power GaN pn junction blue-light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(2), L1998–L2001 (1991).
[Crossref]

MRS Bull. (1)

F. So, J. Kido, and P. Burrows, “Organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” MRS Bull. 33(7), 663–669 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (3)

J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, V. Wood, V. Bulovic, and M. G. Bawendi, “Colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes with metal-oxide charge transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 247–250 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Qian, Y. Zheng, J. Xue, and P. H. Holloway, “Stable and efficient quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed multilayer structures,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 543–548 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 13–23 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Mater. Express (4)

Opt. Photonics News (1)

J. Hecht, “Changing the lights: are LEDs ready to become the market standard,” Opt. Photonics News 23(3), 44–50 (2012).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, G. Kurilcik, Z. Bliznikas, K. Breive, J. Krupic, A. Rupsys, A. Novickovas, P. Vitta, A. Navickas, V. Raskauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Quadrichromatic white solid-state lamp with digital feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5187, 185–198 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Ohno, “Color rendering and luminous efficacy of white LED spectra,” Proc. SPIE 5530, 88–98 (2004).
[Crossref]

Science (3)

S. A. Empedocles and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantum-confined stark effect in single CdSe nanocrystallite quantum dots,” Science 278(5346), 2114–2117 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semiconductors (1)

L. I. Gurinovich, A. A. Lutich, A. P. Stupak, S. Y. Prislopsky, E. K. Rusakov, M. V. Artemyev, S. V. Gaponenko, and H. V. Demir, “Luminescence in quantum-confined cadmium selenide nanocrystals and nanorods in external electric fields,” Semiconductors 43(8), 1008–1016 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

“Osram Opto unveils brilliant-mix LED mixing concept,” LEDs Mag., May 2011. http://www.ledsmagazine.com/articles/2011/05/osram-opto-unveils-brilliant-mix-led-mixing-concept.html .

E. F. Schubert, T. Gessmann, and J. K. Kim, Light Emitting Diodes (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005).

P. R. Boyce, Human Factors in Lighting, 2nd ed. (Taylor & Francis, 2003).

D. K. Yang and S. T. Wu, Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices (John Wiley & Sons, 2014).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Device configuration of the proposed CCT tunable WLED using a dynamic color filter.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Measured transmission spectra of two cholesteric liquid crystal films.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured transmission spectra of the dynamic color filters under different voltages.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Measured spectral power distribution of white light with different voltages, (b) relationship between CCT and applied voltage, and (c) CCT in C.I.E. 1960 chromaticity diagram obtained by different applied voltages.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured (a) CRI and (b) LER of the light source with different voltages.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Simulated spectral power distribution of white light with different voltages, and (b) CCT in C.I.E. 1960 chromaticity diagram with different voltages. In (b), the magnified chart shows how closely the CCT follows the blackbody locus.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Voltage-transmittance curves for VA cell at three specified blue LED wavelengths.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

p= 1 HTPc% ,
λ 0 = n p= n e + n o 2 p,
Δλ=Δnp=( n e n o )p,
LER= 683 lm W S(λ)V(λ)dλ S(λ)dλ ,

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