Abstract

Wuhan is the biggest city in China that has been facing an increasingly serious problem of air pollution in the recent years. In order to understand the mechanism of haze formation and diffusion, it is very important to obtain multiple atmospheric parameters. Columnar aerosol volume size distribution (AVSD) is an important atmospheric parameter in this regard, and utilizing CIMEL sun-photometer data to obtain this parameter has become the most popular method. However, currently, the widely used retrieval algorithms cannot be accessed using an open source code, and thus the retrieval of columnar AVSD is still a challenging task.. In this article, we introduce a new method that combines partial least squares (PLS) and genetic algorithm (GA) for the retrieval of columnar AVSD. By using this new method, we could obtain credible results even during hazy periods, despite the fact that our sun-photometer did not participate in the AERONET program and we did not use an official data processing method. First, it was assumed that columnar AVSD obeys the double logarithmic normal distribution function. Second, the relationship between the columnar AVSD and the AVSD on earth’s surface was established using the partial least squares (PLS) method. Finally, the initial distribution parameters were adjusted through GA to obtain an optimal solution. This new method can improve the accuracy and reduce the computational difficulties faced in the retrieval of columnar AVSD in the absence of AREONET-based algorithm.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  25. D. Whitley, “A genetic algorithm tutorial,” Stat. Comput. 4(2), 65–85 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  26. M. Taylor, S. Kazadzis, and E. Gerasopoulos, “Multi-modal analysis of aerosol robotic network size distributions for remote sensing applications: dominant aerosol type cases,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(3), 839–858 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2015 (3)

H. Che, X. Xia, J. Zhu, H. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Sun, X. Zhang, and G. Shi, “Aerosol optical properties under the condition of heavy haze over an urban site of Beijing, China,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 22(2), 1043–1053 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, W. Gong, X. Xia, J. Zhu, J. Li, and Z. Zhu, “Long-term observations of aerosol optical properties at Wuhan, an urban site in Central China,” Atmos. Environ. 101, 94–102 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Deng, F. Li, Y. Li, J. Li, H. Huang, and X. Liu, “Vertical distribution characteristics of PM in the surface layer of Guangzhou,” Particuology 20, 3–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

M. Taylor, S. Kazadzis, and E. Gerasopoulos, “Multi-modal analysis of aerosol robotic network size distributions for remote sensing applications: dominant aerosol type cases,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(3), 839–858 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Gong, S. Zhang, and Y. Ma, “Aerosol optical properties and determination of aerosol size distribution in Wuhan, China,” Atmosphere 5(1), 81–91 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Sharma, D. G. Kaskaoutis, R. P. Singh, and S. Singh, “Seasonal variability of atmospheric aerosol parameters over Greater Noida using ground sunphotometer observations,” Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 14, 608–622 (2014).

J. Chen, J. Xin, J. An, Y. Wang, Z. Liu, N. Chao, and Z. Meng, “Observation of aerosol optical properties and particulate pollution at background station in the Pearl River Delta region,” Atmos. Res. 143, 216–227 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

L. Wang, W. Gong, C. Li, A. Lin, B. Hu, and Y. Ma, “Measurement and estimation of photosynthetically active radiation from 1961 to 2011 in Central China,” Appl. Energy 111, 1010–1017 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

M. Tao, L. Chen, L. Su, and J. Tao, “Satellite observation of regional haze pollution over the North China Plain,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(D12), D12203 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Joshi, B. Sapra, A. Khan, S. Tripathi, P. Shamjad, T. Gupta, and Y. Mayya, “Harmonisation of nanoparticle concentration measurements using GRIMM and TSI scanning mobility particle sizers,” J. Nanopart. Res. 14(12), 1268 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Mehmood, K. H. Liland, L. Snipen, and S. Sæbø, “A review of variable selection methods in partial least squares regression,” Chemometr. Intell. Lab. 118, 62–69 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

P. Wang, H. Che, X. Zhang, Q. Song, Y. Wang, Z. Zhang, X. Dai, and D. Yu, “Aerosol optical properties of regional background atmosphere in Northeast China,” Atmos. Environ. 44(35), 4404–4412 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

H. Che, X. Zhang, H. Chen, B. Damiri, P. Goloub, Z. Li, X. Zhang, Y. Wei, H. Zhou, F. Dong, D. Li, and T. Zhou, “Instrument calibration and aerosol optical depth validation of the China Aerosol Remote Sensing Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(D3), D03206 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

X. Xia, Z. Li, B. Holben, P. Wang, T. Eck, H. Chen, M. Cribb, and Y. Zhao, “Aerosol optical properties and radiative effects in the Yangtze Delta region of China,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 112(D22), D22s12 (2007).

Z. Li, X. Xia, M. Cribb, W. Mi, B. Holben, P. Wang, H. Chen, S. C. Tsay, T. Eck, F. Zhao, E. G. Dutton, and R. E. Dickerson, “Aerosol optical properties and their radiative effects in northern China,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D22), D22S01 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

X. Xia, H. Chen, P. Wang, W. Zhang, P. Goloub, B. Chatenet, T. Eck, and B. Holben, “Variation of column‐integrated aerosol properties in a Chinese urban region,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D5), D05204 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

D. H. Kim, B. Sohn, T. Nakajima, and T. Takamura, “Aerosol radiative forcing over East Asia determined from ground‐based solar radiation measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 110(D10), D10s22 (2005).

2002 (1)

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59(3), 590–608 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

2000 (1)

O. Dubovik and M. D. King, “A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D16), 20673–20696 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

W. L. Chameides, H. Yu, S. C. Liu, M. Bergin, X. Zhou, L. Mearns, G. Wang, C. S. Kiang, R. D. Saylor, C. Luo, Y. Huang, A. Steiner, and F. Giorgi, “Case study of the effects of atmospheric aerosols and regional haze on agriculture: an opportunity to enhance crop yields in China through emission controls?” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96(24), 13626–13633 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

D. Whitley, “A genetic algorithm tutorial,” Stat. Comput. 4(2), 65–85 (1994).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

P. Geladi and B. R. Kowalski, “Partial least-squares regression: a tutorial,” Anal. Chim. Acta 185, 1–17 (1986).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, and J. A. Reagan, “Aerosol size distributions obtained by inversions of spectral optical depth measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35(11), 2153–2167 (1978).
[Crossref]

An, J.

J. Chen, J. Xin, J. An, Y. Wang, Z. Liu, N. Chao, and Z. Meng, “Observation of aerosol optical properties and particulate pollution at background station in the Pearl River Delta region,” Atmos. Res. 143, 216–227 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bergin, M.

W. L. Chameides, H. Yu, S. C. Liu, M. Bergin, X. Zhou, L. Mearns, G. Wang, C. S. Kiang, R. D. Saylor, C. Luo, Y. Huang, A. Steiner, and F. Giorgi, “Case study of the effects of atmospheric aerosols and regional haze on agriculture: an opportunity to enhance crop yields in China through emission controls?” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96(24), 13626–13633 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Böckmann, C.

Boi, P.

Byrne, D. M.

M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, and J. A. Reagan, “Aerosol size distributions obtained by inversions of spectral optical depth measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35(11), 2153–2167 (1978).
[Crossref]

Chameides, W. L.

W. L. Chameides, H. Yu, S. C. Liu, M. Bergin, X. Zhou, L. Mearns, G. Wang, C. S. Kiang, R. D. Saylor, C. Luo, Y. Huang, A. Steiner, and F. Giorgi, “Case study of the effects of atmospheric aerosols and regional haze on agriculture: an opportunity to enhance crop yields in China through emission controls?” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96(24), 13626–13633 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chao, N.

J. Chen, J. Xin, J. An, Y. Wang, Z. Liu, N. Chao, and Z. Meng, “Observation of aerosol optical properties and particulate pollution at background station in the Pearl River Delta region,” Atmos. Res. 143, 216–227 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chatenet, B.

X. Xia, H. Chen, P. Wang, W. Zhang, P. Goloub, B. Chatenet, T. Eck, and B. Holben, “Variation of column‐integrated aerosol properties in a Chinese urban region,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D5), D05204 (2006).
[Crossref]

Che, H.

H. Che, X. Xia, J. Zhu, H. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Sun, X. Zhang, and G. Shi, “Aerosol optical properties under the condition of heavy haze over an urban site of Beijing, China,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 22(2), 1043–1053 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wang, H. Che, X. Zhang, Q. Song, Y. Wang, Z. Zhang, X. Dai, and D. Yu, “Aerosol optical properties of regional background atmosphere in Northeast China,” Atmos. Environ. 44(35), 4404–4412 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Che, X. Zhang, H. Chen, B. Damiri, P. Goloub, Z. Li, X. Zhang, Y. Wei, H. Zhou, F. Dong, D. Li, and T. Zhou, “Instrument calibration and aerosol optical depth validation of the China Aerosol Remote Sensing Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(D3), D03206 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

H. Che, X. Zhang, H. Chen, B. Damiri, P. Goloub, Z. Li, X. Zhang, Y. Wei, H. Zhou, F. Dong, D. Li, and T. Zhou, “Instrument calibration and aerosol optical depth validation of the China Aerosol Remote Sensing Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(D3), D03206 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Xia, Z. Li, B. Holben, P. Wang, T. Eck, H. Chen, M. Cribb, and Y. Zhao, “Aerosol optical properties and radiative effects in the Yangtze Delta region of China,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 112(D22), D22s12 (2007).

Z. Li, X. Xia, M. Cribb, W. Mi, B. Holben, P. Wang, H. Chen, S. C. Tsay, T. Eck, F. Zhao, E. G. Dutton, and R. E. Dickerson, “Aerosol optical properties and their radiative effects in northern China,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D22), D22S01 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Xia, H. Chen, P. Wang, W. Zhang, P. Goloub, B. Chatenet, T. Eck, and B. Holben, “Variation of column‐integrated aerosol properties in a Chinese urban region,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D5), D05204 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, J. Xin, J. An, Y. Wang, Z. Liu, N. Chao, and Z. Meng, “Observation of aerosol optical properties and particulate pollution at background station in the Pearl River Delta region,” Atmos. Res. 143, 216–227 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

M. Tao, L. Chen, L. Su, and J. Tao, “Satellite observation of regional haze pollution over the North China Plain,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(D12), D12203 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cribb, M.

Z. Li, X. Xia, M. Cribb, W. Mi, B. Holben, P. Wang, H. Chen, S. C. Tsay, T. Eck, F. Zhao, E. G. Dutton, and R. E. Dickerson, “Aerosol optical properties and their radiative effects in northern China,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D22), D22S01 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Xia, Z. Li, B. Holben, P. Wang, T. Eck, H. Chen, M. Cribb, and Y. Zhao, “Aerosol optical properties and radiative effects in the Yangtze Delta region of China,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 112(D22), D22s12 (2007).

Dai, X.

P. Wang, H. Che, X. Zhang, Q. Song, Y. Wang, Z. Zhang, X. Dai, and D. Yu, “Aerosol optical properties of regional background atmosphere in Northeast China,” Atmos. Environ. 44(35), 4404–4412 (2010).
[Crossref]

Damiri, B.

H. Che, X. Zhang, H. Chen, B. Damiri, P. Goloub, Z. Li, X. Zhang, Y. Wei, H. Zhou, F. Dong, D. Li, and T. Zhou, “Instrument calibration and aerosol optical depth validation of the China Aerosol Remote Sensing Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(D3), D03206 (2009).
[Crossref]

Deng, X.

X. Deng, F. Li, Y. Li, J. Li, H. Huang, and X. Liu, “Vertical distribution characteristics of PM in the surface layer of Guangzhou,” Particuology 20, 3–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dickerson, R. E.

Z. Li, X. Xia, M. Cribb, W. Mi, B. Holben, P. Wang, H. Chen, S. C. Tsay, T. Eck, F. Zhao, E. G. Dutton, and R. E. Dickerson, “Aerosol optical properties and their radiative effects in northern China,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D22), D22S01 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dong, F.

H. Che, X. Zhang, H. Chen, B. Damiri, P. Goloub, Z. Li, X. Zhang, Y. Wei, H. Zhou, F. Dong, D. Li, and T. Zhou, “Instrument calibration and aerosol optical depth validation of the China Aerosol Remote Sensing Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(D3), D03206 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dubovik, O.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59(3), 590–608 (2002).
[Crossref]

O. Dubovik and M. D. King, “A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D16), 20673–20696 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dutton, E. G.

Z. Li, X. Xia, M. Cribb, W. Mi, B. Holben, P. Wang, H. Chen, S. C. Tsay, T. Eck, F. Zhao, E. G. Dutton, and R. E. Dickerson, “Aerosol optical properties and their radiative effects in northern China,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D22), D22S01 (2007).
[Crossref]

Eck, T.

Z. Li, X. Xia, M. Cribb, W. Mi, B. Holben, P. Wang, H. Chen, S. C. Tsay, T. Eck, F. Zhao, E. G. Dutton, and R. E. Dickerson, “Aerosol optical properties and their radiative effects in northern China,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D22), D22S01 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Xia, Z. Li, B. Holben, P. Wang, T. Eck, H. Chen, M. Cribb, and Y. Zhao, “Aerosol optical properties and radiative effects in the Yangtze Delta region of China,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 112(D22), D22s12 (2007).

X. Xia, H. Chen, P. Wang, W. Zhang, P. Goloub, B. Chatenet, T. Eck, and B. Holben, “Variation of column‐integrated aerosol properties in a Chinese urban region,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D5), D05204 (2006).
[Crossref]

Eck, T. F.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59(3), 590–608 (2002).
[Crossref]

Eriksson, L.

S. Wold, M. Sjöström, and L. Eriksson, “PLS-regression: a basic tool of chemometrics,” Chemometr. Intell. Lab. 58(2), 109–130 (2001).
[Crossref]

Geladi, P.

P. Geladi and B. R. Kowalski, “Partial least-squares regression: a tutorial,” Anal. Chim. Acta 185, 1–17 (1986).
[Crossref]

Gerasopoulos, E.

M. Taylor, S. Kazadzis, and E. Gerasopoulos, “Multi-modal analysis of aerosol robotic network size distributions for remote sensing applications: dominant aerosol type cases,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(3), 839–858 (2014).
[Crossref]

Giorgi, F.

W. L. Chameides, H. Yu, S. C. Liu, M. Bergin, X. Zhou, L. Mearns, G. Wang, C. S. Kiang, R. D. Saylor, C. Luo, Y. Huang, A. Steiner, and F. Giorgi, “Case study of the effects of atmospheric aerosols and regional haze on agriculture: an opportunity to enhance crop yields in China through emission controls?” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96(24), 13626–13633 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goloub, P.

H. Che, X. Zhang, H. Chen, B. Damiri, P. Goloub, Z. Li, X. Zhang, Y. Wei, H. Zhou, F. Dong, D. Li, and T. Zhou, “Instrument calibration and aerosol optical depth validation of the China Aerosol Remote Sensing Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(D3), D03206 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Xia, H. Chen, P. Wang, W. Zhang, P. Goloub, B. Chatenet, T. Eck, and B. Holben, “Variation of column‐integrated aerosol properties in a Chinese urban region,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D5), D05204 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gong, W.

L. Wang, W. Gong, X. Xia, J. Zhu, J. Li, and Z. Zhu, “Long-term observations of aerosol optical properties at Wuhan, an urban site in Central China,” Atmos. Environ. 101, 94–102 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Gong, S. Zhang, and Y. Ma, “Aerosol optical properties and determination of aerosol size distribution in Wuhan, China,” Atmosphere 5(1), 81–91 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, W. Gong, C. Li, A. Lin, B. Hu, and Y. Ma, “Measurement and estimation of photosynthetically active radiation from 1961 to 2011 in Central China,” Appl. Energy 111, 1010–1017 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gupta, T.

M. Joshi, B. Sapra, A. Khan, S. Tripathi, P. Shamjad, T. Gupta, and Y. Mayya, “Harmonisation of nanoparticle concentration measurements using GRIMM and TSI scanning mobility particle sizers,” J. Nanopart. Res. 14(12), 1268 (2012).
[Crossref]

Herman, B. M.

M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, and J. A. Reagan, “Aerosol size distributions obtained by inversions of spectral optical depth measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35(11), 2153–2167 (1978).
[Crossref]

Holben, B.

X. Xia, Z. Li, B. Holben, P. Wang, T. Eck, H. Chen, M. Cribb, and Y. Zhao, “Aerosol optical properties and radiative effects in the Yangtze Delta region of China,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 112(D22), D22s12 (2007).

Z. Li, X. Xia, M. Cribb, W. Mi, B. Holben, P. Wang, H. Chen, S. C. Tsay, T. Eck, F. Zhao, E. G. Dutton, and R. E. Dickerson, “Aerosol optical properties and their radiative effects in northern China,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D22), D22S01 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Xia, H. Chen, P. Wang, W. Zhang, P. Goloub, B. Chatenet, T. Eck, and B. Holben, “Variation of column‐integrated aerosol properties in a Chinese urban region,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D5), D05204 (2006).
[Crossref]

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59(3), 590–608 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Nakajima, G. Tonna, R. Rao, P. Boi, Y. Kaufman, and B. Holben, “Use of sky brightness measurements from ground for remote sensing of particulate polydispersions,” Appl. Opt. 35(15), 2672–2686 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, B.

L. Wang, W. Gong, C. Li, A. Lin, B. Hu, and Y. Ma, “Measurement and estimation of photosynthetically active radiation from 1961 to 2011 in Central China,” Appl. Energy 111, 1010–1017 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

X. Deng, F. Li, Y. Li, J. Li, H. Huang, and X. Liu, “Vertical distribution characteristics of PM in the surface layer of Guangzhou,” Particuology 20, 3–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

W. L. Chameides, H. Yu, S. C. Liu, M. Bergin, X. Zhou, L. Mearns, G. Wang, C. S. Kiang, R. D. Saylor, C. Luo, Y. Huang, A. Steiner, and F. Giorgi, “Case study of the effects of atmospheric aerosols and regional haze on agriculture: an opportunity to enhance crop yields in China through emission controls?” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96(24), 13626–13633 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joshi, M.

M. Joshi, B. Sapra, A. Khan, S. Tripathi, P. Shamjad, T. Gupta, and Y. Mayya, “Harmonisation of nanoparticle concentration measurements using GRIMM and TSI scanning mobility particle sizers,” J. Nanopart. Res. 14(12), 1268 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kaskaoutis, D. G.

M. Sharma, D. G. Kaskaoutis, R. P. Singh, and S. Singh, “Seasonal variability of atmospheric aerosol parameters over Greater Noida using ground sunphotometer observations,” Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 14, 608–622 (2014).

Kaufman, Y.

Kaufman, Y. J.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59(3), 590–608 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kazadzis, S.

M. Taylor, S. Kazadzis, and E. Gerasopoulos, “Multi-modal analysis of aerosol robotic network size distributions for remote sensing applications: dominant aerosol type cases,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(3), 839–858 (2014).
[Crossref]

Khan, A.

M. Joshi, B. Sapra, A. Khan, S. Tripathi, P. Shamjad, T. Gupta, and Y. Mayya, “Harmonisation of nanoparticle concentration measurements using GRIMM and TSI scanning mobility particle sizers,” J. Nanopart. Res. 14(12), 1268 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kiang, C. S.

W. L. Chameides, H. Yu, S. C. Liu, M. Bergin, X. Zhou, L. Mearns, G. Wang, C. S. Kiang, R. D. Saylor, C. Luo, Y. Huang, A. Steiner, and F. Giorgi, “Case study of the effects of atmospheric aerosols and regional haze on agriculture: an opportunity to enhance crop yields in China through emission controls?” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96(24), 13626–13633 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, D. H.

D. H. Kim, B. Sohn, T. Nakajima, and T. Takamura, “Aerosol radiative forcing over East Asia determined from ground‐based solar radiation measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 110(D10), D10s22 (2005).

King, M. D.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59(3), 590–608 (2002).
[Crossref]

O. Dubovik and M. D. King, “A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D16), 20673–20696 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, and J. A. Reagan, “Aerosol size distributions obtained by inversions of spectral optical depth measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35(11), 2153–2167 (1978).
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Kowalski, B. R.

P. Geladi and B. R. Kowalski, “Partial least-squares regression: a tutorial,” Anal. Chim. Acta 185, 1–17 (1986).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

L. Wang, W. Gong, C. Li, A. Lin, B. Hu, and Y. Ma, “Measurement and estimation of photosynthetically active radiation from 1961 to 2011 in Central China,” Appl. Energy 111, 1010–1017 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, D.

H. Che, X. Zhang, H. Chen, B. Damiri, P. Goloub, Z. Li, X. Zhang, Y. Wei, H. Zhou, F. Dong, D. Li, and T. Zhou, “Instrument calibration and aerosol optical depth validation of the China Aerosol Remote Sensing Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(D3), D03206 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, F.

X. Deng, F. Li, Y. Li, J. Li, H. Huang, and X. Liu, “Vertical distribution characteristics of PM in the surface layer of Guangzhou,” Particuology 20, 3–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

X. Deng, F. Li, Y. Li, J. Li, H. Huang, and X. Liu, “Vertical distribution characteristics of PM in the surface layer of Guangzhou,” Particuology 20, 3–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, W. Gong, X. Xia, J. Zhu, J. Li, and Z. Zhu, “Long-term observations of aerosol optical properties at Wuhan, an urban site in Central China,” Atmos. Environ. 101, 94–102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

X. Deng, F. Li, Y. Li, J. Li, H. Huang, and X. Liu, “Vertical distribution characteristics of PM in the surface layer of Guangzhou,” Particuology 20, 3–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

H. Che, X. Zhang, H. Chen, B. Damiri, P. Goloub, Z. Li, X. Zhang, Y. Wei, H. Zhou, F. Dong, D. Li, and T. Zhou, “Instrument calibration and aerosol optical depth validation of the China Aerosol Remote Sensing Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(D3), D03206 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Xia, Z. Li, B. Holben, P. Wang, T. Eck, H. Chen, M. Cribb, and Y. Zhao, “Aerosol optical properties and radiative effects in the Yangtze Delta region of China,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 112(D22), D22s12 (2007).

Z. Li, X. Xia, M. Cribb, W. Mi, B. Holben, P. Wang, H. Chen, S. C. Tsay, T. Eck, F. Zhao, E. G. Dutton, and R. E. Dickerson, “Aerosol optical properties and their radiative effects in northern China,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D22), D22S01 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liland, K. H.

T. Mehmood, K. H. Liland, L. Snipen, and S. Sæbø, “A review of variable selection methods in partial least squares regression,” Chemometr. Intell. Lab. 118, 62–69 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, A.

L. Wang, W. Gong, C. Li, A. Lin, B. Hu, and Y. Ma, “Measurement and estimation of photosynthetically active radiation from 1961 to 2011 in Central China,” Appl. Energy 111, 1010–1017 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, S. C.

W. L. Chameides, H. Yu, S. C. Liu, M. Bergin, X. Zhou, L. Mearns, G. Wang, C. S. Kiang, R. D. Saylor, C. Luo, Y. Huang, A. Steiner, and F. Giorgi, “Case study of the effects of atmospheric aerosols and regional haze on agriculture: an opportunity to enhance crop yields in China through emission controls?” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96(24), 13626–13633 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

X. Deng, F. Li, Y. Li, J. Li, H. Huang, and X. Liu, “Vertical distribution characteristics of PM in the surface layer of Guangzhou,” Particuology 20, 3–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

J. Chen, J. Xin, J. An, Y. Wang, Z. Liu, N. Chao, and Z. Meng, “Observation of aerosol optical properties and particulate pollution at background station in the Pearl River Delta region,” Atmos. Res. 143, 216–227 (2014).
[Crossref]

Luo, C.

W. L. Chameides, H. Yu, S. C. Liu, M. Bergin, X. Zhou, L. Mearns, G. Wang, C. S. Kiang, R. D. Saylor, C. Luo, Y. Huang, A. Steiner, and F. Giorgi, “Case study of the effects of atmospheric aerosols and regional haze on agriculture: an opportunity to enhance crop yields in China through emission controls?” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96(24), 13626–13633 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Y.

W. Gong, S. Zhang, and Y. Ma, “Aerosol optical properties and determination of aerosol size distribution in Wuhan, China,” Atmosphere 5(1), 81–91 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, W. Gong, C. Li, A. Lin, B. Hu, and Y. Ma, “Measurement and estimation of photosynthetically active radiation from 1961 to 2011 in Central China,” Appl. Energy 111, 1010–1017 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mayya, Y.

M. Joshi, B. Sapra, A. Khan, S. Tripathi, P. Shamjad, T. Gupta, and Y. Mayya, “Harmonisation of nanoparticle concentration measurements using GRIMM and TSI scanning mobility particle sizers,” J. Nanopart. Res. 14(12), 1268 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mearns, L.

W. L. Chameides, H. Yu, S. C. Liu, M. Bergin, X. Zhou, L. Mearns, G. Wang, C. S. Kiang, R. D. Saylor, C. Luo, Y. Huang, A. Steiner, and F. Giorgi, “Case study of the effects of atmospheric aerosols and regional haze on agriculture: an opportunity to enhance crop yields in China through emission controls?” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96(24), 13626–13633 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mehmood, T.

T. Mehmood, K. H. Liland, L. Snipen, and S. Sæbø, “A review of variable selection methods in partial least squares regression,” Chemometr. Intell. Lab. 118, 62–69 (2012).
[Crossref]

Meng, Z.

J. Chen, J. Xin, J. An, Y. Wang, Z. Liu, N. Chao, and Z. Meng, “Observation of aerosol optical properties and particulate pollution at background station in the Pearl River Delta region,” Atmos. Res. 143, 216–227 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mi, W.

Z. Li, X. Xia, M. Cribb, W. Mi, B. Holben, P. Wang, H. Chen, S. C. Tsay, T. Eck, F. Zhao, E. G. Dutton, and R. E. Dickerson, “Aerosol optical properties and their radiative effects in northern China,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D22), D22S01 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nakajima, T.

D. H. Kim, B. Sohn, T. Nakajima, and T. Takamura, “Aerosol radiative forcing over East Asia determined from ground‐based solar radiation measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 110(D10), D10s22 (2005).

T. Nakajima, G. Tonna, R. Rao, P. Boi, Y. Kaufman, and B. Holben, “Use of sky brightness measurements from ground for remote sensing of particulate polydispersions,” Appl. Opt. 35(15), 2672–2686 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rao, R.

Reagan, J. A.

M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, and J. A. Reagan, “Aerosol size distributions obtained by inversions of spectral optical depth measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35(11), 2153–2167 (1978).
[Crossref]

Sæbø, S.

T. Mehmood, K. H. Liland, L. Snipen, and S. Sæbø, “A review of variable selection methods in partial least squares regression,” Chemometr. Intell. Lab. 118, 62–69 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sapra, B.

M. Joshi, B. Sapra, A. Khan, S. Tripathi, P. Shamjad, T. Gupta, and Y. Mayya, “Harmonisation of nanoparticle concentration measurements using GRIMM and TSI scanning mobility particle sizers,” J. Nanopart. Res. 14(12), 1268 (2012).
[Crossref]

Saylor, R. D.

W. L. Chameides, H. Yu, S. C. Liu, M. Bergin, X. Zhou, L. Mearns, G. Wang, C. S. Kiang, R. D. Saylor, C. Luo, Y. Huang, A. Steiner, and F. Giorgi, “Case study of the effects of atmospheric aerosols and regional haze on agriculture: an opportunity to enhance crop yields in China through emission controls?” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96(24), 13626–13633 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shamjad, P.

M. Joshi, B. Sapra, A. Khan, S. Tripathi, P. Shamjad, T. Gupta, and Y. Mayya, “Harmonisation of nanoparticle concentration measurements using GRIMM and TSI scanning mobility particle sizers,” J. Nanopart. Res. 14(12), 1268 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sharma, M.

M. Sharma, D. G. Kaskaoutis, R. P. Singh, and S. Singh, “Seasonal variability of atmospheric aerosol parameters over Greater Noida using ground sunphotometer observations,” Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 14, 608–622 (2014).

Shi, G.

H. Che, X. Xia, J. Zhu, H. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Sun, X. Zhang, and G. Shi, “Aerosol optical properties under the condition of heavy haze over an urban site of Beijing, China,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 22(2), 1043–1053 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, R. P.

M. Sharma, D. G. Kaskaoutis, R. P. Singh, and S. Singh, “Seasonal variability of atmospheric aerosol parameters over Greater Noida using ground sunphotometer observations,” Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 14, 608–622 (2014).

Singh, S.

M. Sharma, D. G. Kaskaoutis, R. P. Singh, and S. Singh, “Seasonal variability of atmospheric aerosol parameters over Greater Noida using ground sunphotometer observations,” Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 14, 608–622 (2014).

Sjöström, M.

S. Wold, M. Sjöström, and L. Eriksson, “PLS-regression: a basic tool of chemometrics,” Chemometr. Intell. Lab. 58(2), 109–130 (2001).
[Crossref]

Slutsker, I.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59(3), 590–608 (2002).
[Crossref]

Smirnov, A.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59(3), 590–608 (2002).
[Crossref]

Snipen, L.

T. Mehmood, K. H. Liland, L. Snipen, and S. Sæbø, “A review of variable selection methods in partial least squares regression,” Chemometr. Intell. Lab. 118, 62–69 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sohn, B.

D. H. Kim, B. Sohn, T. Nakajima, and T. Takamura, “Aerosol radiative forcing over East Asia determined from ground‐based solar radiation measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 110(D10), D10s22 (2005).

Song, Q.

P. Wang, H. Che, X. Zhang, Q. Song, Y. Wang, Z. Zhang, X. Dai, and D. Yu, “Aerosol optical properties of regional background atmosphere in Northeast China,” Atmos. Environ. 44(35), 4404–4412 (2010).
[Crossref]

Steiner, A.

W. L. Chameides, H. Yu, S. C. Liu, M. Bergin, X. Zhou, L. Mearns, G. Wang, C. S. Kiang, R. D. Saylor, C. Luo, Y. Huang, A. Steiner, and F. Giorgi, “Case study of the effects of atmospheric aerosols and regional haze on agriculture: an opportunity to enhance crop yields in China through emission controls?” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96(24), 13626–13633 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, L.

M. Tao, L. Chen, L. Su, and J. Tao, “Satellite observation of regional haze pollution over the North China Plain,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(D12), D12203 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.

H. Che, X. Xia, J. Zhu, H. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Sun, X. Zhang, and G. Shi, “Aerosol optical properties under the condition of heavy haze over an urban site of Beijing, China,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 22(2), 1043–1053 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takamura, T.

D. H. Kim, B. Sohn, T. Nakajima, and T. Takamura, “Aerosol radiative forcing over East Asia determined from ground‐based solar radiation measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 110(D10), D10s22 (2005).

Tanré, D.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, and I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59(3), 590–608 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tao, J.

M. Tao, L. Chen, L. Su, and J. Tao, “Satellite observation of regional haze pollution over the North China Plain,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(D12), D12203 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tao, M.

M. Tao, L. Chen, L. Su, and J. Tao, “Satellite observation of regional haze pollution over the North China Plain,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(D12), D12203 (2012).
[Crossref]

Taylor, M.

M. Taylor, S. Kazadzis, and E. Gerasopoulos, “Multi-modal analysis of aerosol robotic network size distributions for remote sensing applications: dominant aerosol type cases,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(3), 839–858 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tonna, G.

Tripathi, S.

M. Joshi, B. Sapra, A. Khan, S. Tripathi, P. Shamjad, T. Gupta, and Y. Mayya, “Harmonisation of nanoparticle concentration measurements using GRIMM and TSI scanning mobility particle sizers,” J. Nanopart. Res. 14(12), 1268 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tsay, S. C.

Z. Li, X. Xia, M. Cribb, W. Mi, B. Holben, P. Wang, H. Chen, S. C. Tsay, T. Eck, F. Zhao, E. G. Dutton, and R. E. Dickerson, “Aerosol optical properties and their radiative effects in northern China,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D22), D22S01 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

W. L. Chameides, H. Yu, S. C. Liu, M. Bergin, X. Zhou, L. Mearns, G. Wang, C. S. Kiang, R. D. Saylor, C. Luo, Y. Huang, A. Steiner, and F. Giorgi, “Case study of the effects of atmospheric aerosols and regional haze on agriculture: an opportunity to enhance crop yields in China through emission controls?” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96(24), 13626–13633 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Che, X. Xia, J. Zhu, H. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Sun, X. Zhang, and G. Shi, “Aerosol optical properties under the condition of heavy haze over an urban site of Beijing, China,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 22(2), 1043–1053 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, W. Gong, X. Xia, J. Zhu, J. Li, and Z. Zhu, “Long-term observations of aerosol optical properties at Wuhan, an urban site in Central China,” Atmos. Environ. 101, 94–102 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, W. Gong, C. Li, A. Lin, B. Hu, and Y. Ma, “Measurement and estimation of photosynthetically active radiation from 1961 to 2011 in Central China,” Appl. Energy 111, 1010–1017 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

P. Wang, H. Che, X. Zhang, Q. Song, Y. Wang, Z. Zhang, X. Dai, and D. Yu, “Aerosol optical properties of regional background atmosphere in Northeast China,” Atmos. Environ. 44(35), 4404–4412 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, X. Xia, M. Cribb, W. Mi, B. Holben, P. Wang, H. Chen, S. C. Tsay, T. Eck, F. Zhao, E. G. Dutton, and R. E. Dickerson, “Aerosol optical properties and their radiative effects in northern China,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D22), D22S01 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Xia, Z. Li, B. Holben, P. Wang, T. Eck, H. Chen, M. Cribb, and Y. Zhao, “Aerosol optical properties and radiative effects in the Yangtze Delta region of China,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 112(D22), D22s12 (2007).

X. Xia, H. Chen, P. Wang, W. Zhang, P. Goloub, B. Chatenet, T. Eck, and B. Holben, “Variation of column‐integrated aerosol properties in a Chinese urban region,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D5), D05204 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

H. Che, X. Xia, J. Zhu, H. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Sun, X. Zhang, and G. Shi, “Aerosol optical properties under the condition of heavy haze over an urban site of Beijing, China,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 22(2), 1043–1053 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, J. Xin, J. An, Y. Wang, Z. Liu, N. Chao, and Z. Meng, “Observation of aerosol optical properties and particulate pollution at background station in the Pearl River Delta region,” Atmos. Res. 143, 216–227 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Wang, H. Che, X. Zhang, Q. Song, Y. Wang, Z. Zhang, X. Dai, and D. Yu, “Aerosol optical properties of regional background atmosphere in Northeast China,” Atmos. Environ. 44(35), 4404–4412 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wei, Y.

H. Che, X. Zhang, H. Chen, B. Damiri, P. Goloub, Z. Li, X. Zhang, Y. Wei, H. Zhou, F. Dong, D. Li, and T. Zhou, “Instrument calibration and aerosol optical depth validation of the China Aerosol Remote Sensing Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(D3), D03206 (2009).
[Crossref]

Whitley, D.

D. Whitley, “A genetic algorithm tutorial,” Stat. Comput. 4(2), 65–85 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wold, S.

S. Wold, M. Sjöström, and L. Eriksson, “PLS-regression: a basic tool of chemometrics,” Chemometr. Intell. Lab. 58(2), 109–130 (2001).
[Crossref]

Xia, X.

H. Che, X. Xia, J. Zhu, H. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Sun, X. Zhang, and G. Shi, “Aerosol optical properties under the condition of heavy haze over an urban site of Beijing, China,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 22(2), 1043–1053 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, W. Gong, X. Xia, J. Zhu, J. Li, and Z. Zhu, “Long-term observations of aerosol optical properties at Wuhan, an urban site in Central China,” Atmos. Environ. 101, 94–102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, X. Xia, M. Cribb, W. Mi, B. Holben, P. Wang, H. Chen, S. C. Tsay, T. Eck, F. Zhao, E. G. Dutton, and R. E. Dickerson, “Aerosol optical properties and their radiative effects in northern China,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D22), D22S01 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Xia, Z. Li, B. Holben, P. Wang, T. Eck, H. Chen, M. Cribb, and Y. Zhao, “Aerosol optical properties and radiative effects in the Yangtze Delta region of China,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 112(D22), D22s12 (2007).

X. Xia, H. Chen, P. Wang, W. Zhang, P. Goloub, B. Chatenet, T. Eck, and B. Holben, “Variation of column‐integrated aerosol properties in a Chinese urban region,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D5), D05204 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xin, J.

J. Chen, J. Xin, J. An, Y. Wang, Z. Liu, N. Chao, and Z. Meng, “Observation of aerosol optical properties and particulate pollution at background station in the Pearl River Delta region,” Atmos. Res. 143, 216–227 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, D.

P. Wang, H. Che, X. Zhang, Q. Song, Y. Wang, Z. Zhang, X. Dai, and D. Yu, “Aerosol optical properties of regional background atmosphere in Northeast China,” Atmos. Environ. 44(35), 4404–4412 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

W. L. Chameides, H. Yu, S. C. Liu, M. Bergin, X. Zhou, L. Mearns, G. Wang, C. S. Kiang, R. D. Saylor, C. Luo, Y. Huang, A. Steiner, and F. Giorgi, “Case study of the effects of atmospheric aerosols and regional haze on agriculture: an opportunity to enhance crop yields in China through emission controls?” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96(24), 13626–13633 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

W. Gong, S. Zhang, and Y. Ma, “Aerosol optical properties and determination of aerosol size distribution in Wuhan, China,” Atmosphere 5(1), 81–91 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

X. Xia, H. Chen, P. Wang, W. Zhang, P. Goloub, B. Chatenet, T. Eck, and B. Holben, “Variation of column‐integrated aerosol properties in a Chinese urban region,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(D5), D05204 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

H. Che, X. Xia, J. Zhu, H. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Sun, X. Zhang, and G. Shi, “Aerosol optical properties under the condition of heavy haze over an urban site of Beijing, China,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 22(2), 1043–1053 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The flowchart of the proposed method.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Columnar AVSD on haze days. The blue line indicates the mean value of the AVSD, and the red lines express the bi-lognormal fit. The grey band represents the uncertainty of columnar AVSD. All the data were obtained using the Dubovik’s method.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The ASD for the earth’s surface expressed by (a) the particles number concentration on December 24, 2014; and (b) the corresponding volume concentration. The data were obtained by splicing the synchronous observations of the TSI SMPS and GRIMM 180 PM monitor.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison of the distribution parameters between the columnar AVSD and AVSD for the earth’s surface. Images on the left: comparison of different samples values; images on the right: boxplots of the AVSD on the earth’s surface and columnar AVSD; (a) Standard deviation of fine particles; (b) Volume median radii of fine particles; (c) The ratio of volume concentration between the fine and coarse particles; (d) Standard deviation of coarse particles; (e) Volume median radii of coarse particles.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The experimental results for the 4 cases by using partial least square (PLS) and genetic algorithm (GA). (a) columnar AVSD on December 24, 2014, 10:29, blue diamonds and red stars indicate the original columnar AVSD inversion results using the Dubovik’s algorithm and fitting the result by our proposed method, respectively ; (b) Columnar AVSD on December 30, 2014, 11:32; (c) Columnar AVSD on January 3, 2015, 09:39; (d) Columnar AVSD on January 3, 2015, 14:33.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Columnar AVSD on January 3, 2015, 09:39. The black line is the original columnar AVSD; the red dashed line indicates the columnar AVSD calculated by the mean values of the distribution parameters in GSFC; the yellow dash-dot line expresses the columnar AVSD calculated by the mean values of the distribution parameters in Crete-Paris; the blue dotted lines and green lines with dots indicate the for Mexico City and Maldives, respectively.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The experimental results for the four cases using the traditional empirical values (Mexico City) and genetic algorithm (GA). (a) columnar AVSD on December 24, 2014, 10:29, the blue diamonds and red stars indicate original columnar AVSD inversion result by Dubovik’s algorithm and the fitting result by our new method, respectively ; (b) Columnar AVSD on December 30, 2014, 11:32; (c) Columnar AVSD on January 3, 2015, 09:39; (d) Columnar AVSD on January 3, 2015, 14:33
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The new method using triple modal logarithmic normal distribution on two different days.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Changes in the ANSD for the earth’s surface on two consecutive days, when heave aerosol loading occurred on January 21 and 22, 2015; the radii were divided as shown in the legend for Fig. 9, r<0.02um, 0.02um<r<0.1um and 0.1um< r<15um

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Haze Records from the East Lake High-tech Development Zone Station

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Table 2 Experimental Data Details of the Ground Observation Equipment

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Table 3 Atmosphere Characteristics of Different Columnar AVSD Categories

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Table 4 Data Description and Fitting Evaluations Corresponding to Fig. 5

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Table 5 Data Description and Fitting Evaluations Corresponding to Fig. 7

Equations (12)

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τ ( λ ) = r min r max Q e ( r , λ , m ) π r 2 n ( r ) d r
τ ( λ ) = 3 4 r min r max Q e ( r , λ , m ) r v ( r ) d r
τ ( λ ) = 3 4 r min r max Q e ( r , λ , m ) r 2 d v d ln r d r
d V ( r ) d l n ( r ) = C f 2 π σ f exp ( ( l n r l n R f ) 2 2 σ f 2 ) + C c 2 π σ c exp ( ( l n r l n R c ) 2 2 σ c 2 )
N ( r ) r ( 4 3 π r 3 ) = dV ( r ) / dln ( r )
τ λ = r min r max π r 2 Q e ( m , r, λ ) N ( r ) dr
1 k i = 1 k ( τ mod i τ o b s i ) 2
lnR = r min r max ln r d V ( r ) d ln r d ln r r min r max d V ( r ) d lnr d ln r
σ = r min r max ( ln r lnR ) 2 d V ( r ) d ln r d ln r r min r max d V ( r ) d lnr d ln r
C = r min r max d V ( r ) d lnr d ln r
X = I = 1 a t i p i T + E Y = I = 1 a u i q i T + F
u i = b i t i + h i

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