Abstract

High-order harmonic generation (HHG) in molecular targets is experimentally investigated in order to reveal the role of the nuclear motion played in the harmonic generation process. An obvious broadening in the harmonic spectrum from the H2 molecule is observed in comparison with the harmonic spectrum generated from other molecules with relatively heavy nuclei. We also find that the harmonic yield from the H2 molecule is much weaker than the yield from those gas targets with the similar ionization potentials, such as Ar atom and N2 molecule. The yield suppression and the spectrum broadening of HHG can be attributed to the vibrational motion of nuclear induced by the driving laser pulse. Moreover, the one-dimensional (1D) time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) with the non-Born-Oppenheimer (NBO) treatment is numerically solved to provide a theoretical support to our explanation.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. Zhao, Q. Zhang, M. Chini, Y. Wu, X. Wang, and Z. Chang, “Tailoring a 67 attosecond pulse through advantageous phase-mismatch,” Opt. Lett. 37(18), 3891–3893 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and J. L. Krause, “Super-intense laser-atom physics,” NATO ASI, Ser. B 316, 95 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. C. C. Chirilă and M. Lein, “Strong-field approximation for harmonic generation in diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 73(2), 023410 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  11. X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Theory of molecular tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 66(3), 033402 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  12. T. Zuo and A. D. Bandrauk, “Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of diatomic molecular ions by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52(4), R2511–R2514 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. T. Seideman, M. Y. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Role of electron localization in intense-field molecular ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(15), 2819–2822 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. T. Kreibich, M. Lein, V. Engel, and E. K. U. Gross, “Even-harmonic generation due to beyond-born-oppenheimer dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(10), 103901 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Isolated-attosecond-pulse generation due to the nuclear dynamics of H2+ in a multicycle midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 85(2), 023410 (2012).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. M. Lein, “Attosecond probing of vibrational dynamics with high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(5), 053004 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirila, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312(5772), 424–427 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. T. Kanai, E. J. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Observing the attosecond dynamics of nuclear wavepackets in molecules by using high harmonic generation in mixed gases,” New J. Phys. 10(2), 025036 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  21. S. Haessler, W. Boutu, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, S. Weber, J. Caillat, R. Taïeb, A. Maquet, P. Breger, P. Monchicourt, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Attosecond chirp-encoded dynamics of light nuclei,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134002 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  22. T. Bredtmann, S. Chelkowski, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Monitoring attosecond dynamics of coherent electron-nuclear wave packets by molecular high-order-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 021401 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  23. H. Mizutani, S. Minemoto, Y. Oguchi, and H. Sakai, “Effect of nuclear motion observed in high-order harmonic generation from D2 /H2 molecules with intense multi-cycle 1300 nm and 800 nm pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44(8), 081002 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  24. J. P. Farrell, S. Petretti, J. Förster, B. K. McFarland, L. S. Spector, Y. V. Vanne, P. Decleva, P. H. Bucksbaum, A. Saenz, and M. Gühr, “Strong field ionization to multiple electronic states in water,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(8), 083001 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. P. M. Kraus and H. J. Wörner, “Attosecond nuclear dynamics in the ammonia cation: relation between high-harmonic and photoelectron spectroscopies,” ChemPhysChem 14(7), 1445–1450 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. J. Förster and A. Saenz, “Theoretical study of the inversion motion of the ammonia cation with subfemtosecond resolution for high-harmonic spectroscopy,” ChemPhysChem 14(7), 1438–1444 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Role of the intramolecular phase in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(18), 183903 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. A. Bandrauk, S. Chelkowski, and H. Lu, “Signatures of nuclear motion in molecular high-order harmonics and in the generation of attosecond pulse trains by ultrashort intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(7), 075602 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  29. C. Liu, Z. Zeng, P. Wei, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Driving-laser wavelength dependence of high-order harmonic generation in H2+ molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033426 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  30. X. B. Bian and A. D. Bandrauk, “Probing nuclear motion by frequency modulation of molecular high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 193901 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. H. Ahmadi, A. Maghari, H. Sabzyan, A. R. Niknam, and M. Vafaee, “Effect of nuclear motion on high-order-harmonic generation of H2+ in intense ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 043411 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  32. W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(25), 3523–3526 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. M. Holler, A. Zaïr, F. Schapper, T. Auguste, E. Cormier, A. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, L. Gallmann, P. Salières, and U. Keller, “Ionization effects on spectral signatures of quantum-path interference in high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5716–5722 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. M. R. Hermann and J. A. Fleck., “Split-operator spectral method for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in spherical coordinates,” Phys. Rev. A Gen. Phys. 38(12), 6000–6012 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. K. Schiessl, K. L. Ishikawa, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Quantum path interference in the wavelength dependence of high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(25), 253903 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

X. B. Bian and A. D. Bandrauk, “Probing nuclear motion by frequency modulation of molecular high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 193901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ahmadi, A. Maghari, H. Sabzyan, A. R. Niknam, and M. Vafaee, “Effect of nuclear motion on high-order-harmonic generation of H2+ in intense ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 043411 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

P. M. Kraus and H. J. Wörner, “Attosecond nuclear dynamics in the ammonia cation: relation between high-harmonic and photoelectron spectroscopies,” ChemPhysChem 14(7), 1445–1450 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Förster and A. Saenz, “Theoretical study of the inversion motion of the ammonia cation with subfemtosecond resolution for high-harmonic spectroscopy,” ChemPhysChem 14(7), 1438–1444 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

K. Zhao, Q. Zhang, M. Chini, Y. Wu, X. Wang, and Z. Chang, “Tailoring a 67 attosecond pulse through advantageous phase-mismatch,” Opt. Lett. 37(18), 3891–3893 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Isolated-attosecond-pulse generation due to the nuclear dynamics of H2+ in a multicycle midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 85(2), 023410 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

T. Bredtmann, S. Chelkowski, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Monitoring attosecond dynamics of coherent electron-nuclear wave packets by molecular high-order-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 021401 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Mizutani, S. Minemoto, Y. Oguchi, and H. Sakai, “Effect of nuclear motion observed in high-order harmonic generation from D2 /H2 molecules with intense multi-cycle 1300 nm and 800 nm pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44(8), 081002 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. P. Farrell, S. Petretti, J. Förster, B. K. McFarland, L. S. Spector, Y. V. Vanne, P. Decleva, P. H. Bucksbaum, A. Saenz, and M. Gühr, “Strong field ionization to multiple electronic states in water,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(8), 083001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

C. Liu, Z. Zeng, P. Wei, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Driving-laser wavelength dependence of high-order harmonic generation in H2+ molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033426 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

M. Holler, A. Zaïr, F. Schapper, T. Auguste, E. Cormier, A. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, L. Gallmann, P. Salières, and U. Keller, “Ionization effects on spectral signatures of quantum-path interference in high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5716–5722 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Haessler, W. Boutu, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, S. Weber, J. Caillat, R. Taïeb, A. Maquet, P. Breger, P. Monchicourt, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Attosecond chirp-encoded dynamics of light nuclei,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134002 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Bandrauk, S. Chelkowski, and H. Lu, “Signatures of nuclear motion in molecular high-order harmonics and in the generation of attosecond pulse trains by ultrashort intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(7), 075602 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

A. D. Bandrauk, S. Chelkowski, S. Kawai, and H. Lu, “Effect of nuclear motion on molecular high-order harmonics and on generation of attosecond pulses in intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 153901 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kanai, E. J. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Observing the attosecond dynamics of nuclear wavepackets in molecules by using high harmonic generation in mixed gases,” New J. Phys. 10(2), 025036 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

K. Schiessl, K. L. Ishikawa, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Quantum path interference in the wavelength dependence of high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(25), 253903 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirila, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312(5772), 424–427 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Chirilă and M. Lein, “Strong-field approximation for harmonic generation in diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 73(2), 023410 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. Lein, “Attosecond probing of vibrational dynamics with high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(5), 053004 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Theory of molecular tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 66(3), 033402 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Role of the intramolecular phase in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(18), 183903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

T. Kreibich, M. Lein, V. Engel, and E. K. U. Gross, “Even-harmonic generation due to beyond-born-oppenheimer dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(10), 103901 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

T. Zuo and A. D. Bandrauk, “Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of diatomic molecular ions by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52(4), R2511–R2514 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Seideman, M. Y. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Role of electron localization in intense-field molecular ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(15), 2819–2822 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and J. L. Krause, “Super-intense laser-atom physics,” NATO ASI, Ser. B 316, 95 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(25), 3523–3526 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

P. H. Bucksbaum, A. Zavriyev, H. G. Muller, and D. W. Schumacher, “Softening of the H2+ molecular bond in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(16), 1883–1886 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

M. R. Hermann and J. A. Fleck., “Split-operator spectral method for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in spherical coordinates,” Phys. Rev. A Gen. Phys. 38(12), 6000–6012 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agostini, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmadi, H.

H. Ahmadi, A. Maghari, H. Sabzyan, A. R. Niknam, and M. Vafaee, “Effect of nuclear motion on high-order-harmonic generation of H2+ in intense ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 043411 (2014).
[Crossref]

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Augé, F.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Auguste, T.

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baker, S.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirila, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312(5772), 424–427 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balcou, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bandrauk, A.

A. Bandrauk, S. Chelkowski, and H. Lu, “Signatures of nuclear motion in molecular high-order harmonics and in the generation of attosecond pulse trains by ultrashort intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(7), 075602 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bandrauk, A. D.

X. B. Bian and A. D. Bandrauk, “Probing nuclear motion by frequency modulation of molecular high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 193901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Bredtmann, S. Chelkowski, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Monitoring attosecond dynamics of coherent electron-nuclear wave packets by molecular high-order-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 021401 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. D. Bandrauk, S. Chelkowski, S. Kawai, and H. Lu, “Effect of nuclear motion on molecular high-order harmonics and on generation of attosecond pulses in intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 153901 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Zuo and A. D. Bandrauk, “Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of diatomic molecular ions by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52(4), R2511–R2514 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bian, X. B.

X. B. Bian and A. D. Bandrauk, “Probing nuclear motion by frequency modulation of molecular high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 193901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boutu, W.

S. Haessler, W. Boutu, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, S. Weber, J. Caillat, R. Taïeb, A. Maquet, P. Breger, P. Monchicourt, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Attosecond chirp-encoded dynamics of light nuclei,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134002 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bredtmann, T.

T. Bredtmann, S. Chelkowski, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Monitoring attosecond dynamics of coherent electron-nuclear wave packets by molecular high-order-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 021401 (2011).
[Crossref]

Breger, P.

S. Haessler, W. Boutu, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, S. Weber, J. Caillat, R. Taïeb, A. Maquet, P. Breger, P. Monchicourt, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Attosecond chirp-encoded dynamics of light nuclei,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134002 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

J. P. Farrell, S. Petretti, J. Förster, B. K. McFarland, L. S. Spector, Y. V. Vanne, P. Decleva, P. H. Bucksbaum, A. Saenz, and M. Gühr, “Strong field ionization to multiple electronic states in water,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(8), 083001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. H. Bucksbaum, A. Zavriyev, H. G. Muller, and D. W. Schumacher, “Softening of the H2+ molecular bond in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(16), 1883–1886 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burgdörfer, J.

K. Schiessl, K. L. Ishikawa, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Quantum path interference in the wavelength dependence of high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(25), 253903 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caillat, J.

S. Haessler, W. Boutu, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, S. Weber, J. Caillat, R. Taïeb, A. Maquet, P. Breger, P. Monchicourt, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Attosecond chirp-encoded dynamics of light nuclei,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134002 (2009).
[Crossref]

Calegari, F.

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A. D. Bandrauk, S. Chelkowski, S. Kawai, and H. Lu, “Effect of nuclear motion on molecular high-order harmonics and on generation of attosecond pulses in intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 153901 (2008).
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Chirila, C. C.

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J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
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T. Kreibich, M. Lein, V. Engel, and E. K. U. Gross, “Even-harmonic generation due to beyond-born-oppenheimer dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(10), 103901 (2001).
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J. P. Farrell, S. Petretti, J. Förster, B. K. McFarland, L. S. Spector, Y. V. Vanne, P. Decleva, P. H. Bucksbaum, A. Saenz, and M. Gühr, “Strong field ionization to multiple electronic states in water,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(8), 083001 (2011).
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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
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J. Förster and A. Saenz, “Theoretical study of the inversion motion of the ammonia cation with subfemtosecond resolution for high-harmonic spectroscopy,” ChemPhysChem 14(7), 1438–1444 (2013).
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J. P. Farrell, S. Petretti, J. Förster, B. K. McFarland, L. S. Spector, Y. V. Vanne, P. Decleva, P. H. Bucksbaum, A. Saenz, and M. Gühr, “Strong field ionization to multiple electronic states in water,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(8), 083001 (2011).
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S. Haessler, W. Boutu, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, S. Weber, J. Caillat, R. Taïeb, A. Maquet, P. Breger, P. Monchicourt, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Attosecond chirp-encoded dynamics of light nuclei,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134002 (2009).
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Gross, E. K. U.

T. Kreibich, M. Lein, V. Engel, and E. K. U. Gross, “Even-harmonic generation due to beyond-born-oppenheimer dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(10), 103901 (2001).
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J. P. Farrell, S. Petretti, J. Förster, B. K. McFarland, L. S. Spector, Y. V. Vanne, P. Decleva, P. H. Bucksbaum, A. Saenz, and M. Gühr, “Strong field ionization to multiple electronic states in water,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(8), 083001 (2011).
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S. Haessler, W. Boutu, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, S. Weber, J. Caillat, R. Taïeb, A. Maquet, P. Breger, P. Monchicourt, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Attosecond chirp-encoded dynamics of light nuclei,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134002 (2009).
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S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirila, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312(5772), 424–427 (2006).
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M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Role of the intramolecular phase in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(18), 183903 (2002).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
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M. R. Hermann and J. A. Fleck., “Split-operator spectral method for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in spherical coordinates,” Phys. Rev. A Gen. Phys. 38(12), 6000–6012 (1988).
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Ishikawa, K. L.

K. Schiessl, K. L. Ishikawa, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Quantum path interference in the wavelength dependence of high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(25), 253903 (2007).
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J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
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T. Seideman, M. Y. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Role of electron localization in intense-field molecular ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(15), 2819–2822 (1995).
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M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
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Kanai, T.

T. Kanai, E. J. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Observing the attosecond dynamics of nuclear wavepackets in molecules by using high harmonic generation in mixed gases,” New J. Phys. 10(2), 025036 (2008).
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A. D. Bandrauk, S. Chelkowski, S. Kawai, and H. Lu, “Effect of nuclear motion on molecular high-order harmonics and on generation of attosecond pulses in intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 153901 (2008).
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Kieffer, J. C.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
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M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Role of the intramolecular phase in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(18), 183903 (2002).
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P. M. Kraus and H. J. Wörner, “Attosecond nuclear dynamics in the ammonia cation: relation between high-harmonic and photoelectron spectroscopies,” ChemPhysChem 14(7), 1445–1450 (2013).
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F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
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Kreibich, T.

T. Kreibich, M. Lein, V. Engel, and E. K. U. Gross, “Even-harmonic generation due to beyond-born-oppenheimer dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(10), 103901 (2001).
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M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
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C. C. Chirilă and M. Lein, “Strong-field approximation for harmonic generation in diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 73(2), 023410 (2006).
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S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirila, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312(5772), 424–427 (2006).
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M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Role of the intramolecular phase in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(18), 183903 (2002).
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T. Kreibich, M. Lein, V. Engel, and E. K. U. Gross, “Even-harmonic generation due to beyond-born-oppenheimer dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(10), 103901 (2001).
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Levesque, J.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
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M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
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Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Isolated-attosecond-pulse generation due to the nuclear dynamics of H2+ in a multicycle midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 85(2), 023410 (2012).
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C. Liu, Z. Zeng, P. Wei, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Driving-laser wavelength dependence of high-order harmonic generation in H2+ molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033426 (2010).
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C. Liu, Z. Zeng, P. Wei, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Driving-laser wavelength dependence of high-order harmonic generation in H2+ molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033426 (2010).
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Liu, P.

C. Liu, Z. Zeng, P. Wei, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Driving-laser wavelength dependence of high-order harmonic generation in H2+ molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033426 (2010).
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Lu, H.

A. Bandrauk, S. Chelkowski, and H. Lu, “Signatures of nuclear motion in molecular high-order harmonics and in the generation of attosecond pulse trains by ultrashort intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(7), 075602 (2009).
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A. D. Bandrauk, S. Chelkowski, S. Kawai, and H. Lu, “Effect of nuclear motion on molecular high-order harmonics and on generation of attosecond pulses in intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 153901 (2008).
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Maghari, A.

H. Ahmadi, A. Maghari, H. Sabzyan, A. R. Niknam, and M. Vafaee, “Effect of nuclear motion on high-order-harmonic generation of H2+ in intense ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 043411 (2014).
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Maquet, A.

S. Haessler, W. Boutu, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, S. Weber, J. Caillat, R. Taïeb, A. Maquet, P. Breger, P. Monchicourt, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Attosecond chirp-encoded dynamics of light nuclei,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134002 (2009).
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Marangos, J. P.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirila, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312(5772), 424–427 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Role of the intramolecular phase in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(18), 183903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McFarland, B. K.

J. P. Farrell, S. Petretti, J. Förster, B. K. McFarland, L. S. Spector, Y. V. Vanne, P. Decleva, P. H. Bucksbaum, A. Saenz, and M. Gühr, “Strong field ionization to multiple electronic states in water,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(8), 083001 (2011).
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Midorikawa, K.

T. Kanai, E. J. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Observing the attosecond dynamics of nuclear wavepackets in molecules by using high harmonic generation in mixed gases,” New J. Phys. 10(2), 025036 (2008).
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Milosevic, N.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
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Minemoto, S.

H. Mizutani, S. Minemoto, Y. Oguchi, and H. Sakai, “Effect of nuclear motion observed in high-order harmonic generation from D2 /H2 molecules with intense multi-cycle 1300 nm and 800 nm pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44(8), 081002 (2011).
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Mizutani, H.

H. Mizutani, S. Minemoto, Y. Oguchi, and H. Sakai, “Effect of nuclear motion observed in high-order harmonic generation from D2 /H2 molecules with intense multi-cycle 1300 nm and 800 nm pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44(8), 081002 (2011).
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Monchicourt, P.

S. Haessler, W. Boutu, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, S. Weber, J. Caillat, R. Taïeb, A. Maquet, P. Breger, P. Monchicourt, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Attosecond chirp-encoded dynamics of light nuclei,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134002 (2009).
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Monmayrant, A.

Muller, H. G.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
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P. H. Bucksbaum, A. Zavriyev, H. G. Muller, and D. W. Schumacher, “Softening of the H2+ molecular bond in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(16), 1883–1886 (1990).
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P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
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Nabekawa, Y.

T. Kanai, E. J. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Observing the attosecond dynamics of nuclear wavepackets in molecules by using high harmonic generation in mixed gases,” New J. Phys. 10(2), 025036 (2008).
[Crossref]

Niikura, H.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niknam, A. R.

H. Ahmadi, A. Maghari, H. Sabzyan, A. R. Niknam, and M. Vafaee, “Effect of nuclear motion on high-order-harmonic generation of H2+ in intense ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 043411 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nisoli, M.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oguchi, Y.

H. Mizutani, S. Minemoto, Y. Oguchi, and H. Sakai, “Effect of nuclear motion observed in high-order harmonic generation from D2 /H2 molecules with intense multi-cycle 1300 nm and 800 nm pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44(8), 081002 (2011).
[Crossref]

Paul, P. M.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pépin, H.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Persson, E.

K. Schiessl, K. L. Ishikawa, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Quantum path interference in the wavelength dependence of high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(25), 253903 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petretti, S.

J. P. Farrell, S. Petretti, J. Förster, B. K. McFarland, L. S. Spector, Y. V. Vanne, P. Decleva, P. H. Bucksbaum, A. Saenz, and M. Gühr, “Strong field ionization to multiple electronic states in water,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(8), 083001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poletto, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reider, G. A.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robinson, J. S.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirila, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312(5772), 424–427 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sabzyan, H.

H. Ahmadi, A. Maghari, H. Sabzyan, A. R. Niknam, and M. Vafaee, “Effect of nuclear motion on high-order-harmonic generation of H2+ in intense ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 043411 (2014).
[Crossref]

Saenz, A.

J. Förster and A. Saenz, “Theoretical study of the inversion motion of the ammonia cation with subfemtosecond resolution for high-harmonic spectroscopy,” ChemPhysChem 14(7), 1438–1444 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Farrell, S. Petretti, J. Förster, B. K. McFarland, L. S. Spector, Y. V. Vanne, P. Decleva, P. H. Bucksbaum, A. Saenz, and M. Gühr, “Strong field ionization to multiple electronic states in water,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(8), 083001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakai, H.

H. Mizutani, S. Minemoto, Y. Oguchi, and H. Sakai, “Effect of nuclear motion observed in high-order harmonic generation from D2 /H2 molecules with intense multi-cycle 1300 nm and 800 nm pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44(8), 081002 (2011).
[Crossref]

Salières, P.

S. Haessler, W. Boutu, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, S. Weber, J. Caillat, R. Taïeb, A. Maquet, P. Breger, P. Monchicourt, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Attosecond chirp-encoded dynamics of light nuclei,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134002 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Holler, A. Zaïr, F. Schapper, T. Auguste, E. Cormier, A. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, L. Gallmann, P. Salières, and U. Keller, “Ionization effects on spectral signatures of quantum-path interference in high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5716–5722 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sansone, G.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schafer, K. J.

K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and J. L. Krause, “Super-intense laser-atom physics,” NATO ASI, Ser. B 316, 95 (1993).
[Crossref]

Schapper, F.

Schiessl, K.

K. Schiessl, K. L. Ishikawa, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Quantum path interference in the wavelength dependence of high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(25), 253903 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schumacher, D. W.

P. H. Bucksbaum, A. Zavriyev, H. G. Muller, and D. W. Schumacher, “Softening of the H2+ molecular bond in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(16), 1883–1886 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seideman, T.

T. Seideman, M. Y. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Role of electron localization in intense-field molecular ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(15), 2819–2822 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siders, C. W.

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(25), 3523–3526 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, R. A.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirila, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312(5772), 424–427 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spector, L. S.

J. P. Farrell, S. Petretti, J. Förster, B. K. McFarland, L. S. Spector, Y. V. Vanne, P. Decleva, P. H. Bucksbaum, A. Saenz, and M. Gühr, “Strong field ionization to multiple electronic states in water,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(8), 083001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spielmann, C.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stankiewicz, M.

S. Haessler, W. Boutu, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, S. Weber, J. Caillat, R. Taïeb, A. Maquet, P. Breger, P. Monchicourt, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Attosecond chirp-encoded dynamics of light nuclei,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134002 (2009).
[Crossref]

Taïeb, R.

S. Haessler, W. Boutu, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, S. Weber, J. Caillat, R. Taïeb, A. Maquet, P. Breger, P. Monchicourt, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Attosecond chirp-encoded dynamics of light nuclei,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134002 (2009).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, E. J.

T. Kanai, E. J. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Observing the attosecond dynamics of nuclear wavepackets in molecules by using high harmonic generation in mixed gases,” New J. Phys. 10(2), 025036 (2008).
[Crossref]

Teng, H.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirila, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312(5772), 424–427 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tisch, J. W. G.

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirila, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312(5772), 424–427 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toma, E. S.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tong, X. M.

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Theory of molecular tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 66(3), 033402 (2002).
[Crossref]

Vafaee, M.

H. Ahmadi, A. Maghari, H. Sabzyan, A. R. Niknam, and M. Vafaee, “Effect of nuclear motion on high-order-harmonic generation of H2+ in intense ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 043411 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vanne, Y. V.

J. P. Farrell, S. Petretti, J. Förster, B. K. McFarland, L. S. Spector, Y. V. Vanne, P. Decleva, P. H. Bucksbaum, A. Saenz, and M. Gühr, “Strong field ionization to multiple electronic states in water,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(8), 083001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Velotta, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Role of the intramolecular phase in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(18), 183903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walmsley, I. A.

Wang, X.

Weber, S.

S. Haessler, W. Boutu, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, S. Weber, J. Caillat, R. Taïeb, A. Maquet, P. Breger, P. Monchicourt, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Attosecond chirp-encoded dynamics of light nuclei,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134002 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wei, P.

C. Liu, Z. Zeng, P. Wei, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Driving-laser wavelength dependence of high-order harmonic generation in H2+ molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033426 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wood, W. M.

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(25), 3523–3526 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wörner, H. J.

P. M. Kraus and H. J. Wörner, “Attosecond nuclear dynamics in the ammonia cation: relation between high-harmonic and photoelectron spectroscopies,” ChemPhysChem 14(7), 1445–1450 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

Wyatt, A.

Xu, Z.

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Isolated-attosecond-pulse generation due to the nuclear dynamics of H2+ in a multicycle midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 85(2), 023410 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, Z. Zeng, P. Wei, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Driving-laser wavelength dependence of high-order harmonic generation in H2+ molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033426 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zaïr, A.

Zavriyev, A.

P. H. Bucksbaum, A. Zavriyev, H. G. Muller, and D. W. Schumacher, “Softening of the H2+ molecular bond in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(16), 1883–1886 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeidler, D.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, Z.

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Isolated-attosecond-pulse generation due to the nuclear dynamics of H2+ in a multicycle midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 85(2), 023410 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, Z. Zeng, P. Wei, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Driving-laser wavelength dependence of high-order harmonic generation in H2+ molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033426 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

Zhao, K.

Zhao, Z. X.

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Theory of molecular tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 66(3), 033402 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y.

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Isolated-attosecond-pulse generation due to the nuclear dynamics of H2+ in a multicycle midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 85(2), 023410 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zuo, T.

T. Zuo and A. D. Bandrauk, “Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of diatomic molecular ions by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52(4), R2511–R2514 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ChemPhysChem (2)

P. M. Kraus and H. J. Wörner, “Attosecond nuclear dynamics in the ammonia cation: relation between high-harmonic and photoelectron spectroscopies,” ChemPhysChem 14(7), 1445–1450 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Förster and A. Saenz, “Theoretical study of the inversion motion of the ammonia cation with subfemtosecond resolution for high-harmonic spectroscopy,” ChemPhysChem 14(7), 1438–1444 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (3)

H. Mizutani, S. Minemoto, Y. Oguchi, and H. Sakai, “Effect of nuclear motion observed in high-order harmonic generation from D2 /H2 molecules with intense multi-cycle 1300 nm and 800 nm pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44(8), 081002 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Bandrauk, S. Chelkowski, and H. Lu, “Signatures of nuclear motion in molecular high-order harmonics and in the generation of attosecond pulse trains by ultrashort intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(7), 075602 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Haessler, W. Boutu, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, S. Weber, J. Caillat, R. Taïeb, A. Maquet, P. Breger, P. Monchicourt, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Attosecond chirp-encoded dynamics of light nuclei,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134002 (2009).
[Crossref]

NATO ASI, Ser. B (1)

K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and J. L. Krause, “Super-intense laser-atom physics,” NATO ASI, Ser. B 316, 95 (1993).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

T. Kanai, E. J. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Observing the attosecond dynamics of nuclear wavepackets in molecules by using high harmonic generation in mixed gases,” New J. Phys. 10(2), 025036 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (8)

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Chirilă and M. Lein, “Strong-field approximation for harmonic generation in diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 73(2), 023410 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Theory of molecular tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 66(3), 033402 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Zuo and A. D. Bandrauk, “Charge-resonance-enhanced ionization of diatomic molecular ions by intense lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52(4), R2511–R2514 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Bredtmann, S. Chelkowski, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Monitoring attosecond dynamics of coherent electron-nuclear wave packets by molecular high-order-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 021401 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Isolated-attosecond-pulse generation due to the nuclear dynamics of H2+ in a multicycle midinfrared laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 85(2), 023410 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, Z. Zeng, P. Wei, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Driving-laser wavelength dependence of high-order harmonic generation in H2+ molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033426 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Ahmadi, A. Maghari, H. Sabzyan, A. R. Niknam, and M. Vafaee, “Effect of nuclear motion on high-order-harmonic generation of H2+ in intense ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 90(4), 043411 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A Gen. Phys. (1)

M. R. Hermann and J. A. Fleck., “Split-operator spectral method for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in spherical coordinates,” Phys. Rev. A Gen. Phys. 38(12), 6000–6012 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (11)

K. Schiessl, K. L. Ishikawa, E. Persson, and J. Burgdörfer, “Quantum path interference in the wavelength dependence of high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(25), 253903 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(25), 3523–3526 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. B. Bian and A. D. Bandrauk, “Probing nuclear motion by frequency modulation of molecular high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 193901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Farrell, S. Petretti, J. Förster, B. K. McFarland, L. S. Spector, Y. V. Vanne, P. Decleva, P. H. Bucksbaum, A. Saenz, and M. Gühr, “Strong field ionization to multiple electronic states in water,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(8), 083001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Role of the intramolecular phase in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(18), 183903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Bandrauk, S. Chelkowski, S. Kawai, and H. Lu, “Effect of nuclear motion on molecular high-order harmonics and on generation of attosecond pulses in intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 153901 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. H. Bucksbaum, A. Zavriyev, H. G. Muller, and D. W. Schumacher, “Softening of the H2+ molecular bond in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(16), 1883–1886 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lein, “Attosecond probing of vibrational dynamics with high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(5), 053004 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Seideman, M. Y. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “Role of electron localization in intense-field molecular ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(15), 2819–2822 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kreibich, M. Lein, V. Engel, and E. K. U. Gross, “Even-harmonic generation due to beyond-born-oppenheimer dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(10), 103901 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

Science (3)

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292(5522), 1689–1692 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Baker, J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, C. C. Chirila, M. Lein, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale,” Science 312(5772), 424–427 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimentally measured harmonic yield from (a) H2, (b) N2 and (c) Ar as a function of the focus position of the driving pulse in 1-mm long gas cell. The comparison of the harmonic yield in 1-mm long gas cell at the focus positions of (d) 0mm and (e) −6mm, which is extracted from (a), (b) and (c).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimentally measured harmonic yield from (a) H2, (b) N2 and (c) Ar as a function of the focus position of the fundamental driving laser in 4-mm long gas cell. The comparison of the harmonic yield in 4-mm long gas cell at the focus positions of (d) 0mm and (e) −6mm, which is extracted from (a), (b) and (c).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimentally measured harmonic spectrum from (a) H2 and (b) N2 for different focus positions in 4-mm long gas cell. The harmonic intensities of the 21st order from different gases (H2, N2, O2, CO2 and Ar) using gas cell of different lengths ((c) 1mm, (d) 2mm, and (e) 4mm) at the focus position of about −7mm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Calculated ionization probability as a function of time with the TDSE simulation. (b) Calculated harmonic intensity with nuclear motion and fixed nuclei approximation.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

i ψ(t) t =[ H e + H N +E(t)( z 1 + z 2 )]ψ(t),
H e = i=1 2 [ 1 2 2 z i 2 1 ( z i ±R/2) 2 +c + 1 ( z 1 z 2 ) 2 +d ],
H N = 1 2μ 2 R 2 + 1 R ,

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