Abstract

Barium gallo-germanate (BGG) glass is an important glass matrix material used for mid-infrared transmission and mid-infrared fiber laser. In this study, we investigated the γ-ray irradiation induced darkening effect of BGG glass. Optical transmittance spectra, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and thermoluminescence (TL) spectra were employed to investigate the γ-ray irradiation induced defects. Two kinds of Ge-related defects in the irradiated BGG glass, named Ge-related non-bridging oxygen hole center (Ge-NBOHC) and Ge-related electron centers (GEC), were verified. In addition, the absorption bands of the two defects have been separated and the peak absorptivity of Ge-NBOHC and GEC defects is at 375 nm and 315 nm, respectively.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (2)

2013 (1)

C. L. Janer, A. Carballar, L. Navarro, J. L. Galo, and R. M. Rubio, “Photosensitivity color-center model for Ge-doped silica preforms,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(4), 6100511 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

H. Gebavi, S. Taccheo, D. Milanese, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Mechin, D. Tregoat, B. Cadier, and T. Robin, “Temporal evolution and correlation between cooperative luminescence and photodarkening in ytterbium doped silica fibers,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25077–25083 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Alessi, S. Agnello, F. M. Gelardi, G. Messina, and M. Carpanese, “Influence of Ge doping level on the EPR signal of Ge (1), Ge (2) and E’Ge defects in Ge-doped silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8–9), 1900–1903 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Xu, Y. Tian, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Enhanced emission of 2.7 μm pumped by laser diode from Er3+/Pr(3+)-codoped germanate glasses,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1173–1175 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Zervas, F. Ghiringhelli, M. K. Durkin, and I. Crowe, “Distribution of photodarkening-induced loss in Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79140L (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

2009 (3)

B. M. Walsh, “Review of Tm and Ho materials; spectroscopy and lasers,” Laser Phys. 19(4), 855–866 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Jetschke, U. Röpke, S. Unger, and J. Kirchhof, “Characterization of photodarkening processes in Yb doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952B (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Koponen, M. Laurila, M. Söderlund, J. J. Montiel i Ponsoda, and A. Iho, “Benchmarking and measuring photodarkening in Yb doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71950R (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (5)

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, U. Röpke, and J. Kirchhof, “Photodarkening in Yb doped fibers: experimental evidence of equilibrium states depending on the pump power,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14838–14843 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wu, Z. Yao, J. Zong, and S. Jiang, “Highly efficient high-power thulium-doped germanate glass fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 638–640 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. P. Barnes, B. M. Walsh, D. J. Reichle, R. J. DeYoung, and S. B. Jiang, “Tm: germanate fiber laser: tuning and Q-switching,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2–3), 299–304 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, Z. Yao, J. Zong, and S. Jiang, “Highly efficient high-power thulium-doped germanate glass fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 638–640 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. P. Fox, Z. V. Schneider, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, D. C. Meister, R. P. Bambha, D. A. V. Kliner, and M. J. Söderlund, “Gamma radiation effects in Yb-doped optical Fiber,” Proc. SPIE 6453, 645328 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

Q. Tang and C. X. Zhang, “Measurement of thermoluminescence spectra and optically stimulated luminescence spectra,” Nucl. Technol. 27(3), 308–312 (2006).

B. V. Padlyak, H. Jungner, K. Fabisiak, and S. P. Dubelt, “Radiation-induced defects in glasses and ceramics of the CaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 sysem,” Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 12(2), 97–105 (2006).

M. Ferraris, D. Milanese, Y. Menke, Q. Chen, M. Chiesa, and E. Giamello, “EPR and UV–Vis characterization of multicomponent germano-silicate glasses for photonics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(21–22), 2267–2278 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. S. Bayya, G. D. Chin, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Germanate glass as a window for high energy laser systems,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11687–11693 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. Caussanel, P. Signoret, J. Gasiot, O. Gilard, and M. Sotom, “Extrapolation of radiation-induced EDFA gain degradation at space dose rate,” Electron. Lett. 41(4), 168–170 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

M. Chiesa, M. Ferraris, E. Giamello, and D. Milanese, “Photosensitivity of germanium-doped multicomponent silicate glasses: role of boron and sodium ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 328(1–3), 215–226 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. V. Padlyak, “Radiation-induced paramagnetic centers in the glasses of CaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 system,” Radiat. Eff. Defects Solids 158(1–6), 411–418 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. D. Jackson and A. Lauto, “Diode-pumped fiber lasers: a new clinical tool?” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(3), 184–190 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

M. Fujimaki, T. Watanabe, K. Katoh, T. Kasahara, N. Miyazaki, Y. Ohki, and H. Nishikawa, “Structures and generation mechanisms of paramagnetic centers and absorption bands responsible for Ge-doped SiO2 optical-fiber grating,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 57(7), 3920–3926 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136(5–6), 375–378 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

J. Zhang and Y. Guo, “Thrmoluminescence detector used for dosimetric monitoring of ionizing radiation,” Bull. Acad. Mil. Med. Sci. 18(3), 172–182 (1994).

V. B. Neustruev, “Colour centres in germanosilicate glass and optical fibres,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6(35), 6901–6936 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

P. L. Higby and I. D. Aggarwal, “Properties of barium gallium germanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 163(3), 303–308 (1993).
[Crossref]

S. W. Henderson, P. J. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 31(1), 4–15 (1993).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

T. E. Tsai, D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, and J. W. Fleming, “Radiation-induced defect centers in high-purity GeO2 glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(6), 2264–2268 (1987).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, and G. H. Sigel, “Defect centers in a germanium-doped silica-core optical fiber,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(8), 3424–3428 (1974).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

R. Chen, “Glow curves with general order kinetics,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 116(9), 1254–1257 (1969).
[Crossref]

1960 (1)

A. Halperin and A. Braner, “Evaluation of thermal activation energies from glow curves,” Phys. Rev. 117(2), 408–415 (1960).
[Crossref]

1955 (1)

N. J. Kreidl and J. R. Hensler, “Formation of color centers in glasses exposed to gamma radiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 38(12), 423–432 (1955).
[Crossref]

Aggarwal, I. D.

S. S. Bayya, G. D. Chin, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Germanate glass as a window for high energy laser systems,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11687–11693 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. L. Higby and I. D. Aggarwal, “Properties of barium gallium germanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 163(3), 303–308 (1993).
[Crossref]

Agnello, S.

A. Alessi, S. Agnello, F. M. Gelardi, G. Messina, and M. Carpanese, “Influence of Ge doping level on the EPR signal of Ge (1), Ge (2) and E’Ge defects in Ge-doped silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8–9), 1900–1903 (2011).
[Crossref]

Alessi, A.

A. Alessi, S. Agnello, F. M. Gelardi, G. Messina, and M. Carpanese, “Influence of Ge doping level on the EPR signal of Ge (1), Ge (2) and E’Ge defects in Ge-doped silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8–9), 1900–1903 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bambha, R. P.

B. P. Fox, Z. V. Schneider, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, D. C. Meister, R. P. Bambha, D. A. V. Kliner, and M. J. Söderlund, “Gamma radiation effects in Yb-doped optical Fiber,” Proc. SPIE 6453, 645328 (2007).
[Crossref]

Barber, P. R.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136(5–6), 375–378 (1997).
[Crossref]

Barnes, N. P.

N. P. Barnes, B. M. Walsh, D. J. Reichle, R. J. DeYoung, and S. B. Jiang, “Tm: germanate fiber laser: tuning and Q-switching,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2–3), 299–304 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bayya, S. S.

Benabdesselam, M.

Benson, T. M.

Blanc, W.

Braner, A.

A. Halperin and A. Braner, “Evaluation of thermal activation energies from glow curves,” Phys. Rev. 117(2), 408–415 (1960).
[Crossref]

Bruns, D. L.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 31(1), 4–15 (1993).
[Crossref]

Cadier, B.

Caplen, J. E.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136(5–6), 375–378 (1997).
[Crossref]

Carballar, A.

C. L. Janer, A. Carballar, L. Navarro, J. L. Galo, and R. M. Rubio, “Photosensitivity color-center model for Ge-doped silica preforms,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(4), 6100511 (2013).
[Crossref]

Carpanese, M.

A. Alessi, S. Agnello, F. M. Gelardi, G. Messina, and M. Carpanese, “Influence of Ge doping level on the EPR signal of Ge (1), Ge (2) and E’Ge defects in Ge-doped silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8–9), 1900–1903 (2011).
[Crossref]

Caussanel, M.

M. Caussanel, P. Signoret, J. Gasiot, O. Gilard, and M. Sotom, “Extrapolation of radiation-induced EDFA gain degradation at space dose rate,” Electron. Lett. 41(4), 168–170 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, D. D.

Chen, Q.

M. Ferraris, D. Milanese, Y. Menke, Q. Chen, M. Chiesa, and E. Giamello, “EPR and UV–Vis characterization of multicomponent germano-silicate glasses for photonics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(21–22), 2267–2278 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, R.

R. Chen, “Glow curves with general order kinetics,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 116(9), 1254–1257 (1969).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Chen, X. D.

Chiesa, M.

M. Ferraris, D. Milanese, Y. Menke, Q. Chen, M. Chiesa, and E. Giamello, “EPR and UV–Vis characterization of multicomponent germano-silicate glasses for photonics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(21–22), 2267–2278 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Chiesa, M. Ferraris, E. Giamello, and D. Milanese, “Photosensitivity of germanium-doped multicomponent silicate glasses: role of boron and sodium ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 328(1–3), 215–226 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chin, G. D.

Crowe, I.

M. N. Zervas, F. Ghiringhelli, M. K. Durkin, and I. Crowe, “Distribution of photodarkening-induced loss in Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79140L (2011).
[Crossref]

DeYoung, R. J.

N. P. Barnes, B. M. Walsh, D. J. Reichle, R. J. DeYoung, and S. B. Jiang, “Tm: germanate fiber laser: tuning and Q-switching,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2–3), 299–304 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dubelt, S. P.

B. V. Padlyak, H. Jungner, K. Fabisiak, and S. P. Dubelt, “Radiation-induced defects in glasses and ceramics of the CaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 sysem,” Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 12(2), 97–105 (2006).

Durkin, M. K.

M. N. Zervas, F. Ghiringhelli, M. K. Durkin, and I. Crowe, “Distribution of photodarkening-induced loss in Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79140L (2011).
[Crossref]

Fabisiak, K.

B. V. Padlyak, H. Jungner, K. Fabisiak, and S. P. Dubelt, “Radiation-induced defects in glasses and ceramics of the CaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 sysem,” Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 12(2), 97–105 (2006).

Ferraris, M.

M. Ferraris, D. Milanese, Y. Menke, Q. Chen, M. Chiesa, and E. Giamello, “EPR and UV–Vis characterization of multicomponent germano-silicate glasses for photonics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(21–22), 2267–2278 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Chiesa, M. Ferraris, E. Giamello, and D. Milanese, “Photosensitivity of germanium-doped multicomponent silicate glasses: role of boron and sodium ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 328(1–3), 215–226 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fleming, J. W.

T. E. Tsai, D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, and J. W. Fleming, “Radiation-induced defect centers in high-purity GeO2 glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(6), 2264–2268 (1987).
[Crossref]

Fox, B. P.

B. P. Fox, Z. V. Schneider, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, D. C. Meister, R. P. Bambha, D. A. V. Kliner, and M. J. Söderlund, “Gamma radiation effects in Yb-doped optical Fiber,” Proc. SPIE 6453, 645328 (2007).
[Crossref]

Friebele, E. J.

T. E. Tsai, D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, and J. W. Fleming, “Radiation-induced defect centers in high-purity GeO2 glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(6), 2264–2268 (1987).
[Crossref]

E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, and G. H. Sigel, “Defect centers in a germanium-doped silica-core optical fiber,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(8), 3424–3428 (1974).
[Crossref]

Fujimaki, M.

M. Fujimaki, T. Watanabe, K. Katoh, T. Kasahara, N. Miyazaki, Y. Ohki, and H. Nishikawa, “Structures and generation mechanisms of paramagnetic centers and absorption bands responsible for Ge-doped SiO2 optical-fiber grating,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 57(7), 3920–3926 (1998).
[Crossref]

Furniss, D.

Galo, J. L.

C. L. Janer, A. Carballar, L. Navarro, J. L. Galo, and R. M. Rubio, “Photosensitivity color-center model for Ge-doped silica preforms,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(4), 6100511 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gasiot, J.

M. Caussanel, P. Signoret, J. Gasiot, O. Gilard, and M. Sotom, “Extrapolation of radiation-induced EDFA gain degradation at space dose rate,” Electron. Lett. 41(4), 168–170 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gebavi, H.

Gelardi, F. M.

A. Alessi, S. Agnello, F. M. Gelardi, G. Messina, and M. Carpanese, “Influence of Ge doping level on the EPR signal of Ge (1), Ge (2) and E’Ge defects in Ge-doped silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8–9), 1900–1903 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ghiringhelli, F.

M. N. Zervas, F. Ghiringhelli, M. K. Durkin, and I. Crowe, “Distribution of photodarkening-induced loss in Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79140L (2011).
[Crossref]

Giamello, E.

M. Ferraris, D. Milanese, Y. Menke, Q. Chen, M. Chiesa, and E. Giamello, “EPR and UV–Vis characterization of multicomponent germano-silicate glasses for photonics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(21–22), 2267–2278 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Chiesa, M. Ferraris, E. Giamello, and D. Milanese, “Photosensitivity of germanium-doped multicomponent silicate glasses: role of boron and sodium ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 328(1–3), 215–226 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gilard, O.

M. Caussanel, P. Signoret, J. Gasiot, O. Gilard, and M. Sotom, “Extrapolation of radiation-induced EDFA gain degradation at space dose rate,” Electron. Lett. 41(4), 168–170 (2005).
[Crossref]

Griscom, D. L.

T. E. Tsai, D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, and J. W. Fleming, “Radiation-induced defect centers in high-purity GeO2 glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(6), 2264–2268 (1987).
[Crossref]

E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, and G. H. Sigel, “Defect centers in a germanium-doped silica-core optical fiber,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(8), 3424–3428 (1974).
[Crossref]

Guo, Y.

J. Zhang and Y. Guo, “Thrmoluminescence detector used for dosimetric monitoring of ionizing radiation,” Bull. Acad. Mil. Med. Sci. 18(3), 172–182 (1994).

Hale, C. P.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 31(1), 4–15 (1993).
[Crossref]

Halperin, A.

A. Halperin and A. Braner, “Evaluation of thermal activation energies from glow curves,” Phys. Rev. 117(2), 408–415 (1960).
[Crossref]

Hanna, D. C.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136(5–6), 375–378 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hannon, S. M.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 31(1), 4–15 (1993).
[Crossref]

Henderson, S. W.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 31(1), 4–15 (1993).
[Crossref]

Heng, X. B.

Hensler, J. R.

N. J. Kreidl and J. R. Hensler, “Formation of color centers in glasses exposed to gamma radiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 38(12), 423–432 (1955).
[Crossref]

Higby, P. L.

P. L. Higby and I. D. Aggarwal, “Properties of barium gallium germanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 163(3), 303–308 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hoffman, H. J.

Hotoleanu, M.

Hu, L.

Iho, A.

J. Koponen, M. Laurila, M. Söderlund, J. J. Montiel i Ponsoda, and A. Iho, “Benchmarking and measuring photodarkening in Yb doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71950R (2009).
[Crossref]

Jackson, S. D.

S. D. Jackson and A. Lauto, “Diode-pumped fiber lasers: a new clinical tool?” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(3), 184–190 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Janer, C. L.

C. L. Janer, A. Carballar, L. Navarro, J. L. Galo, and R. M. Rubio, “Photosensitivity color-center model for Ge-doped silica preforms,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(4), 6100511 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jetschke, S.

Jiang, S.

Jiang, S. B.

N. P. Barnes, B. M. Walsh, D. J. Reichle, R. J. DeYoung, and S. B. Jiang, “Tm: germanate fiber laser: tuning and Q-switching,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2–3), 299–304 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jungner, H.

B. V. Padlyak, H. Jungner, K. Fabisiak, and S. P. Dubelt, “Radiation-induced defects in glasses and ceramics of the CaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 sysem,” Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 12(2), 97–105 (2006).

Kasahara, T.

M. Fujimaki, T. Watanabe, K. Katoh, T. Kasahara, N. Miyazaki, Y. Ohki, and H. Nishikawa, “Structures and generation mechanisms of paramagnetic centers and absorption bands responsible for Ge-doped SiO2 optical-fiber grating,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 57(7), 3920–3926 (1998).
[Crossref]

Katoh, K.

M. Fujimaki, T. Watanabe, K. Katoh, T. Kasahara, N. Miyazaki, Y. Ohki, and H. Nishikawa, “Structures and generation mechanisms of paramagnetic centers and absorption bands responsible for Ge-doped SiO2 optical-fiber grating,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 57(7), 3920–3926 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kirchhof, J.

Kliner, D. A.

Kliner, D. A. V.

B. P. Fox, Z. V. Schneider, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, D. C. Meister, R. P. Bambha, D. A. V. Kliner, and M. J. Söderlund, “Gamma radiation effects in Yb-doped optical Fiber,” Proc. SPIE 6453, 645328 (2007).
[Crossref]

Koplow, J. P.

Koponen, J.

J. Koponen, M. Laurila, M. Söderlund, J. J. Montiel i Ponsoda, and A. Iho, “Benchmarking and measuring photodarkening in Yb doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71950R (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Koponen, M. Söderlund, H. J. Hoffman, D. A. Kliner, J. P. Koplow, and M. Hotoleanu, “Photodarkening rate in Yb-doped silica fibers,” Appl. Opt. 47(9), 1247–1256 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kreidl, N. J.

N. J. Kreidl and J. R. Hensler, “Formation of color centers in glasses exposed to gamma radiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 38(12), 423–432 (1955).
[Crossref]

Landais, D.

Laurila, M.

J. Koponen, M. Laurila, M. Söderlund, J. J. Montiel i Ponsoda, and A. Iho, “Benchmarking and measuring photodarkening in Yb doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71950R (2009).
[Crossref]

Lauto, A.

S. D. Jackson and A. Lauto, “Diode-pumped fiber lasers: a new clinical tool?” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(3), 184–190 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le Goffic, O.

Liu, L. H.

Mady, F.

Magee, J. R.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 31(1), 4–15 (1993).
[Crossref]

Mechin, D.

Meister, D. C.

B. P. Fox, Z. V. Schneider, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, D. C. Meister, R. P. Bambha, D. A. V. Kliner, and M. J. Söderlund, “Gamma radiation effects in Yb-doped optical Fiber,” Proc. SPIE 6453, 645328 (2007).
[Crossref]

Menke, Y.

M. Ferraris, D. Milanese, Y. Menke, Q. Chen, M. Chiesa, and E. Giamello, “EPR and UV–Vis characterization of multicomponent germano-silicate glasses for photonics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(21–22), 2267–2278 (2006).
[Crossref]

Messina, G.

A. Alessi, S. Agnello, F. M. Gelardi, G. Messina, and M. Carpanese, “Influence of Ge doping level on the EPR signal of Ge (1), Ge (2) and E’Ge defects in Ge-doped silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8–9), 1900–1903 (2011).
[Crossref]

Milanese, D.

H. Gebavi, S. Taccheo, D. Milanese, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Mechin, D. Tregoat, B. Cadier, and T. Robin, “Temporal evolution and correlation between cooperative luminescence and photodarkening in ytterbium doped silica fibers,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25077–25083 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ferraris, D. Milanese, Y. Menke, Q. Chen, M. Chiesa, and E. Giamello, “EPR and UV–Vis characterization of multicomponent germano-silicate glasses for photonics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(21–22), 2267–2278 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Chiesa, M. Ferraris, E. Giamello, and D. Milanese, “Photosensitivity of germanium-doped multicomponent silicate glasses: role of boron and sodium ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 328(1–3), 215–226 (2003).
[Crossref]

Miyazaki, N.

M. Fujimaki, T. Watanabe, K. Katoh, T. Kasahara, N. Miyazaki, Y. Ohki, and H. Nishikawa, “Structures and generation mechanisms of paramagnetic centers and absorption bands responsible for Ge-doped SiO2 optical-fiber grating,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 57(7), 3920–3926 (1998).
[Crossref]

Monteville, A.

Montiel i Ponsoda, J. J.

J. Koponen, M. Laurila, M. Söderlund, J. J. Montiel i Ponsoda, and A. Iho, “Benchmarking and measuring photodarkening in Yb doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71950R (2009).
[Crossref]

Navarro, L.

C. L. Janer, A. Carballar, L. Navarro, J. L. Galo, and R. M. Rubio, “Photosensitivity color-center model for Ge-doped silica preforms,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(4), 6100511 (2013).
[Crossref]

Neustruev, V. B.

V. B. Neustruev, “Colour centres in germanosilicate glass and optical fibres,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6(35), 6901–6936 (1994).
[Crossref]

Nilsson, J.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136(5–6), 375–378 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nishikawa, H.

M. Fujimaki, T. Watanabe, K. Katoh, T. Kasahara, N. Miyazaki, Y. Ohki, and H. Nishikawa, “Structures and generation mechanisms of paramagnetic centers and absorption bands responsible for Ge-doped SiO2 optical-fiber grating,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 57(7), 3920–3926 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ohki, Y.

M. Fujimaki, T. Watanabe, K. Katoh, T. Kasahara, N. Miyazaki, Y. Ohki, and H. Nishikawa, “Structures and generation mechanisms of paramagnetic centers and absorption bands responsible for Ge-doped SiO2 optical-fiber grating,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 57(7), 3920–3926 (1998).
[Crossref]

Padlyak, B. V.

B. V. Padlyak, H. Jungner, K. Fabisiak, and S. P. Dubelt, “Radiation-induced defects in glasses and ceramics of the CaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 sysem,” Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 12(2), 97–105 (2006).

B. V. Padlyak, “Radiation-induced paramagnetic centers in the glasses of CaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 system,” Radiat. Eff. Defects Solids 158(1–6), 411–418 (2003).
[Crossref]

Paschotta, R.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136(5–6), 375–378 (1997).
[Crossref]

Qian, Q.

Reichle, D. J.

N. P. Barnes, B. M. Walsh, D. J. Reichle, R. J. DeYoung, and S. B. Jiang, “Tm: germanate fiber laser: tuning and Q-switching,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2–3), 299–304 (2007).
[Crossref]

Robin, T.

Röpke, U.

Rubio, R. M.

C. L. Janer, A. Carballar, L. Navarro, J. L. Galo, and R. M. Rubio, “Photosensitivity color-center model for Ge-doped silica preforms,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(4), 6100511 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sanghera, J. S.

Schneider, Z. V.

B. P. Fox, Z. V. Schneider, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, D. C. Meister, R. P. Bambha, D. A. V. Kliner, and M. J. Söderlund, “Gamma radiation effects in Yb-doped optical Fiber,” Proc. SPIE 6453, 645328 (2007).
[Crossref]

Seddon, A. B.

Sigel, G. H.

E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, and G. H. Sigel, “Defect centers in a germanium-doped silica-core optical fiber,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(8), 3424–3428 (1974).
[Crossref]

Signoret, P.

M. Caussanel, P. Signoret, J. Gasiot, O. Gilard, and M. Sotom, “Extrapolation of radiation-induced EDFA gain degradation at space dose rate,” Electron. Lett. 41(4), 168–170 (2005).
[Crossref]

Simmons-Potter, K.

B. P. Fox, Z. V. Schneider, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, D. C. Meister, R. P. Bambha, D. A. V. Kliner, and M. J. Söderlund, “Gamma radiation effects in Yb-doped optical Fiber,” Proc. SPIE 6453, 645328 (2007).
[Crossref]

Söderlund, M.

J. Koponen, M. Laurila, M. Söderlund, J. J. Montiel i Ponsoda, and A. Iho, “Benchmarking and measuring photodarkening in Yb doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71950R (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Koponen, M. Söderlund, H. J. Hoffman, D. A. Kliner, J. P. Koplow, and M. Hotoleanu, “Photodarkening rate in Yb-doped silica fibers,” Appl. Opt. 47(9), 1247–1256 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Söderlund, M. J.

B. P. Fox, Z. V. Schneider, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, D. C. Meister, R. P. Bambha, D. A. V. Kliner, and M. J. Söderlund, “Gamma radiation effects in Yb-doped optical Fiber,” Proc. SPIE 6453, 645328 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sotom, M.

M. Caussanel, P. Signoret, J. Gasiot, O. Gilard, and M. Sotom, “Extrapolation of radiation-induced EDFA gain degradation at space dose rate,” Electron. Lett. 41(4), 168–170 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sujecki, S.

Suni, P. J.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 31(1), 4–15 (1993).
[Crossref]

Taccheo, S.

Tang, G.

Tang, Q.

Q. Tang and C. X. Zhang, “Measurement of thermoluminescence spectra and optically stimulated luminescence spectra,” Nucl. Technol. 27(3), 308–312 (2006).

Tang, Z.

Thomes, W. J.

B. P. Fox, Z. V. Schneider, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, D. C. Meister, R. P. Bambha, D. A. V. Kliner, and M. J. Söderlund, “Gamma radiation effects in Yb-doped optical Fiber,” Proc. SPIE 6453, 645328 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tian, Y.

Tregoat, D.

Tropper, A. C.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136(5–6), 375–378 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tsai, T. E.

T. E. Tsai, D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, and J. W. Fleming, “Radiation-induced defect centers in high-purity GeO2 glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(6), 2264–2268 (1987).
[Crossref]

Unger, S.

Walsh, B. M.

B. M. Walsh, “Review of Tm and Ho materials; spectroscopy and lasers,” Laser Phys. 19(4), 855–866 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. P. Barnes, B. M. Walsh, D. J. Reichle, R. J. DeYoung, and S. B. Jiang, “Tm: germanate fiber laser: tuning and Q-switching,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2–3), 299–304 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Watanabe, T.

M. Fujimaki, T. Watanabe, K. Katoh, T. Kasahara, N. Miyazaki, Y. Ohki, and H. Nishikawa, “Structures and generation mechanisms of paramagnetic centers and absorption bands responsible for Ge-doped SiO2 optical-fiber grating,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 57(7), 3920–3926 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wen, X.

Wu, J.

Xu, R.

Yang, Z.

Yang, Z. M.

Yao, Z.

Yuen, E. H.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 31(1), 4–15 (1993).
[Crossref]

Zervas, M. N.

M. N. Zervas, F. Ghiringhelli, M. K. Durkin, and I. Crowe, “Distribution of photodarkening-induced loss in Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79140L (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C. X.

Q. Tang and C. X. Zhang, “Measurement of thermoluminescence spectra and optically stimulated luminescence spectra,” Nucl. Technol. 27(3), 308–312 (2006).

Zhang, J.

R. Xu, Y. Tian, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Enhanced emission of 2.7 μm pumped by laser diode from Er3+/Pr(3+)-codoped germanate glasses,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1173–1175 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang and Y. Guo, “Thrmoluminescence detector used for dosimetric monitoring of ionizing radiation,” Bull. Acad. Mil. Med. Sci. 18(3), 172–182 (1994).

Zhao, X.

Zong, J.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

N. P. Barnes, B. M. Walsh, D. J. Reichle, R. J. DeYoung, and S. B. Jiang, “Tm: germanate fiber laser: tuning and Q-switching,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2–3), 299–304 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bull. Acad. Mil. Med. Sci. (1)

J. Zhang and Y. Guo, “Thrmoluminescence detector used for dosimetric monitoring of ionizing radiation,” Bull. Acad. Mil. Med. Sci. 18(3), 172–182 (1994).

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Caussanel, P. Signoret, J. Gasiot, O. Gilard, and M. Sotom, “Extrapolation of radiation-induced EDFA gain degradation at space dose rate,” Electron. Lett. 41(4), 168–170 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

C. L. Janer, A. Carballar, L. Navarro, J. L. Galo, and R. M. Rubio, “Photosensitivity color-center model for Ge-doped silica preforms,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(4), 6100511 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. (1)

S. W. Henderson, P. J. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 31(1), 4–15 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

N. J. Kreidl and J. R. Hensler, “Formation of color centers in glasses exposed to gamma radiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 38(12), 423–432 (1955).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T. E. Tsai, D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, and J. W. Fleming, “Radiation-induced defect centers in high-purity GeO2 glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(6), 2264–2268 (1987).
[Crossref]

E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, and G. H. Sigel, “Defect centers in a germanium-doped silica-core optical fiber,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(8), 3424–3428 (1974).
[Crossref]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

R. Chen, “Glow curves with general order kinetics,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 116(9), 1254–1257 (1969).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (4)

A. Alessi, S. Agnello, F. M. Gelardi, G. Messina, and M. Carpanese, “Influence of Ge doping level on the EPR signal of Ge (1), Ge (2) and E’Ge defects in Ge-doped silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8–9), 1900–1903 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Ferraris, D. Milanese, Y. Menke, Q. Chen, M. Chiesa, and E. Giamello, “EPR and UV–Vis characterization of multicomponent germano-silicate glasses for photonics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(21–22), 2267–2278 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Chiesa, M. Ferraris, E. Giamello, and D. Milanese, “Photosensitivity of germanium-doped multicomponent silicate glasses: role of boron and sodium ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 328(1–3), 215–226 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. L. Higby and I. D. Aggarwal, “Properties of barium gallium germanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 163(3), 303–308 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

V. B. Neustruev, “Colour centres in germanosilicate glass and optical fibres,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6(35), 6901–6936 (1994).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (1)

B. M. Walsh, “Review of Tm and Ho materials; spectroscopy and lasers,” Laser Phys. 19(4), 855–866 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

S. D. Jackson and A. Lauto, “Diode-pumped fiber lasers: a new clinical tool?” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(3), 184–190 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nucl. Technol. (1)

Q. Tang and C. X. Zhang, “Measurement of thermoluminescence spectra and optically stimulated luminescence spectra,” Nucl. Technol. 27(3), 308–312 (2006).

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136(5–6), 375–378 (1997).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

A. Halperin and A. Braner, “Evaluation of thermal activation energies from glow curves,” Phys. Rev. 117(2), 408–415 (1960).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

M. Fujimaki, T. Watanabe, K. Katoh, T. Kasahara, N. Miyazaki, Y. Ohki, and H. Nishikawa, “Structures and generation mechanisms of paramagnetic centers and absorption bands responsible for Ge-doped SiO2 optical-fiber grating,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 57(7), 3920–3926 (1998).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (4)

B. P. Fox, Z. V. Schneider, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, D. C. Meister, R. P. Bambha, D. A. V. Kliner, and M. J. Söderlund, “Gamma radiation effects in Yb-doped optical Fiber,” Proc. SPIE 6453, 645328 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Jetschke, U. Röpke, S. Unger, and J. Kirchhof, “Characterization of photodarkening processes in Yb doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71952B (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Koponen, M. Laurila, M. Söderlund, J. J. Montiel i Ponsoda, and A. Iho, “Benchmarking and measuring photodarkening in Yb doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7195, 71950R (2009).
[Crossref]

M. N. Zervas, F. Ghiringhelli, M. K. Durkin, and I. Crowe, “Distribution of photodarkening-induced loss in Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79140L (2011).
[Crossref]

Radiat. Eff. Defects Solids (1)

B. V. Padlyak, “Radiation-induced paramagnetic centers in the glasses of CaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 system,” Radiat. Eff. Defects Solids 158(1–6), 411–418 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. (1)

B. V. Padlyak, H. Jungner, K. Fabisiak, and S. P. Dubelt, “Radiation-induced defects in glasses and ceramics of the CaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 sysem,” Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 12(2), 97–105 (2006).

Other (2)

R. J. Bussjager, M. J. Hayduk, and S. T. Johns, “Comparison of radiation-induced passive and dynamic responses in two erbium-doped fiber lasers,” in IEEE Aerospace Conference Procedings (2002), Vol. 3, pp. 3-1369.
[Crossref]

C. P. Poole, Electron spin resonance: a comprehensive treatise on experimental techniques. (Acaademic, 1983).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Transmission spectrum for BGG glasses before and after gamma-ray irradiation with the total exposure dose of 50 KGy (sample thickness d = 2 mm).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 EPR spectrum of the unirradiated and irradiated BGG glasses.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 EPR spectra of the same irradiated BGG glass with changing temperature from 100 K to 400 K.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The simplified schematic of thermoluminescence.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 TL spectrum of the irradiated BGG glass which is heated from 300 K to 770 K with the heating rate of 2 K/S. Dashed lines represent the fitted components.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The absorption band of Ge-NBOHC and GEC defects induced by γ-ray irradiation in the BGG glass.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Empirical g-value of Different Germanium Related Paramagnetic Defects

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Table 2 Kinetics Parameters of Glow Peaks in TL Glow Curve

Equations (2)

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I ( T ) = n 0 S exp ( Δ E / k T ) [ ( b 1 ) ( S / β ) T 0 T exp ( Δ E / k T ) d T + 1 ] b / ( b + 1 )
S = S n 0 b 1

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