Abstract

Polarization mode control is enhanced in wafer-fused vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers emitting at 1310 nm wavelength by etching two symmetrically arranged arcs above the gain structure within the laser cavity. The intracavity patterning introduces birefringence and dichroism, which discriminates between the two polarization states of the fundamental transverse modes. We find that the cavity modifications define the polarization angle at threshold with respect to the crystal axes, and increase the gain anisotropy and birefringence on average, leading to an increase in the polarization switching current. Experimental measurements are explained using the spin-flip model of VCSEL polarization dynamics.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Rainer Michalzik, ed., VCSELs: Fundamentals, Technology and Applications of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (Springer, 2013).
  2. K. Panajotov, J. Danckaert, G. Verschaffelt, M. Peeters, B. Nagler, J. Albert, B. Ryvkin, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, “Polarization behavior of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers: experiments, models and applications,” AIP Conf. Proc. 560, 403–417 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  3. K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, and R. E. Leibenguth, “Gain-dependent polarization properties of vertical-cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(2), 661–666 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  4. Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, J. V. Moloney, and San Miguel M, “Light-polarization dynamics in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52(2), 1728–1739 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Polarisation characteristics of quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 27(2), 163–165 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. V. Kuksenkov, H. Temkin, and S. Swirhun, “Polarization instability and relative intensity noise in vertical‐cavity surface‐emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(15), 2141–2143 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Shimizu, F. Koyama, and S. Konoshita, “Surface emitting semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(9), 1845–1855 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. Al-Samaneh, M. B. Sanayeh, S. Renz, D. Wahl, and R. Michalzik, “Polarization control and dynamic properties of VCSELs for MEMS atomic clock applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(15), 1049–1051 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Ortsiefer, M. Gorblich, Y. Xu, E. Ronneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, and M. C. Amann, “Polarization control in buried tunnel junction VCSELs using a birefringent semiconductor/dielectric subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(1), 15–17 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  10. Y. L. Okuno, K. G. Gan, H. F. Chou, Y. J. Chiu, C. S. Wang, S. Wu, J. Geske, E. S. Bjorlin, and J. E. Bowers, “Stable polarization operation of 1.3-μm wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) fabricated by orientation-mismatched wafer bonding,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(5), 1006–1014 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  11. D. S. Song, Y. J. Lee, H. W. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Polarization-controlled, single-transverse-mode, photonic-crystal, vertical-cavity, surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3182–3184 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  12. I. Utke, M. G. Jenke, C. Röling, P. H. Thiesen, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, and E. Kapon, “Polarisation stabilisation of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers by minimally invasive focused electron beam triggered chemistry,” Nanoscale 3(7), 2718–2722 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. A. Sirbu, V. Iakovelv, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, G. Suruceanu, and E. Kapon, “Wafer-fused heterostructures: application to vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers emitting in the 1310 nm band,” J. Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014016 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  14. L. Mutter, B. Dwir, A. Caliman, V. Iakovlev, A. Mereuta, A. Sirbu, and E. Kapon, “Intra-cavity patterning for mode control in 1.3 μm coupled VCSEL arrays,” Opt. Express 19(6), 4827–4832 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. N. Volet, T. Czyszanowski, J. Walczak, L. Mutter, B. Dwir, Z. Micković, P. Gallo, A. Caliman, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, V. Iakovlev, and E. Kapon, “Transverse mode discrimination in long-wavelength wafer-fused vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers by intra-cavity patterning,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26983–26989 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. E. Nahn and S. Riyopoulos, “Interpretation of polarization pinning due to scattering loss differentiation in asymmetric vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(12), 123101 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  17. A. K. Jansen van Doorn, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Elastooptic anisotropy and polarization orientation of vertical cavity surface emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(8), 1041–1043 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  18. C. Long, Z. Mickovic, D. Ellafi, B. Dwir, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, and E. Kapon, “Optical injection and lasing dynamics in long-wavelength VCSELs with intracavity patterning,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1–9 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. M. Martín-Regalado, S. Balle, M. San Miguel, A. Valle, and L. Pesquera, “Polarization and transverse-mode selection in quantum-well vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Index- and gain-guided devices,” Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 9(5), 713–736 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. Martin-Regalado, F. Prati, M. San Miguel, and N. B. Abraham, “Polarization properties of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(5), 765–783 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  21. A. Homayounfar and M. J. Adams, “Locking bandwidth and birefringence effects for polarized optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Commun. 269(1), 119–127 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  22. R. Al-Seyab, K. Schires, N. Ali Khan, A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Dynamics of polarized optical injection in 1550-nm VCSELs: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1242–1248 (2011).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

C. Long, Z. Mickovic, D. Ellafi, B. Dwir, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, and E. Kapon, “Optical injection and lasing dynamics in long-wavelength VCSELs with intracavity patterning,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2011 (5)

I. Utke, M. G. Jenke, C. Röling, P. H. Thiesen, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, and E. Kapon, “Polarisation stabilisation of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers by minimally invasive focused electron beam triggered chemistry,” Nanoscale 3(7), 2718–2722 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sirbu, V. Iakovelv, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, G. Suruceanu, and E. Kapon, “Wafer-fused heterostructures: application to vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers emitting in the 1310 nm band,” J. Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014016 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Mutter, B. Dwir, A. Caliman, V. Iakovlev, A. Mereuta, A. Sirbu, and E. Kapon, “Intra-cavity patterning for mode control in 1.3 μm coupled VCSEL arrays,” Opt. Express 19(6), 4827–4832 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Al-Samaneh, M. B. Sanayeh, S. Renz, D. Wahl, and R. Michalzik, “Polarization control and dynamic properties of VCSELs for MEMS atomic clock applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(15), 1049–1051 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Al-Seyab, K. Schires, N. Ali Khan, A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Dynamics of polarized optical injection in 1550-nm VCSELs: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1242–1248 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

M. Ortsiefer, M. Gorblich, Y. Xu, E. Ronneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, and M. C. Amann, “Polarization control in buried tunnel junction VCSELs using a birefringent semiconductor/dielectric subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(1), 15–17 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. Homayounfar and M. J. Adams, “Locking bandwidth and birefringence effects for polarized optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Commun. 269(1), 119–127 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

E. Nahn and S. Riyopoulos, “Interpretation of polarization pinning due to scattering loss differentiation in asymmetric vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(12), 123101 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Y. L. Okuno, K. G. Gan, H. F. Chou, Y. J. Chiu, C. S. Wang, S. Wu, J. Geske, E. S. Bjorlin, and J. E. Bowers, “Stable polarization operation of 1.3-μm wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) fabricated by orientation-mismatched wafer bonding,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(5), 1006–1014 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

D. S. Song, Y. J. Lee, H. W. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Polarization-controlled, single-transverse-mode, photonic-crystal, vertical-cavity, surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3182–3184 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

K. Panajotov, J. Danckaert, G. Verschaffelt, M. Peeters, B. Nagler, J. Albert, B. Ryvkin, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, “Polarization behavior of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers: experiments, models and applications,” AIP Conf. Proc. 560, 403–417 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

J. M. Martín-Regalado, S. Balle, M. San Miguel, A. Valle, and L. Pesquera, “Polarization and transverse-mode selection in quantum-well vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Index- and gain-guided devices,” Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 9(5), 713–736 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Martin-Regalado, F. Prati, M. San Miguel, and N. B. Abraham, “Polarization properties of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(5), 765–783 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

A. K. Jansen van Doorn, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Elastooptic anisotropy and polarization orientation of vertical cavity surface emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(8), 1041–1043 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (3)

D. V. Kuksenkov, H. Temkin, and S. Swirhun, “Polarization instability and relative intensity noise in vertical‐cavity surface‐emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(15), 2141–2143 (1995).
[Crossref]

K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, and R. E. Leibenguth, “Gain-dependent polarization properties of vertical-cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(2), 661–666 (1995).
[Crossref]

Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, J. V. Moloney, and San Miguel M, “Light-polarization dynamics in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52(2), 1728–1739 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Polarisation characteristics of quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 27(2), 163–165 (1991).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

M. Shimizu, F. Koyama, and S. Konoshita, “Surface emitting semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(9), 1845–1855 (1988).
[Crossref]

Abraham, N. B.

J. Martin-Regalado, F. Prati, M. San Miguel, and N. B. Abraham, “Polarization properties of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(5), 765–783 (1997).
[Crossref]

Adams, M. J.

R. Al-Seyab, K. Schires, N. Ali Khan, A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Dynamics of polarized optical injection in 1550-nm VCSELs: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1242–1248 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Homayounfar and M. J. Adams, “Locking bandwidth and birefringence effects for polarized optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Commun. 269(1), 119–127 (2007).
[Crossref]

Albert, J.

K. Panajotov, J. Danckaert, G. Verschaffelt, M. Peeters, B. Nagler, J. Albert, B. Ryvkin, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, “Polarization behavior of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers: experiments, models and applications,” AIP Conf. Proc. 560, 403–417 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ali Khan, N.

R. Al-Seyab, K. Schires, N. Ali Khan, A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Dynamics of polarized optical injection in 1550-nm VCSELs: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1242–1248 (2011).
[Crossref]

Al-Samaneh, A.

A. Al-Samaneh, M. B. Sanayeh, S. Renz, D. Wahl, and R. Michalzik, “Polarization control and dynamic properties of VCSELs for MEMS atomic clock applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(15), 1049–1051 (2011).
[Crossref]

Al-Seyab, R.

R. Al-Seyab, K. Schires, N. Ali Khan, A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Dynamics of polarized optical injection in 1550-nm VCSELs: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1242–1248 (2011).
[Crossref]

Amann, M. C.

M. Ortsiefer, M. Gorblich, Y. Xu, E. Ronneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, and M. C. Amann, “Polarization control in buried tunnel junction VCSELs using a birefringent semiconductor/dielectric subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(1), 15–17 (2010).
[Crossref]

Balle, S.

J. M. Martín-Regalado, S. Balle, M. San Miguel, A. Valle, and L. Pesquera, “Polarization and transverse-mode selection in quantum-well vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Index- and gain-guided devices,” Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 9(5), 713–736 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bjorlin, E. S.

Y. L. Okuno, K. G. Gan, H. F. Chou, Y. J. Chiu, C. S. Wang, S. Wu, J. Geske, E. S. Bjorlin, and J. E. Bowers, “Stable polarization operation of 1.3-μm wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) fabricated by orientation-mismatched wafer bonding,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(5), 1006–1014 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

Y. L. Okuno, K. G. Gan, H. F. Chou, Y. J. Chiu, C. S. Wang, S. Wu, J. Geske, E. S. Bjorlin, and J. E. Bowers, “Stable polarization operation of 1.3-μm wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) fabricated by orientation-mismatched wafer bonding,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(5), 1006–1014 (2005).
[Crossref]

Caliman, A.

C. Long, Z. Mickovic, D. Ellafi, B. Dwir, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, and E. Kapon, “Optical injection and lasing dynamics in long-wavelength VCSELs with intracavity patterning,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Volet, T. Czyszanowski, J. Walczak, L. Mutter, B. Dwir, Z. Micković, P. Gallo, A. Caliman, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, V. Iakovlev, and E. Kapon, “Transverse mode discrimination in long-wavelength wafer-fused vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers by intra-cavity patterning,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26983–26989 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Mutter, B. Dwir, A. Caliman, V. Iakovlev, A. Mereuta, A. Sirbu, and E. Kapon, “Intra-cavity patterning for mode control in 1.3 μm coupled VCSEL arrays,” Opt. Express 19(6), 4827–4832 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Utke, M. G. Jenke, C. Röling, P. H. Thiesen, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, and E. Kapon, “Polarisation stabilisation of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers by minimally invasive focused electron beam triggered chemistry,” Nanoscale 3(7), 2718–2722 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sirbu, V. Iakovelv, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, G. Suruceanu, and E. Kapon, “Wafer-fused heterostructures: application to vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers emitting in the 1310 nm band,” J. Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014016 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Polarisation characteristics of quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 27(2), 163–165 (1991).
[Crossref]

Chiu, Y. J.

Y. L. Okuno, K. G. Gan, H. F. Chou, Y. J. Chiu, C. S. Wang, S. Wu, J. Geske, E. S. Bjorlin, and J. E. Bowers, “Stable polarization operation of 1.3-μm wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) fabricated by orientation-mismatched wafer bonding,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(5), 1006–1014 (2005).
[Crossref]

Choi, H. W.

D. S. Song, Y. J. Lee, H. W. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Polarization-controlled, single-transverse-mode, photonic-crystal, vertical-cavity, surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3182–3184 (2003).
[Crossref]

Choquette, K. D.

K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, and R. E. Leibenguth, “Gain-dependent polarization properties of vertical-cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(2), 661–666 (1995).
[Crossref]

Chou, H. F.

Y. L. Okuno, K. G. Gan, H. F. Chou, Y. J. Chiu, C. S. Wang, S. Wu, J. Geske, E. S. Bjorlin, and J. E. Bowers, “Stable polarization operation of 1.3-μm wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) fabricated by orientation-mismatched wafer bonding,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(5), 1006–1014 (2005).
[Crossref]

Czyszanowski, T.

Danckaert, J.

K. Panajotov, J. Danckaert, G. Verschaffelt, M. Peeters, B. Nagler, J. Albert, B. Ryvkin, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, “Polarization behavior of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers: experiments, models and applications,” AIP Conf. Proc. 560, 403–417 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dwir, B.

Ellafi, D.

C. Long, Z. Mickovic, D. Ellafi, B. Dwir, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, and E. Kapon, “Optical injection and lasing dynamics in long-wavelength VCSELs with intracavity patterning,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

Feng, Q.

Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, J. V. Moloney, and San Miguel M, “Light-polarization dynamics in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52(2), 1728–1739 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Florez, L. T.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Polarisation characteristics of quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 27(2), 163–165 (1991).
[Crossref]

Gallo, P.

Gan, K. G.

Y. L. Okuno, K. G. Gan, H. F. Chou, Y. J. Chiu, C. S. Wang, S. Wu, J. Geske, E. S. Bjorlin, and J. E. Bowers, “Stable polarization operation of 1.3-μm wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) fabricated by orientation-mismatched wafer bonding,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(5), 1006–1014 (2005).
[Crossref]

Geske, J.

Y. L. Okuno, K. G. Gan, H. F. Chou, Y. J. Chiu, C. S. Wang, S. Wu, J. Geske, E. S. Bjorlin, and J. E. Bowers, “Stable polarization operation of 1.3-μm wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) fabricated by orientation-mismatched wafer bonding,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(5), 1006–1014 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gorblich, M.

M. Ortsiefer, M. Gorblich, Y. Xu, E. Ronneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, and M. C. Amann, “Polarization control in buried tunnel junction VCSELs using a birefringent semiconductor/dielectric subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(1), 15–17 (2010).
[Crossref]

Harbison, J. P.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Polarisation characteristics of quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 27(2), 163–165 (1991).
[Crossref]

Henning, I. D.

R. Al-Seyab, K. Schires, N. Ali Khan, A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Dynamics of polarized optical injection in 1550-nm VCSELs: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1242–1248 (2011).
[Crossref]

Homayounfar, A.

A. Homayounfar and M. J. Adams, “Locking bandwidth and birefringence effects for polarized optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Commun. 269(1), 119–127 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hurtado, A.

R. Al-Seyab, K. Schires, N. Ali Khan, A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Dynamics of polarized optical injection in 1550-nm VCSELs: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1242–1248 (2011).
[Crossref]

Iakovelv, V.

A. Sirbu, V. Iakovelv, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, G. Suruceanu, and E. Kapon, “Wafer-fused heterostructures: application to vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers emitting in the 1310 nm band,” J. Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014016 (2011).
[Crossref]

Iakovlev, V.

C. Long, Z. Mickovic, D. Ellafi, B. Dwir, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, and E. Kapon, “Optical injection and lasing dynamics in long-wavelength VCSELs with intracavity patterning,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Volet, T. Czyszanowski, J. Walczak, L. Mutter, B. Dwir, Z. Micković, P. Gallo, A. Caliman, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, V. Iakovlev, and E. Kapon, “Transverse mode discrimination in long-wavelength wafer-fused vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers by intra-cavity patterning,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26983–26989 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Mutter, B. Dwir, A. Caliman, V. Iakovlev, A. Mereuta, A. Sirbu, and E. Kapon, “Intra-cavity patterning for mode control in 1.3 μm coupled VCSEL arrays,” Opt. Express 19(6), 4827–4832 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Utke, M. G. Jenke, C. Röling, P. H. Thiesen, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, and E. Kapon, “Polarisation stabilisation of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers by minimally invasive focused electron beam triggered chemistry,” Nanoscale 3(7), 2718–2722 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jansen van Doorn, A. K.

A. K. Jansen van Doorn, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Elastooptic anisotropy and polarization orientation of vertical cavity surface emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(8), 1041–1043 (1996).
[Crossref]

Jenke, M. G.

I. Utke, M. G. Jenke, C. Röling, P. H. Thiesen, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, and E. Kapon, “Polarisation stabilisation of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers by minimally invasive focused electron beam triggered chemistry,” Nanoscale 3(7), 2718–2722 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kapon, E.

C. Long, Z. Mickovic, D. Ellafi, B. Dwir, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, and E. Kapon, “Optical injection and lasing dynamics in long-wavelength VCSELs with intracavity patterning,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Volet, T. Czyszanowski, J. Walczak, L. Mutter, B. Dwir, Z. Micković, P. Gallo, A. Caliman, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, V. Iakovlev, and E. Kapon, “Transverse mode discrimination in long-wavelength wafer-fused vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers by intra-cavity patterning,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26983–26989 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Mutter, B. Dwir, A. Caliman, V. Iakovlev, A. Mereuta, A. Sirbu, and E. Kapon, “Intra-cavity patterning for mode control in 1.3 μm coupled VCSEL arrays,” Opt. Express 19(6), 4827–4832 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sirbu, V. Iakovelv, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, G. Suruceanu, and E. Kapon, “Wafer-fused heterostructures: application to vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers emitting in the 1310 nm band,” J. Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014016 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Utke, M. G. Jenke, C. Röling, P. H. Thiesen, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, and E. Kapon, “Polarisation stabilisation of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers by minimally invasive focused electron beam triggered chemistry,” Nanoscale 3(7), 2718–2722 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Konoshita, S.

M. Shimizu, F. Koyama, and S. Konoshita, “Surface emitting semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(9), 1845–1855 (1988).
[Crossref]

Koyama, F.

M. Shimizu, F. Koyama, and S. Konoshita, “Surface emitting semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(9), 1845–1855 (1988).
[Crossref]

Kuksenkov, D. V.

D. V. Kuksenkov, H. Temkin, and S. Swirhun, “Polarization instability and relative intensity noise in vertical‐cavity surface‐emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(15), 2141–2143 (1995).
[Crossref]

Lear, K. L.

K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, and R. E. Leibenguth, “Gain-dependent polarization properties of vertical-cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(2), 661–666 (1995).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. H.

D. S. Song, Y. J. Lee, H. W. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Polarization-controlled, single-transverse-mode, photonic-crystal, vertical-cavity, surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3182–3184 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. J.

D. S. Song, Y. J. Lee, H. W. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Polarization-controlled, single-transverse-mode, photonic-crystal, vertical-cavity, surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3182–3184 (2003).
[Crossref]

Leibenguth, R. E.

K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, and R. E. Leibenguth, “Gain-dependent polarization properties of vertical-cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(2), 661–666 (1995).
[Crossref]

Long, C.

C. Long, Z. Mickovic, D. Ellafi, B. Dwir, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, and E. Kapon, “Optical injection and lasing dynamics in long-wavelength VCSELs with intracavity patterning,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

Martin-Regalado, J.

J. Martin-Regalado, F. Prati, M. San Miguel, and N. B. Abraham, “Polarization properties of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(5), 765–783 (1997).
[Crossref]

Martín-Regalado, J. M.

J. M. Martín-Regalado, S. Balle, M. San Miguel, A. Valle, and L. Pesquera, “Polarization and transverse-mode selection in quantum-well vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Index- and gain-guided devices,” Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 9(5), 713–736 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mereuta, A.

C. Long, Z. Mickovic, D. Ellafi, B. Dwir, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, and E. Kapon, “Optical injection and lasing dynamics in long-wavelength VCSELs with intracavity patterning,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Volet, T. Czyszanowski, J. Walczak, L. Mutter, B. Dwir, Z. Micković, P. Gallo, A. Caliman, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, V. Iakovlev, and E. Kapon, “Transverse mode discrimination in long-wavelength wafer-fused vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers by intra-cavity patterning,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26983–26989 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Mutter, B. Dwir, A. Caliman, V. Iakovlev, A. Mereuta, A. Sirbu, and E. Kapon, “Intra-cavity patterning for mode control in 1.3 μm coupled VCSEL arrays,” Opt. Express 19(6), 4827–4832 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Utke, M. G. Jenke, C. Röling, P. H. Thiesen, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, and E. Kapon, “Polarisation stabilisation of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers by minimally invasive focused electron beam triggered chemistry,” Nanoscale 3(7), 2718–2722 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sirbu, V. Iakovelv, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, G. Suruceanu, and E. Kapon, “Wafer-fused heterostructures: application to vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers emitting in the 1310 nm band,” J. Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014016 (2011).
[Crossref]

Michalzik, R.

A. Al-Samaneh, M. B. Sanayeh, S. Renz, D. Wahl, and R. Michalzik, “Polarization control and dynamic properties of VCSELs for MEMS atomic clock applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(15), 1049–1051 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mickovic, Z.

C. Long, Z. Mickovic, D. Ellafi, B. Dwir, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, and E. Kapon, “Optical injection and lasing dynamics in long-wavelength VCSELs with intracavity patterning,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Volet, T. Czyszanowski, J. Walczak, L. Mutter, B. Dwir, Z. Micković, P. Gallo, A. Caliman, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, V. Iakovlev, and E. Kapon, “Transverse mode discrimination in long-wavelength wafer-fused vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers by intra-cavity patterning,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26983–26989 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moloney, J. V.

Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, J. V. Moloney, and San Miguel M, “Light-polarization dynamics in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52(2), 1728–1739 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, J. V. Moloney, and San Miguel M, “Light-polarization dynamics in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52(2), 1728–1739 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mutter, L.

Nagler, B.

K. Panajotov, J. Danckaert, G. Verschaffelt, M. Peeters, B. Nagler, J. Albert, B. Ryvkin, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, “Polarization behavior of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers: experiments, models and applications,” AIP Conf. Proc. 560, 403–417 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nahn, E.

E. Nahn and S. Riyopoulos, “Interpretation of polarization pinning due to scattering loss differentiation in asymmetric vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(12), 123101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Okuno, Y. L.

Y. L. Okuno, K. G. Gan, H. F. Chou, Y. J. Chiu, C. S. Wang, S. Wu, J. Geske, E. S. Bjorlin, and J. E. Bowers, “Stable polarization operation of 1.3-μm wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) fabricated by orientation-mismatched wafer bonding,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(5), 1006–1014 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ortsiefer, M.

M. Ortsiefer, M. Gorblich, Y. Xu, E. Ronneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, and M. C. Amann, “Polarization control in buried tunnel junction VCSELs using a birefringent semiconductor/dielectric subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(1), 15–17 (2010).
[Crossref]

Panajotov, K.

K. Panajotov, J. Danckaert, G. Verschaffelt, M. Peeters, B. Nagler, J. Albert, B. Ryvkin, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, “Polarization behavior of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers: experiments, models and applications,” AIP Conf. Proc. 560, 403–417 (2001).
[Crossref]

Peeters, M.

K. Panajotov, J. Danckaert, G. Verschaffelt, M. Peeters, B. Nagler, J. Albert, B. Ryvkin, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, “Polarization behavior of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers: experiments, models and applications,” AIP Conf. Proc. 560, 403–417 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pesquera, L.

J. M. Martín-Regalado, S. Balle, M. San Miguel, A. Valle, and L. Pesquera, “Polarization and transverse-mode selection in quantum-well vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Index- and gain-guided devices,” Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 9(5), 713–736 (1997).
[Crossref]

Prati, F.

J. Martin-Regalado, F. Prati, M. San Miguel, and N. B. Abraham, “Polarization properties of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(5), 765–783 (1997).
[Crossref]

Renz, S.

A. Al-Samaneh, M. B. Sanayeh, S. Renz, D. Wahl, and R. Michalzik, “Polarization control and dynamic properties of VCSELs for MEMS atomic clock applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(15), 1049–1051 (2011).
[Crossref]

Riyopoulos, S.

E. Nahn and S. Riyopoulos, “Interpretation of polarization pinning due to scattering loss differentiation in asymmetric vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(12), 123101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Röling, C.

I. Utke, M. G. Jenke, C. Röling, P. H. Thiesen, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, and E. Kapon, “Polarisation stabilisation of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers by minimally invasive focused electron beam triggered chemistry,” Nanoscale 3(7), 2718–2722 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ronneberg, E.

M. Ortsiefer, M. Gorblich, Y. Xu, E. Ronneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, and M. C. Amann, “Polarization control in buried tunnel junction VCSELs using a birefringent semiconductor/dielectric subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(1), 15–17 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rosskopf, J.

M. Ortsiefer, M. Gorblich, Y. Xu, E. Ronneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, and M. C. Amann, “Polarization control in buried tunnel junction VCSELs using a birefringent semiconductor/dielectric subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(1), 15–17 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ryvkin, B.

K. Panajotov, J. Danckaert, G. Verschaffelt, M. Peeters, B. Nagler, J. Albert, B. Ryvkin, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, “Polarization behavior of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers: experiments, models and applications,” AIP Conf. Proc. 560, 403–417 (2001).
[Crossref]

San Miguel, M.

J. Martin-Regalado, F. Prati, M. San Miguel, and N. B. Abraham, “Polarization properties of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(5), 765–783 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. M. Martín-Regalado, S. Balle, M. San Miguel, A. Valle, and L. Pesquera, “Polarization and transverse-mode selection in quantum-well vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Index- and gain-guided devices,” Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 9(5), 713–736 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sanayeh, M. B.

A. Al-Samaneh, M. B. Sanayeh, S. Renz, D. Wahl, and R. Michalzik, “Polarization control and dynamic properties of VCSELs for MEMS atomic clock applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(15), 1049–1051 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schires, K.

R. Al-Seyab, K. Schires, N. Ali Khan, A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Dynamics of polarized optical injection in 1550-nm VCSELs: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1242–1248 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schneider, R. P.

K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, and R. E. Leibenguth, “Gain-dependent polarization properties of vertical-cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(2), 661–666 (1995).
[Crossref]

Shau, R.

M. Ortsiefer, M. Gorblich, Y. Xu, E. Ronneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, and M. C. Amann, “Polarization control in buried tunnel junction VCSELs using a birefringent semiconductor/dielectric subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(1), 15–17 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shimizu, M.

M. Shimizu, F. Koyama, and S. Konoshita, “Surface emitting semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(9), 1845–1855 (1988).
[Crossref]

Sirbu, A.

C. Long, Z. Mickovic, D. Ellafi, B. Dwir, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, and E. Kapon, “Optical injection and lasing dynamics in long-wavelength VCSELs with intracavity patterning,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Volet, T. Czyszanowski, J. Walczak, L. Mutter, B. Dwir, Z. Micković, P. Gallo, A. Caliman, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, V. Iakovlev, and E. Kapon, “Transverse mode discrimination in long-wavelength wafer-fused vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers by intra-cavity patterning,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26983–26989 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Mutter, B. Dwir, A. Caliman, V. Iakovlev, A. Mereuta, A. Sirbu, and E. Kapon, “Intra-cavity patterning for mode control in 1.3 μm coupled VCSEL arrays,” Opt. Express 19(6), 4827–4832 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sirbu, V. Iakovelv, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, G. Suruceanu, and E. Kapon, “Wafer-fused heterostructures: application to vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers emitting in the 1310 nm band,” J. Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014016 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Utke, M. G. Jenke, C. Röling, P. H. Thiesen, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, and E. Kapon, “Polarisation stabilisation of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers by minimally invasive focused electron beam triggered chemistry,” Nanoscale 3(7), 2718–2722 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, D. S.

D. S. Song, Y. J. Lee, H. W. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Polarization-controlled, single-transverse-mode, photonic-crystal, vertical-cavity, surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3182–3184 (2003).
[Crossref]

Stoffel, N. G.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Polarisation characteristics of quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 27(2), 163–165 (1991).
[Crossref]

Suruceanu, G.

A. Sirbu, V. Iakovelv, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, G. Suruceanu, and E. Kapon, “Wafer-fused heterostructures: application to vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers emitting in the 1310 nm band,” J. Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014016 (2011).
[Crossref]

Swirhun, S.

D. V. Kuksenkov, H. Temkin, and S. Swirhun, “Polarization instability and relative intensity noise in vertical‐cavity surface‐emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(15), 2141–2143 (1995).
[Crossref]

Temkin, H.

D. V. Kuksenkov, H. Temkin, and S. Swirhun, “Polarization instability and relative intensity noise in vertical‐cavity surface‐emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(15), 2141–2143 (1995).
[Crossref]

Thienpont, H.

K. Panajotov, J. Danckaert, G. Verschaffelt, M. Peeters, B. Nagler, J. Albert, B. Ryvkin, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, “Polarization behavior of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers: experiments, models and applications,” AIP Conf. Proc. 560, 403–417 (2001).
[Crossref]

Thiesen, P. H.

I. Utke, M. G. Jenke, C. Röling, P. H. Thiesen, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, and E. Kapon, “Polarisation stabilisation of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers by minimally invasive focused electron beam triggered chemistry,” Nanoscale 3(7), 2718–2722 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Utke, I.

I. Utke, M. G. Jenke, C. Röling, P. H. Thiesen, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, and E. Kapon, “Polarisation stabilisation of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers by minimally invasive focused electron beam triggered chemistry,” Nanoscale 3(7), 2718–2722 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valle, A.

J. M. Martín-Regalado, S. Balle, M. San Miguel, A. Valle, and L. Pesquera, “Polarization and transverse-mode selection in quantum-well vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Index- and gain-guided devices,” Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 9(5), 713–736 (1997).
[Crossref]

van Exter, M. P.

A. K. Jansen van Doorn, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Elastooptic anisotropy and polarization orientation of vertical cavity surface emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(8), 1041–1043 (1996).
[Crossref]

Veretennicoff, I.

K. Panajotov, J. Danckaert, G. Verschaffelt, M. Peeters, B. Nagler, J. Albert, B. Ryvkin, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, “Polarization behavior of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers: experiments, models and applications,” AIP Conf. Proc. 560, 403–417 (2001).
[Crossref]

Verschaffelt, G.

K. Panajotov, J. Danckaert, G. Verschaffelt, M. Peeters, B. Nagler, J. Albert, B. Ryvkin, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, “Polarization behavior of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers: experiments, models and applications,” AIP Conf. Proc. 560, 403–417 (2001).
[Crossref]

Volet, N.

Wahl, D.

A. Al-Samaneh, M. B. Sanayeh, S. Renz, D. Wahl, and R. Michalzik, “Polarization control and dynamic properties of VCSELs for MEMS atomic clock applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(15), 1049–1051 (2011).
[Crossref]

Walczak, J.

Wang, C. S.

Y. L. Okuno, K. G. Gan, H. F. Chou, Y. J. Chiu, C. S. Wang, S. Wu, J. Geske, E. S. Bjorlin, and J. E. Bowers, “Stable polarization operation of 1.3-μm wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) fabricated by orientation-mismatched wafer bonding,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(5), 1006–1014 (2005).
[Crossref]

Woerdman, J. P.

A. K. Jansen van Doorn, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Elastooptic anisotropy and polarization orientation of vertical cavity surface emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(8), 1041–1043 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.

Y. L. Okuno, K. G. Gan, H. F. Chou, Y. J. Chiu, C. S. Wang, S. Wu, J. Geske, E. S. Bjorlin, and J. E. Bowers, “Stable polarization operation of 1.3-μm wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) fabricated by orientation-mismatched wafer bonding,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(5), 1006–1014 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

M. Ortsiefer, M. Gorblich, Y. Xu, E. Ronneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, and M. C. Amann, “Polarization control in buried tunnel junction VCSELs using a birefringent semiconductor/dielectric subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(1), 15–17 (2010).
[Crossref]

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

K. Panajotov, J. Danckaert, G. Verschaffelt, M. Peeters, B. Nagler, J. Albert, B. Ryvkin, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, “Polarization behavior of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers: experiments, models and applications,” AIP Conf. Proc. 560, 403–417 (2001).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

D. V. Kuksenkov, H. Temkin, and S. Swirhun, “Polarization instability and relative intensity noise in vertical‐cavity surface‐emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(15), 2141–2143 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. S. Song, Y. J. Lee, H. W. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Polarization-controlled, single-transverse-mode, photonic-crystal, vertical-cavity, surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3182–3184 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. K. Jansen van Doorn, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Elastooptic anisotropy and polarization orientation of vertical cavity surface emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(8), 1041–1043 (1996).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Polarisation characteristics of quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 27(2), 163–165 (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Shimizu, F. Koyama, and S. Konoshita, “Surface emitting semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(9), 1845–1855 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Martin-Regalado, F. Prati, M. San Miguel, and N. B. Abraham, “Polarization properties of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(5), 765–783 (1997).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (4)

C. Long, Z. Mickovic, D. Ellafi, B. Dwir, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, and E. Kapon, “Optical injection and lasing dynamics in long-wavelength VCSELs with intracavity patterning,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Okuno, K. G. Gan, H. F. Chou, Y. J. Chiu, C. S. Wang, S. Wu, J. Geske, E. S. Bjorlin, and J. E. Bowers, “Stable polarization operation of 1.3-μm wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) fabricated by orientation-mismatched wafer bonding,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(5), 1006–1014 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, and R. E. Leibenguth, “Gain-dependent polarization properties of vertical-cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(2), 661–666 (1995).
[Crossref]

R. Al-Seyab, K. Schires, N. Ali Khan, A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, and M. J. Adams, “Dynamics of polarized optical injection in 1550-nm VCSELs: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1242–1248 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Al-Samaneh, M. B. Sanayeh, S. Renz, D. Wahl, and R. Michalzik, “Polarization control and dynamic properties of VCSELs for MEMS atomic clock applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(15), 1049–1051 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Ortsiefer, M. Gorblich, Y. Xu, E. Ronneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, and M. C. Amann, “Polarization control in buried tunnel junction VCSELs using a birefringent semiconductor/dielectric subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(1), 15–17 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

E. Nahn and S. Riyopoulos, “Interpretation of polarization pinning due to scattering loss differentiation in asymmetric vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(12), 123101 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. Sirbu, V. Iakovelv, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, G. Suruceanu, and E. Kapon, “Wafer-fused heterostructures: application to vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers emitting in the 1310 nm band,” J. Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014016 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale (1)

I. Utke, M. G. Jenke, C. Röling, P. H. Thiesen, V. Iakovlev, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, and E. Kapon, “Polarisation stabilisation of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers by minimally invasive focused electron beam triggered chemistry,” Nanoscale 3(7), 2718–2722 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Homayounfar and M. J. Adams, “Locking bandwidth and birefringence effects for polarized optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Commun. 269(1), 119–127 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, J. V. Moloney, and San Miguel M, “Light-polarization dynamics in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52(2), 1728–1739 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quantum Semiclass. Opt. (1)

J. M. Martín-Regalado, S. Balle, M. San Miguel, A. Valle, and L. Pesquera, “Polarization and transverse-mode selection in quantum-well vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Index- and gain-guided devices,” Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 9(5), 713–736 (1997).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

Rainer Michalzik, ed., VCSELs: Fundamentals, Technology and Applications of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (Springer, 2013).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The VCSEL with intracavity patterning. (a) Schematic cross-sectional view of VCSEL structure. (b) Top-down schematic of structure with crystal axes indicated and rotation angle θ defined. (c) Sub-threshold infrared image, light emission from TJ and scattering off of IC pattern. (d) VCSEL cross section SEM image with etched pattern at the top of the optical cavity indicated.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Polarization resolved LI curves of a control VCSEL (no intracavity arc patterning). Green trace taken for polarizer aligned to threshold polarization mode (“y-polarization”), blue for polarizer rotated by 90° (“x-polarization”), and red for total power. (b) Detail of LI curve near bistability region, showing power drop after PS, ΔP. Arrows indicate the change of power with sense of current. (c) Sub-threshold emission spectrum taken at 1 mA bias current, showing distinct peaks for each polarization mode and their separation Δλ, and higher-order transverse modes HOM. (d) Distribution of polarization switching current for VCSELs with and without intracavity patterning.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Polarization angle θ versus polarization mode splitting for all VCSELs measured (see Fig. 1 for definition of θ).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Polarization switching current IPS versus PM splitting for all VCSELs measured.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Change in power after a PS versus threshold current for VCSELs with and without intracavity patterning. The yellow trend line shows the average value for the patterned VCSELs at each threshold current. Similarly, the gray line is the average for the control VCSELs.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Stability diagram for a VCSEL with significant gain anisotropy (γa = 2.5/ns), showing regions where the x- and y-polarized modes are stable (see color code). Contour lines indicate the upper edge of stability for the y-polarized mode similar to data in Fig. 4. Solid line: γa = 2.5/ns, dashed lines: γa = {1, 1.5, 2.0, 3} /ns.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 SFM Model Parameters of Control VCSEL [18]

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