Abstract

In this work we analyze the energy efficiency constraints on drivers for Visible light communication (VLC) emitters. This is the main reason why LED is becoming the main source of illumination. We study the effect of the waveform shape and the modulation techniques on the overall energy efficiency of an LED lamp. For a similar level of illumination, we calculate the emitter energy efficiency ratio η (PLED/PTOTAL) for different signals. We compare switched and sinusoidal signals and analyze the effect of both OOK and OFDM modulation techniques depending on the power supply adjustment, level of illumination and signal amplitude distortion. Switched and OOK signals present higher energy efficiency behaviors (0.86≤η≤0.95) than sinusoidal and OFDM signals (0.53≤η≤0.79).

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. V. Demir, “Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031102 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  2. H. Chiu, Y. Lo, J. Chen, S. Cheng, C. Lin, and S. Mou, “A high efficiency dimmable LED driver for low-power lighting applications,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 57(2), 735–743 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  3. “IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks–Part 15.7: Short-Range Wireless Optical Communication Using Visible Light,” (2011).
  4. O. Gonzalez, R. Perez-Jimenez, S. Rodriguez, J. Rabadan, and A. Ayala, “OFDM over indoor wireless optical channel,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 152(4), 199–204 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Armstrong and A. J. Lowery, “Power efficient optical OFDM,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 370–372 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. D. Dissanayake and J. Armstrong, “Comparison of ACO-OFDM, DCO-OFDM and ADO-OFDM in IM/DD systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(7), 1063–1072 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. H. Azhar, T. A. Tran, and D. O’brien, “A gigabit/s indoor wireless transmission using MIMO-OFDM visible-light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(2), 171–174 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  8. G. Cossu, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “High-speed bi-directional optical wireless system in non-directed line-of-sight configuration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(10), 2035–2040 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Tsiatmas, C. P. M. J. Baggen, F. M. J. Willems, J.-P. M. G. Linnartz, and J. W. M. Bergmans, “An illumination perspective on visible light communications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 64–71 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. Arias, A. Vázquez, and J. Sebastián, “An overview of the AC-DC and DC-DC converters for LED lighting applications,” Automatika (Zagreb) 53(2), 156–172 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. M. Alonso, J. Vina, D. G. Vaquero, G. Martinez, and R. Osorio, “Analysis and design of the integrated double buck–boost converter as a high-power-factor driver for power-LED lamps,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 59(4), 1689–1697 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2014 (2)

G. Cossu, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “High-speed bi-directional optical wireless system in non-directed line-of-sight configuration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(10), 2035–2040 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Tsiatmas, C. P. M. J. Baggen, F. M. J. Willems, J.-P. M. G. Linnartz, and J. W. M. Bergmans, “An illumination perspective on visible light communications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 64–71 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

S. D. Dissanayake and J. Armstrong, “Comparison of ACO-OFDM, DCO-OFDM and ADO-OFDM in IM/DD systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(7), 1063–1072 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. H. Azhar, T. A. Tran, and D. O’brien, “A gigabit/s indoor wireless transmission using MIMO-OFDM visible-light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(2), 171–174 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

M. Arias, A. Vázquez, and J. Sebastián, “An overview of the AC-DC and DC-DC converters for LED lighting applications,” Automatika (Zagreb) 53(2), 156–172 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. M. Alonso, J. Vina, D. G. Vaquero, G. Martinez, and R. Osorio, “Analysis and design of the integrated double buck–boost converter as a high-power-factor driver for power-LED lamps,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 59(4), 1689–1697 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

H. Chiu, Y. Lo, J. Chen, S. Cheng, C. Lin, and S. Mou, “A high efficiency dimmable LED driver for low-power lighting applications,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 57(2), 735–743 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. V. Demir, “Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031102 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

J. Armstrong and A. J. Lowery, “Power efficient optical OFDM,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 370–372 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

O. Gonzalez, R. Perez-Jimenez, S. Rodriguez, J. Rabadan, and A. Ayala, “OFDM over indoor wireless optical channel,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 152(4), 199–204 (2005).
[Crossref]

Alonso, J. M.

J. M. Alonso, J. Vina, D. G. Vaquero, G. Martinez, and R. Osorio, “Analysis and design of the integrated double buck–boost converter as a high-power-factor driver for power-LED lamps,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 59(4), 1689–1697 (2012).
[Crossref]

Arias, M.

M. Arias, A. Vázquez, and J. Sebastián, “An overview of the AC-DC and DC-DC converters for LED lighting applications,” Automatika (Zagreb) 53(2), 156–172 (2012).
[Crossref]

Armstrong, J.

Ayala, A.

O. Gonzalez, R. Perez-Jimenez, S. Rodriguez, J. Rabadan, and A. Ayala, “OFDM over indoor wireless optical channel,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 152(4), 199–204 (2005).
[Crossref]

Azhar, A. H.

A. H. Azhar, T. A. Tran, and D. O’brien, “A gigabit/s indoor wireless transmission using MIMO-OFDM visible-light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(2), 171–174 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baggen, C. P. M. J.

A. Tsiatmas, C. P. M. J. Baggen, F. M. J. Willems, J.-P. M. G. Linnartz, and J. W. M. Bergmans, “An illumination perspective on visible light communications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 64–71 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bergmans, J. W. M.

A. Tsiatmas, C. P. M. J. Baggen, F. M. J. Willems, J.-P. M. G. Linnartz, and J. W. M. Bergmans, “An illumination perspective on visible light communications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 64–71 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

H. Chiu, Y. Lo, J. Chen, S. Cheng, C. Lin, and S. Mou, “A high efficiency dimmable LED driver for low-power lighting applications,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 57(2), 735–743 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cheng, S.

H. Chiu, Y. Lo, J. Chen, S. Cheng, C. Lin, and S. Mou, “A high efficiency dimmable LED driver for low-power lighting applications,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 57(2), 735–743 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chiu, H.

H. Chiu, Y. Lo, J. Chen, S. Cheng, C. Lin, and S. Mou, “A high efficiency dimmable LED driver for low-power lighting applications,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 57(2), 735–743 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ciaramella, E.

Corsini, R.

Cossu, G.

Demir, H. V.

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. V. Demir, “Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dissanayake, S. D.

Gonzalez, O.

O. Gonzalez, R. Perez-Jimenez, S. Rodriguez, J. Rabadan, and A. Ayala, “OFDM over indoor wireless optical channel,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 152(4), 199–204 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.

H. Chiu, Y. Lo, J. Chen, S. Cheng, C. Lin, and S. Mou, “A high efficiency dimmable LED driver for low-power lighting applications,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 57(2), 735–743 (2010).
[Crossref]

Linnartz, J.-P. M. G.

A. Tsiatmas, C. P. M. J. Baggen, F. M. J. Willems, J.-P. M. G. Linnartz, and J. W. M. Bergmans, “An illumination perspective on visible light communications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 64–71 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lo, Y.

H. Chiu, Y. Lo, J. Chen, S. Cheng, C. Lin, and S. Mou, “A high efficiency dimmable LED driver for low-power lighting applications,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 57(2), 735–743 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lowery, A. J.

J. Armstrong and A. J. Lowery, “Power efficient optical OFDM,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 370–372 (2006).
[Crossref]

Martinez, G.

J. M. Alonso, J. Vina, D. G. Vaquero, G. Martinez, and R. Osorio, “Analysis and design of the integrated double buck–boost converter as a high-power-factor driver for power-LED lamps,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 59(4), 1689–1697 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mou, S.

H. Chiu, Y. Lo, J. Chen, S. Cheng, C. Lin, and S. Mou, “A high efficiency dimmable LED driver for low-power lighting applications,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 57(2), 735–743 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nizamoglu, S.

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. V. Demir, “Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031102 (2008).
[Crossref]

O’brien, D.

A. H. Azhar, T. A. Tran, and D. O’brien, “A gigabit/s indoor wireless transmission using MIMO-OFDM visible-light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(2), 171–174 (2013).
[Crossref]

Osorio, R.

J. M. Alonso, J. Vina, D. G. Vaquero, G. Martinez, and R. Osorio, “Analysis and design of the integrated double buck–boost converter as a high-power-factor driver for power-LED lamps,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 59(4), 1689–1697 (2012).
[Crossref]

Perez-Jimenez, R.

O. Gonzalez, R. Perez-Jimenez, S. Rodriguez, J. Rabadan, and A. Ayala, “OFDM over indoor wireless optical channel,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 152(4), 199–204 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rabadan, J.

O. Gonzalez, R. Perez-Jimenez, S. Rodriguez, J. Rabadan, and A. Ayala, “OFDM over indoor wireless optical channel,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 152(4), 199–204 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, S.

O. Gonzalez, R. Perez-Jimenez, S. Rodriguez, J. Rabadan, and A. Ayala, “OFDM over indoor wireless optical channel,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 152(4), 199–204 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sebastián, J.

M. Arias, A. Vázquez, and J. Sebastián, “An overview of the AC-DC and DC-DC converters for LED lighting applications,” Automatika (Zagreb) 53(2), 156–172 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tran, T. A.

A. H. Azhar, T. A. Tran, and D. O’brien, “A gigabit/s indoor wireless transmission using MIMO-OFDM visible-light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(2), 171–174 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tsiatmas, A.

A. Tsiatmas, C. P. M. J. Baggen, F. M. J. Willems, J.-P. M. G. Linnartz, and J. W. M. Bergmans, “An illumination perspective on visible light communications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 64–71 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vaquero, D. G.

J. M. Alonso, J. Vina, D. G. Vaquero, G. Martinez, and R. Osorio, “Analysis and design of the integrated double buck–boost converter as a high-power-factor driver for power-LED lamps,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 59(4), 1689–1697 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vázquez, A.

M. Arias, A. Vázquez, and J. Sebastián, “An overview of the AC-DC and DC-DC converters for LED lighting applications,” Automatika (Zagreb) 53(2), 156–172 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vina, J.

J. M. Alonso, J. Vina, D. G. Vaquero, G. Martinez, and R. Osorio, “Analysis and design of the integrated double buck–boost converter as a high-power-factor driver for power-LED lamps,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 59(4), 1689–1697 (2012).
[Crossref]

Willems, F. M. J.

A. Tsiatmas, C. P. M. J. Baggen, F. M. J. Willems, J.-P. M. G. Linnartz, and J. W. M. Bergmans, “An illumination perspective on visible light communications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 64–71 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zengin, G.

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. V. Demir, “Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. V. Demir, “Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Automatika (Zagreb) (1)

M. Arias, A. Vázquez, and J. Sebastián, “An overview of the AC-DC and DC-DC converters for LED lighting applications,” Automatika (Zagreb) 53(2), 156–172 (2012).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Armstrong and A. J. Lowery, “Power efficient optical OFDM,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 370–372 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEE Proc., Optoelectron. (1)

O. Gonzalez, R. Perez-Jimenez, S. Rodriguez, J. Rabadan, and A. Ayala, “OFDM over indoor wireless optical channel,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 152(4), 199–204 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

A. Tsiatmas, C. P. M. J. Baggen, F. M. J. Willems, J.-P. M. G. Linnartz, and J. W. M. Bergmans, “An illumination perspective on visible light communications,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 64–71 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

A. H. Azhar, T. A. Tran, and D. O’brien, “A gigabit/s indoor wireless transmission using MIMO-OFDM visible-light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(2), 171–174 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. (2)

H. Chiu, Y. Lo, J. Chen, S. Cheng, C. Lin, and S. Mou, “A high efficiency dimmable LED driver for low-power lighting applications,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 57(2), 735–743 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. M. Alonso, J. Vina, D. G. Vaquero, G. Martinez, and R. Osorio, “Analysis and design of the integrated double buck–boost converter as a high-power-factor driver for power-LED lamps,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 59(4), 1689–1697 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Other (1)

“IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks–Part 15.7: Short-Range Wireless Optical Communication Using Visible Light,” (2011).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Model of a LED modulating circuit.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 I-V joint curves for the MOS (blue) and LED (red and green). The vertical axe represents the current ILED = IDRIVER. The horizontal axe represents the MOS voltage (VDRIVER) starting at the origin (VDRIVER = 0V). Starting at VDRIVER = 6V and going backwards, the horizontal axe represents the LED voltage (VLED). Notice that VDD = VDRIVER + VLED.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Summary of results for the energy efficiency ratio η. (a) ohmic mode (switched and OOK signals) and (b) saturation mode (sinusoidal and OFDM signals). It can be seen how η drops when increasing the power supply VDD. Furthermore, the CW signals energy efficiency ratio radically decreases for low illumination values.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Efficiency ratio η for a square (switched) signal.

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Table 2 Efficiency ratio η for a sinusoidal signal.

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Table 3 Efficiency ratio η for an OOK signal.

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Table 4 Efficiency ratio η for an OFDM signal.

Equations (1)

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η= P LED P TOTAL = < v LED ( t )× i LED (t)> < v LED ( t )× i LED (t)>+< v DRIVER ( t )× i LED (t)>

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