Abstract

We propose and analyze theoretically electro-absorption modulators with uniaxially tensile strained Ge/Si0.19Ge0.81 multiple quantum wells (MQWs). The effects of uniaxial strain on band structures including Γ-valley and L-valley are discussed. The simulation results indicate that the absorption contrast of TE mode is improved by 3.1 dB while the TM mode absorption is reduced by two-thirds under 1.6% uniaxial tensile strain. Zero-biased electro-absorption modulators covering 1380-1550 nm wavelength can be achieved by introducing 0.18%-1.6% uniaxial tensile strain. Taking into account the TE-polarized mode excited usually in integrated waveguides, the proposed scheme provides a promising approach to design highly efficient Ge/SiGe MQWs electro-absorption modulators for on-chip optical transmission and cross-connect applications.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. T. Etzelstorfer, M. J. Süess, G. L. Schiefler, V. L. R. Jacques, D. Carbone, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Stangl, H. Sigg, and A. Diaz, “Scanning X-ray strain microscopy of inhomogeneously strained Ge micro-bridges,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(1), 111–118 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. V. T. Bublik, S. S. Gorelik, A. A. Zaitsev, and A. Y. Polyakov, “Diffuse X-Ray determination of the energy of mixing and elastic constants of Ge-Si solid solutions,” Phys. Status Solidi 66(2), 427–432 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  21. M. Cardona and F. H. Pollak, “Energy-band structure of germanium and silicon: The k·p method,” Phys. Rev. 142(2), 530–543 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  22. W. J. Fan, “Tensile-strain and doping enhanced direct bandgap optical transition of n+ doped Ge/GeSi quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(18), 183106 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  23. M. M. Rieger and P. Vogl, “Electronic-band parameters in strained Si 1 –x Ge x alloys on Si 1 – y Ge y substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(19), 14276–14287 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  26. S. Tsujino, H. Sigg, G. Mussler, D. Chrastina, and H. von Känel, “Photocurrent and transmission spectroscopy of direct-gap interband transitions in Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 262119 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  27. K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, A. Gassenq, Y. M. Niquet, J. M. Escalante, I. Duchemin, S. Tardif, G. Osvaldo Dias, D. Rouchon, J. Widiez, J. M. Hartmann, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Germanium under high tensile stress: nonlinear dependence of direct band gap vs. strain,” https://arxiv.org/abs/1606.01668 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  28. H. Shen, M. Wraback, J. Pamulapati, P. G. Newman, M. Dutta, Y. Lu, and H. C. Kuo, “Optical anisotropy in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells under thermally induced uniaxial strain,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(20), 13933–13936 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. R. D. Kekatpure and A. Lentine, “The suitability of SiGe multiple quantum well modulators for short reach DWDM optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5318–5331 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Study of carrier statistics in uniaxially strained Ge for a low-threshold Ge laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 16–22 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  31. G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

J. Gao, H. Zhou, J. Jiang, Y. Zhou, and J. Sun, “Design of low bias voltage Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells electro-absorption modulator at 1550 nm,” AIP Adv. 7(3), 035317 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. W. Millar, K. Gallacher, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, A. Bashir, I. MacLaren, G. Isella, and D. J. Paul, “Analysis of Ge micro-cavities with in-plane tensile strains above 2%,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4365–4374 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Jiang and J. Sun, “Theoretical analysis of optical gain in uniaxial tensile strained and n+-doped Ge/GeSi quantum well,” Opt. Express 24(13), 14525–14537 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

D. C. S. Dumas, K. Gallacher, S. Rhead, M. Myronov, D. R. Leadley, and D. J. Paul, “Ge/SiGe quantum confined Stark effect electro-absorption modulation with low voltage swing at λ = 1550 nm,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19284–19292 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7% <100> uniaxial tensile strain [Invited],” Photon. Res. 2(3), A8–A13 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Etzelstorfer, M. J. Süess, G. L. Schiefler, V. L. R. Jacques, D. Carbone, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Stangl, H. Sigg, and A. Diaz, “Scanning X-ray strain microscopy of inhomogeneously strained Ge micro-bridges,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(1), 111–118 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Study of carrier statistics in uniaxially strained Ge for a low-threshold Ge laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 16–22 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. D. Kekatpure and A. Lentine, “The suitability of SiGe multiple quantum well modulators for short reach DWDM optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5318–5331 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Fan, “Tensile-strain and doping enhanced direct bandgap optical transition of n+ doped Ge/GeSi quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(18), 183106 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Gupta, B. Magyari-Köpe, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Achieving direct band gap in germanium through integration of Sn alloying and external strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(7), 073707 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. H. Edwards, L. Lever, E. T. Fei, T. I. Kamins, Z. Ikonic, J. S. Harris, R. W. Kelsall, and D. A. B. Miller, “Low-voltage broad-band electroabsorption from thin Ge/SiGe quantum wells epitaxially grown on silicon,” Opt. Express 21(1), 867–876 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

2008 (1)

D. J. Paul, “8-band k.p modelling of the quantum confined Stark effect in Ge quantum wells on Si substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 77(15), 155323 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

S. Tsujino, H. Sigg, G. Mussler, D. Chrastina, and H. von Känel, “Photocurrent and transmission spectroscopy of direct-gap interband transitions in Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 262119 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2815–2817 (2004).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

H. Shen, M. Wraback, J. Pamulapati, P. G. Newman, M. Dutta, Y. Lu, and H. C. Kuo, “Optical anisotropy in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells under thermally induced uniaxial strain,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(20), 13933–13936 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Rieger and P. Vogl, “Electronic-band parameters in strained Si 1 –x Ge x alloys on Si 1 – y Ge y substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(19), 14276–14287 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

C. G. Van de Walle, “Band lineups and deformation potentials in the model-solid theory,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 39(3), 1871–1883 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

V. T. Bublik, S. S. Gorelik, A. A. Zaitsev, and A. Y. Polyakov, “Diffuse X-Ray determination of the energy of mixing and elastic constants of Ge-Si solid solutions,” Phys. Status Solidi 66(2), 427–432 (1974).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

M. Cardona and F. H. Pollak, “Energy-band structure of germanium and silicon: The k·p method,” Phys. Rev. 142(2), 530–543 (1966).
[Crossref]

1955 (1)

G. G. Macfarlane and V. Roberts, “Infrared absorption of germanium near the lattice edge,” Phys. Rev. 97(6), 1714–1716 (1955).
[Crossref]

Ballabio, A.

Balram, K. C.

Bashir, A.

Bellet Amalric, E.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).
[Crossref]

Boucaud, P.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

Bublik, V. T.

V. T. Bublik, S. S. Gorelik, A. A. Zaitsev, and A. Y. Polyakov, “Diffuse X-Ray determination of the energy of mixing and elastic constants of Ge-Si solid solutions,” Phys. Status Solidi 66(2), 427–432 (1974).
[Crossref]

Buca, D.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Calvo, V.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Capellini, G.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Carbone, D.

T. Etzelstorfer, M. J. Süess, G. L. Schiefler, V. L. R. Jacques, D. Carbone, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Stangl, H. Sigg, and A. Diaz, “Scanning X-ray strain microscopy of inhomogeneously strained Ge micro-bridges,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(1), 111–118 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cardona, M.

M. Cardona and F. H. Pollak, “Energy-band structure of germanium and silicon: The k·p method,” Phys. Rev. 142(2), 530–543 (1966).
[Crossref]

Chaisakul, P.

Chelnokov, A.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chiussi, S.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chrastina, D.

T. Etzelstorfer, M. J. Süess, G. L. Schiefler, V. L. R. Jacques, D. Carbone, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Stangl, H. Sigg, and A. Diaz, “Scanning X-ray strain microscopy of inhomogeneously strained Ge micro-bridges,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(1), 111–118 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M.-S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Tsujino, H. Sigg, G. Mussler, D. Chrastina, and H. von Känel, “Photocurrent and transmission spectroscopy of direct-gap interband transitions in Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 262119 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chui, C. O.

A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2815–2817 (2004).
[Crossref]

Coudevylle, J.-R.

de Kersauson, M.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dias, G. O.

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Diaz, A.

T. Etzelstorfer, M. J. Süess, G. L. Schiefler, V. L. R. Jacques, D. Carbone, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Stangl, H. Sigg, and A. Diaz, “Scanning X-ray strain microscopy of inhomogeneously strained Ge micro-bridges,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(1), 111–118 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duchemin, I.

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).
[Crossref]

Dumas, D. C. S.

Dutta, M.

H. Shen, M. Wraback, J. Pamulapati, P. G. Newman, M. Dutta, Y. Lu, and H. C. Kuo, “Optical anisotropy in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells under thermally induced uniaxial strain,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(20), 13933–13936 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Edmond, S.

Edwards, E. H.

El Kurdi, M.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Escalante, J.

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Escalante, J. M.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).
[Crossref]

Etzelstorfer, T.

T. Etzelstorfer, M. J. Süess, G. L. Schiefler, V. L. R. Jacques, D. Carbone, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Stangl, H. Sigg, and A. Diaz, “Scanning X-ray strain microscopy of inhomogeneously strained Ge micro-bridges,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(1), 111–118 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faist, J.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fan, W. J.

W. J. Fan, “Tensile-strain and doping enhanced direct bandgap optical transition of n+ doped Ge/GeSi quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(18), 183106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fei, E. T.

Fowler, D.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).
[Crossref]

Frigerio, J.

Gallacher, K.

Gao, J.

J. Gao, H. Zhou, J. Jiang, Y. Zhou, and J. Sun, “Design of low bias voltage Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells electro-absorption modulator at 1550 nm,” AIP Adv. 7(3), 035317 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gassenq, A.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ge, Y.

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geiger, R.

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).
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V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ghrib, A.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gomez, E.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).
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Gorelik, S. S.

V. T. Bublik, S. S. Gorelik, A. A. Zaitsev, and A. Y. Polyakov, “Diffuse X-Ray determination of the energy of mixing and elastic constants of Ge-Si solid solutions,” Phys. Status Solidi 66(2), 427–432 (1974).
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Grützmacher, D.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
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Guilloy, K.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gupta, S.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Study of carrier statistics in uniaxially strained Ge for a low-threshold Ge laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 16–22 (2014).
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S. Gupta, B. Magyari-Köpe, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Achieving direct band gap in germanium through integration of Sn alloying and external strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(7), 073707 (2013).
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Harris, J. S.

E. H. Edwards, L. Lever, E. T. Fei, T. I. Kamins, Z. Ikonic, J. S. Harris, R. W. Kelsall, and D. A. B. Miller, “Low-voltage broad-band electroabsorption from thin Ge/SiGe quantum wells epitaxially grown on silicon,” Opt. Express 21(1), 867–876 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartmann, J. M.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J.-M.

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).
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Howe, R. T.

Ikonic, Z.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. H. Edwards, L. Lever, E. T. Fei, T. I. Kamins, Z. Ikonic, J. S. Harris, R. W. Kelsall, and D. A. B. Miller, “Low-voltage broad-band electroabsorption from thin Ge/SiGe quantum wells epitaxially grown on silicon,” Opt. Express 21(1), 867–876 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Isella, G.

R. W. Millar, K. Gallacher, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, A. Bashir, I. MacLaren, G. Isella, and D. J. Paul, “Analysis of Ge micro-cavities with in-plane tensile strains above 2%,” Opt. Express 24(5), 4365–4374 (2016).
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T. Etzelstorfer, M. J. Süess, G. L. Schiefler, V. L. R. Jacques, D. Carbone, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Stangl, H. Sigg, and A. Diaz, “Scanning X-ray strain microscopy of inhomogeneously strained Ge micro-bridges,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(1), 111–118 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M.-S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
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Jacques, V. L. R.

T. Etzelstorfer, M. J. Süess, G. L. Schiefler, V. L. R. Jacques, D. Carbone, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Stangl, H. Sigg, and A. Diaz, “Scanning X-ray strain microscopy of inhomogeneously strained Ge micro-bridges,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(1), 111–118 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jain, J. R.

Jiang, J.

J. Gao, H. Zhou, J. Jiang, Y. Zhou, and J. Sun, “Design of low bias voltage Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells electro-absorption modulator at 1550 nm,” AIP Adv. 7(3), 035317 (2017).
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J. Jiang and J. Sun, “Theoretical analysis of optical gain in uniaxial tensile strained and n+-doped Ge/GeSi quantum well,” Opt. Express 24(13), 14525–14537 (2016).
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Kamins, T. I.

E. H. Edwards, L. Lever, E. T. Fei, T. I. Kamins, Z. Ikonic, J. S. Harris, R. W. Kelsall, and D. A. B. Miller, “Low-voltage broad-band electroabsorption from thin Ge/SiGe quantum wells epitaxially grown on silicon,” Opt. Express 21(1), 867–876 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
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Kang, J.-H.

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7% <100> uniaxial tensile strain [Invited],” Photon. Res. 2(3), A8–A13 (2014).
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D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Study of carrier statistics in uniaxially strained Ge for a low-threshold Ge laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 16–22 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kekatpure, R. D.

Kelsall, R. W.

Kozlowski, G.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

H. Shen, M. Wraback, J. Pamulapati, P. G. Newman, M. Dutta, Y. Lu, and H. C. Kuo, “Optical anisotropy in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells under thermally induced uniaxial strain,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(20), 13933–13936 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuo, Y. H.

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le Roux, X.

Leadley, D. R.

Lee, Y. K.

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lentine, A.

Lever, L.

Lisker, M.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
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Lu, Y.

H. Shen, M. Wraback, J. Pamulapati, P. G. Newman, M. Dutta, Y. Lu, and H. C. Kuo, “Optical anisotropy in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells under thermally induced uniaxial strain,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(20), 13933–13936 (1993).
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Luysberg, M.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
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Ly-Gagnon, D. S.

Macfarlane, G. G.

G. G. Macfarlane and V. Roberts, “Infrared absorption of germanium near the lattice edge,” Phys. Rev. 97(6), 1714–1716 (1955).
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MacLaren, I.

Magyari-Köpe, B.

S. Gupta, B. Magyari-Köpe, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Achieving direct band gap in germanium through integration of Sn alloying and external strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(7), 073707 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mantl, S.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
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Marin, E.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).
[Crossref]

Marris-Morini, D.

Millar, R. W.

Miller, D. A. B.

E. H. Edwards, L. Lever, E. T. Fei, T. I. Kamins, Z. Ikonic, J. S. Harris, R. W. Kelsall, and D. A. B. Miller, “Low-voltage broad-band electroabsorption from thin Ge/SiGe quantum wells epitaxially grown on silicon,” Opt. Express 21(1), 867–876 (2013).
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R. K. Schaevitz, D. S. Ly-Gagnon, J. E. Roth, E. H. Edwards, and D. A. B. Miller, “Indirect absorption in germanium quantum wells,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032164 (2011).
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Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
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M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
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Mussler, G.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
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S. Tsujino, H. Sigg, G. Mussler, D. Chrastina, and H. von Känel, “Photocurrent and transmission spectroscopy of direct-gap interband transitions in Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 262119 (2006).
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Myronov, M.

Nam, D.

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7% <100> uniaxial tensile strain [Invited],” Photon. Res. 2(3), A8–A13 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Study of carrier statistics in uniaxially strained Ge for a low-threshold Ge laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 16–22 (2014).
[Crossref]

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A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2815–2817 (2004).
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H. Shen, M. Wraback, J. Pamulapati, P. G. Newman, M. Dutta, Y. Lu, and H. C. Kuo, “Optical anisotropy in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells under thermally induced uniaxial strain,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(20), 13933–13936 (1993).
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V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).
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A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).
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S. Gupta, B. Magyari-Köpe, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Achieving direct band gap in germanium through integration of Sn alloying and external strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(7), 073707 (2013).
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G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
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V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).
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Pamulapati, J.

H. Shen, M. Wraback, J. Pamulapati, P. G. Newman, M. Dutta, Y. Lu, and H. C. Kuo, “Optical anisotropy in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells under thermally induced uniaxial strain,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(20), 13933–13936 (1993).
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Pauc, N.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).
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A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).
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A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).
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V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).
[Crossref]

Ren, S.

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rhead, S.

Rieger, M. M.

M. M. Rieger and P. Vogl, “Electronic-band parameters in strained Si 1 –x Ge x alloys on Si 1 – y Ge y substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(19), 14276–14287 (1993).
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Rieutord, F.

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).
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R. K. Schaevitz, D. S. Ly-Gagnon, J. E. Roth, E. H. Edwards, and D. A. B. Miller, “Indirect absorption in germanium quantum wells,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032164 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rouchon, D.

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).
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V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).
[Crossref]

Rouifed, M.-S.

Saraswat, K. C.

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7% <100> uniaxial tensile strain [Invited],” Photon. Res. 2(3), A8–A13 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Study of carrier statistics in uniaxially strained Ge for a low-threshold Ge laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 16–22 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Gupta, B. Magyari-Köpe, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Achieving direct band gap in germanium through integration of Sn alloying and external strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(7), 073707 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2815–2817 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schaevitz, R. K.

R. K. Schaevitz, D. S. Ly-Gagnon, J. E. Roth, E. H. Edwards, and D. A. B. Miller, “Indirect absorption in germanium quantum wells,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032164 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schiefler, G.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schiefler, G. L.

T. Etzelstorfer, M. J. Süess, G. L. Schiefler, V. L. R. Jacques, D. Carbone, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Stangl, H. Sigg, and A. Diaz, “Scanning X-ray strain microscopy of inhomogeneously strained Ge micro-bridges,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(1), 111–118 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schroeder, T.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shen, H.

H. Shen, M. Wraback, J. Pamulapati, P. G. Newman, M. Dutta, Y. Lu, and H. C. Kuo, “Optical anisotropy in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells under thermally induced uniaxial strain,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(20), 13933–13936 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sigg, H.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Etzelstorfer, M. J. Süess, G. L. Schiefler, V. L. R. Jacques, D. Carbone, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Stangl, H. Sigg, and A. Diaz, “Scanning X-ray strain microscopy of inhomogeneously strained Ge micro-bridges,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(1), 111–118 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Tsujino, H. Sigg, G. Mussler, D. Chrastina, and H. von Känel, “Photocurrent and transmission spectroscopy of direct-gap interband transitions in Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 262119 (2006).
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Spolenak, R.

T. Etzelstorfer, M. J. Süess, G. L. Schiefler, V. L. R. Jacques, D. Carbone, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Stangl, H. Sigg, and A. Diaz, “Scanning X-ray strain microscopy of inhomogeneously strained Ge micro-bridges,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(1), 111–118 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
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Stangl, J.

T. Etzelstorfer, M. J. Süess, G. L. Schiefler, V. L. R. Jacques, D. Carbone, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Stangl, H. Sigg, and A. Diaz, “Scanning X-ray strain microscopy of inhomogeneously strained Ge micro-bridges,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(1), 111–118 (2014).
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Stoica, T.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
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Süess, M. J.

T. Etzelstorfer, M. J. Süess, G. L. Schiefler, V. L. R. Jacques, D. Carbone, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Stangl, H. Sigg, and A. Diaz, “Scanning X-ray strain microscopy of inhomogeneously strained Ge micro-bridges,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(1), 111–118 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
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Sukhdeo, D. S.

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7% <100> uniaxial tensile strain [Invited],” Photon. Res. 2(3), A8–A13 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Study of carrier statistics in uniaxially strained Ge for a low-threshold Ge laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 16–22 (2014).
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J. Gao, H. Zhou, J. Jiang, Y. Zhou, and J. Sun, “Design of low bias voltage Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells electro-absorption modulator at 1550 nm,” AIP Adv. 7(3), 035317 (2017).
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V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).
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A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).
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Tillack, B.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tsujino, S.

S. Tsujino, H. Sigg, G. Mussler, D. Chrastina, and H. von Känel, “Photocurrent and transmission spectroscopy of direct-gap interband transitions in Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 262119 (2006).
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Vogl, P.

M. M. Rieger and P. Vogl, “Electronic-band parameters in strained Si 1 –x Ge x alloys on Si 1 – y Ge y substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(19), 14276–14287 (1993).
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von den Driesch, N.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
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von Känel, H.

S. Tsujino, H. Sigg, G. Mussler, D. Chrastina, and H. von Känel, “Photocurrent and transmission spectroscopy of direct-gap interband transitions in Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 262119 (2006).
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Wenger, C.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
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White, J. S.

Widiez, J.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).
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A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wirths, S.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wraback, M.

H. Shen, M. Wraback, J. Pamulapati, P. G. Newman, M. Dutta, Y. Lu, and H. C. Kuo, “Optical anisotropy in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells under thermally induced uniaxial strain,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(20), 13933–13936 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yonehara, T.

A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2815–2817 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zabel, T.

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zaitsev, A. A.

V. T. Bublik, S. S. Gorelik, A. A. Zaitsev, and A. Y. Polyakov, “Diffuse X-Ray determination of the energy of mixing and elastic constants of Ge-Si solid solutions,” Phys. Status Solidi 66(2), 427–432 (1974).
[Crossref]

Zaumseil, P.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H.

J. Gao, H. Zhou, J. Jiang, Y. Zhou, and J. Sun, “Design of low bias voltage Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells electro-absorption modulator at 1550 nm,” AIP Adv. 7(3), 035317 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

J. Gao, H. Zhou, J. Jiang, Y. Zhou, and J. Sun, “Design of low bias voltage Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells electro-absorption modulator at 1550 nm,” AIP Adv. 7(3), 035317 (2017).
[Crossref]

AIP Adv. (2)

J. Gao, H. Zhou, J. Jiang, Y. Zhou, and J. Sun, “Design of low bias voltage Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells electro-absorption modulator at 1550 nm,” AIP Adv. 7(3), 035317 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. K. Schaevitz, D. S. Ly-Gagnon, J. E. Roth, E. H. Edwards, and D. A. B. Miller, “Indirect absorption in germanium quantum wells,” AIP Adv. 1(3), 032164 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2815–2817 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, S. Tardif, K. Guilloy, G. O. Dias, N. Pauc, I. Duchemin, D. Rouchon, J.-M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, J. Escalante, Y.-M. Niquet, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, F. Rieutord, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Accurate strain measurements in highly strained Ge microbridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241902 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Tsujino, H. Sigg, G. Mussler, D. Chrastina, and H. von Känel, “Photocurrent and transmission spectroscopy of direct-gap interband transitions in Ge/SiGe quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 262119 (2006).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Study of carrier statistics in uniaxially strained Ge for a low-threshold Ge laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 16–22 (2014).
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J. Appl. Phys. (3)

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Gupta, B. Magyari-Köpe, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Achieving direct band gap in germanium through integration of Sn alloying and external strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(7), 073707 (2013).
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W. J. Fan, “Tensile-strain and doping enhanced direct bandgap optical transition of n+ doped Ge/GeSi quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(18), 183106 (2013).
[Crossref]

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T. Etzelstorfer, M. J. Süess, G. L. Schiefler, V. L. R. Jacques, D. Carbone, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Stangl, H. Sigg, and A. Diaz, “Scanning X-ray strain microscopy of inhomogeneously strained Ge micro-bridges,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(1), 111–118 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
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Nature (1)

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
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Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Photon. Res. (1)

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Phys. Rev. B (1)

D. J. Paul, “8-band k.p modelling of the quantum confined Stark effect in Ge quantum wells on Si substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 77(15), 155323 (2008).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (3)

M. M. Rieger and P. Vogl, “Electronic-band parameters in strained Si 1 –x Ge x alloys on Si 1 – y Ge y substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(19), 14276–14287 (1993).
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C. G. Van de Walle, “Band lineups and deformation potentials in the model-solid theory,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 39(3), 1871–1883 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Shen, M. Wraback, J. Pamulapati, P. G. Newman, M. Dutta, Y. Lu, and H. C. Kuo, “Optical anisotropy in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells under thermally induced uniaxial strain,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 47(20), 13933–13936 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

V. T. Bublik, S. S. Gorelik, A. A. Zaitsev, and A. Y. Polyakov, “Diffuse X-Ray determination of the energy of mixing and elastic constants of Ge-Si solid solutions,” Phys. Status Solidi 66(2), 427–432 (1974).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

V. Reboud, A. Gassenq, K. Guilloy, G. Osvaldo Dias, J. M. Escalante, S. Tardif, N. Pauc, J. M. Hartmann, J. Widiez, E. Gomez, E. Bellet Amalric, D. Fowler, D. Rouchon, I. Duchemin, Y. M. Niquet, F. Rieutord, J. Faist, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, E. Marin, H. Sigg, A. Chelnokov, and V. Calvo, “Ultra-high amplified strains in 200-mm optical germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates: towards CMOS-compatible Ge lasers,” Proc. SPIE 9752, 97520F (2016).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

M.-Y. Kao, X. Chen, Y. Huo, C. Shang, M. Xue, K. Zang, C.-Y. Lu, E. T. Fei, Y. Chen, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Tensile-strained Ge/SiGe quantum-well microdisks with overlying SiNx stressors,” in Proceedings of CLEO: Science and Innovations (OSA, 2016), SF1P.1.

K. Guilloy, N. Pauc, A. Gassenq, Y. M. Niquet, J. M. Escalante, I. Duchemin, S. Tardif, G. Osvaldo Dias, D. Rouchon, J. Widiez, J. M. Hartmann, R. Geiger, T. Zabel, H. Sigg, J. Faist, A. Chelnokov, V. Reboud, and V. Calvo, “Germanium under high tensile stress: nonlinear dependence of direct band gap vs. strain,” https://arxiv.org/abs/1606.01668 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Epitaxy design of the MQWs structure. (b) Schematic of the electro-absorption modulator with suspended microbridge structure. (c) Cross-section map of the strain tensor element εxx distribution. W1 = 165 μm, W2 = 2 μm, L1 = 300 μm, L2 = 20 μm. (d) εxx distribution in the x-y plane with a distance of 150 nm away from the bottom of the buffer layer. (e) Field distribution of the TE field Ey for the quasi-TE fundamental mode at λ = 1550 nm. w = 600 nm, d = 512 nm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Band edges (black lines) and squared wave functions (colored lines) of 10 /12 nm Ge/Si0.19Ge0.81 MQWs on 0.18% biaxially strained buffer: (a) conduction band, (b) valence band.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Transition energies at Γ- point and indirect energy gaps as a function of uniaxial strain.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Energy dispersions of Γ-valley electron subbands and valence hole subbands on 0.18% biaxially strained buffer (dash lines) and 1.6% unixially strained bridge (solid lines).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Normalized squared momentum matrix elements for Γe1-HH1, Γe1-LH1 and Γe1-HH2 transitions on 0.18% biaxially strained buffer (dash lines) and 1.6% unixially strained bridge (solid lines): (a) TM (z polarization), (b) TE (y polarization).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The absorption spectra under different voltages on 0.18% biaxially strained buffer (dash lines) and 1.6% unixially strained bridge (solid lines): (a) TM (z polarization), (b) TE (y polarization).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The absorption coefficients at the locations of Γe1- LH1 and Γe1- HH1 exciton peaks under different uniaxial strains: (a) TM (z polarization), (b) TE (y polarization).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The parameters of Si and Ge used in the proposed strain model [2].

Tables Icon

Table 2 The parameters at 300 K for Si and Ge used in the calculation of band structures.

Equations (7)

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ε i,xx = a buffer a i ( 1+ ε uni )1
ε i,yy = a buffer a i ( 1+ ε bi )1+ C 12 C 11 + C 12 ( ε uni ε bi )
ε i,zz = 2 C 12 C 11 ( a buffer a i ( 1+ ε bi )1 )+ C 12 C 11 + C 12 ( ε uni ε bi )
a S i 1x G e x = a Si +0.01992x+0.0002733 x 2 (nm).
α( ω )= π q 2 n r c m 0 2 ω L w n,m 2d k x d k y ( 2π ) 2 | Ψ n c | e ^ p | Ψ m v | 2 ×[ f n c ( k // ) f m v ( k // ) ] γ/( 2π ) [ E n c ( k // ) E m v ( k // )ω ] 2 + ( γ/2 ) 2
f n c ( k // )= { 1+exp[ E n c ( k // ) F c k B T ] } 1
f m v ( k // )= { 1+exp[ E m v ( k // ) F v k B T ] } 1

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