Abstract

A compact silicon bandpass filter with high sidelobe suppression is proposed and experimentally demonstrated using an apodized subwavelength grating (SWG) coupler. The device is implemented by placing a SWG waveguide next to a strip waveguide, and apodization is employed with a Gaussian profile to taper the gap between the two waveguides. A high sidelobe suppression ratio of 27 dB can be obtained with a 3-dB bandwidth of 8.8 nm and an insertion loss of 2.5 dB. Owing to the large optical phase mismatch between the two waveguides and the presence of the SWG waveguide, the coupling length of the device is reduced to 100.3 μm. The experimental results validate our proposed apodized-SWG-based contradirectional coupler (contra-DC) as a promising device in suppressing out-of-band components in coarse wavelength division multiplexed (CWDM) optical communication systems.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2016 (4)

2015 (1)

2014 (3)

2013 (5)

2012 (2)

A. D. Simard, N. Belhadj, Y. Painchaud, and S. LaRochelle, “Apodized silicon-on-insulator Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(12), 1033–1035 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. V. Velasco, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, M. L. Calvo, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D. X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delage, “Bandpass filter implemented with blazed waveguide sidewall gratings in silicon-on-insulator,” Electron. Lett. 48(12), 715–717 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

A. M. Prabhu, A. Tsay, Z. Han, and V. Van, “Ultracompact SOI microring add-drop filter with wide bandwidth and wide FSR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 651–653 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4600–4615 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

2000 (1)

D. W. Wiesmann, C. David, R. Germann, D. Emi, and G.-L. Bona, “Apodized surface-corrugated gratings with varying duty cycle,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(6), 639–641 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Aers, G. C.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Belhadj, N.

A. D. Simard, N. Belhadj, Y. Painchaud, and S. LaRochelle, “Apodized silicon-on-insulator Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(12), 1033–1035 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bock, P. J.

A. V. Velasco, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, M. L. Calvo, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D. X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delage, “Bandpass filter implemented with blazed waveguide sidewall gratings in silicon-on-insulator,” Electron. Lett. 48(12), 715–717 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, S. Janz, G. C. Aers, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating periodic structures in silicon-on-insulator: a new type of microphotonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20251–20262 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boeck, R.

Bona, G.-L.

D. W. Wiesmann, C. David, R. Germann, D. Emi, and G.-L. Bona, “Apodized surface-corrugated gratings with varying duty cycle,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(6), 639–641 (2000).
[Crossref]

Boroojerdi, M. T.

Calvo, M. L.

A. V. Velasco, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, M. L. Calvo, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D. X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delage, “Bandpass filter implemented with blazed waveguide sidewall gratings in silicon-on-insulator,” Electron. Lett. 48(12), 715–717 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheben, P.

A. V. Velasco, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, M. L. Calvo, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D. X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delage, “Bandpass filter implemented with blazed waveguide sidewall gratings in silicon-on-insulator,” Electron. Lett. 48(12), 715–717 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, S. Janz, G. C. Aers, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating periodic structures in silicon-on-insulator: a new type of microphotonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20251–20262 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

Chen, L. R.

Chrostowski, L.

David, C.

D. W. Wiesmann, C. David, R. Germann, D. Emi, and G.-L. Bona, “Apodized surface-corrugated gratings with varying duty cycle,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(6), 639–641 (2000).
[Crossref]

Delage, A.

A. V. Velasco, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, M. L. Calvo, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D. X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delage, “Bandpass filter implemented with blazed waveguide sidewall gratings in silicon-on-insulator,” Electron. Lett. 48(12), 715–717 (2012).
[Crossref]

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Ding, Y.

Eid, N.

Emi, D.

D. W. Wiesmann, C. David, R. Germann, D. Emi, and G.-L. Bona, “Apodized surface-corrugated gratings with varying duty cycle,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(6), 639–641 (2000).
[Crossref]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fard, S. T.

Fathpour, S.

Flueckiger, J.

Fujiwara, M.

Germann, R.

D. W. Wiesmann, C. David, R. Germann, D. Emi, and G.-L. Bona, “Apodized surface-corrugated gratings with varying duty cycle,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(6), 639–641 (2000).
[Crossref]

Glesk, I.

Greenberg, M.

Greiner, C.

Hall, T. J.

Han, Z.

A. M. Prabhu, A. Tsay, Z. Han, and V. Van, “Ultracompact SOI microring add-drop filter with wide bandwidth and wide FSR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 651–653 (2009).
[Crossref]

He, J.-J.

Hochberg, M.

Hu, T.

Huang, D.

Iazikov, D.

Iwatsuki, K.

Jaeger, N. A.

Jaeger, N. A. F.

Jalali, B.

Janz, S.

A. V. Velasco, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, M. L. Calvo, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D. X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delage, “Bandpass filter implemented with blazed waveguide sidewall gratings in silicon-on-insulator,” Electron. Lett. 48(12), 715–717 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, S. Janz, G. C. Aers, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating periodic structures in silicon-on-insulator: a new type of microphotonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20251–20262 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jayatilleka, H.

Jiang, G.

Jiang, X.

Kani, J.

Kirk, A. G.

Lang, T.

Lapointe, J.

A. V. Velasco, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, M. L. Calvo, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D. X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delage, “Bandpass filter implemented with blazed waveguide sidewall gratings in silicon-on-insulator,” Electron. Lett. 48(12), 715–717 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, S. Janz, G. C. Aers, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating periodic structures in silicon-on-insulator: a new type of microphotonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20251–20262 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

LaRochelle, S.

A. D. Simard, M. J. Strain, L. Meriggi, M. Sorel, and S. LaRochelle, “Bandpass integrated Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator with well-controlled amplitude and phase responses,” Opt. Lett. 40(5), 736–739 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Simard, N. Belhadj, Y. Painchaud, and S. LaRochelle, “Apodized silicon-on-insulator Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(12), 1033–1035 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.

Liu, B.

Liu, L.

Liu, R.

Liu, Y.

Mao, J.

Ménard, M.

Meriggi, L.

Mossberg, T. W.

Naghdi, B.

Ou, H.

Painchaud, Y.

A. D. Simard, N. Belhadj, Y. Painchaud, and S. LaRochelle, “Apodized silicon-on-insulator Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(12), 1033–1035 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pan, T.

Patel, D.

Peucheret, C.

Plant, D. V.

Prabhu, A. M.

A. M. Prabhu, A. Tsay, Z. Han, and V. Van, “Ultracompact SOI microring add-drop filter with wide bandwidth and wide FSR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 651–653 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pu, M.

Qiu, C.

Qiu, H.

Schmid, J. H.

A. V. Velasco, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, M. L. Calvo, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D. X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delage, “Bandpass filter implemented with blazed waveguide sidewall gratings in silicon-on-insulator,” Electron. Lett. 48(12), 715–717 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, S. Janz, G. C. Aers, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating periodic structures in silicon-on-insulator: a new type of microphotonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20251–20262 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shao, H.

Shi, W.

Simard, A. D.

A. D. Simard, M. J. Strain, L. Meriggi, M. Sorel, and S. LaRochelle, “Bandpass integrated Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator with well-controlled amplitude and phase responses,” Opt. Lett. 40(5), 736–739 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Simard, N. Belhadj, Y. Painchaud, and S. LaRochelle, “Apodized silicon-on-insulator Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(12), 1033–1035 (2012).
[Crossref]

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sorel, M.

Strain, M. J.

Su, Y.

Suzuki, H.

Tremblay, C.

Tsay, A.

A. M. Prabhu, A. Tsay, Z. Han, and V. Van, “Ultracompact SOI microring add-drop filter with wide bandwidth and wide FSR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 651–653 (2009).
[Crossref]

Van, V.

A. M. Prabhu, A. Tsay, Z. Han, and V. Van, “Ultracompact SOI microring add-drop filter with wide bandwidth and wide FSR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 651–653 (2009).
[Crossref]

Veerasubramanian, V.

Velasco, A. V.

A. V. Velasco, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, M. L. Calvo, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D. X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delage, “Bandpass filter implemented with blazed waveguide sidewall gratings in silicon-on-insulator,” Electron. Lett. 48(12), 715–717 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Wang, X.

Wang, Y.

Wiesmann, D. W.

D. W. Wiesmann, C. David, R. Germann, D. Emi, and G.-L. Bona, “Apodized surface-corrugated gratings with varying duty cycle,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(6), 639–641 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

Xia, X.

Xu, D. X.

A. V. Velasco, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, M. L. Calvo, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D. X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delage, “Bandpass filter implemented with blazed waveguide sidewall gratings in silicon-on-insulator,” Electron. Lett. 48(12), 715–717 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, D.-X.

Xu, J.

Yang, J.

Yang, Y.

Yu, P.

Yun, H.

Zhang, W.

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Y.

Zou, J.

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. V. Velasco, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, M. L. Calvo, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D. X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delage, “Bandpass filter implemented with blazed waveguide sidewall gratings in silicon-on-insulator,” Electron. Lett. 48(12), 715–717 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

A. D. Simard, N. Belhadj, Y. Painchaud, and S. LaRochelle, “Apodized silicon-on-insulator Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(12), 1033–1035 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. W. Wiesmann, C. David, R. Germann, D. Emi, and G.-L. Bona, “Apodized surface-corrugated gratings with varying duty cycle,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(6), 639–641 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. M. Prabhu, A. Tsay, Z. Han, and V. Van, “Ultracompact SOI microring add-drop filter with wide bandwidth and wide FSR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(10), 651–653 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Opt. Express (9)

M. T. Boroojerdi, M. Ménard, and A. G. Kirk, “Wavelength tunable integrated add-drop filter with 10.6 nm bandwidth adjustability,” Opt. Express 24(19), 22043–22050 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, I. Glesk, and L. R. Chen, “Subwavelength grating filtering devices,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15335–15345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Jiang, J. Wu, Y. Yang, T. Pan, J. Mao, B. Liu, R. Liu, Y. Zhang, C. Qiu, C. Tremblay, and Y. Su, “Wavelength and bandwidth-tunable silicon comb filter based on Sagnac loop mirrors with Mach-Zehnder interferometer couplers,” Opt. Express 24(3), 2183–2188 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, S. Janz, G. C. Aers, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating periodic structures in silicon-on-insulator: a new type of microphotonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20251–20262 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Shi, X. Wang, C. Lin, H. Yun, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, N. A. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic grating-assisted, contra-directional couplers,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3633–3650 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Shi, H. Yun, C. Lin, M. Greenberg, X. Wang, Y. Wang, S. T. Fard, J. Flueckiger, N. A. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Ultra-compact, flat-top demultiplexer using anti-reflection contra-directional couplers for CWDM networks on silicon,” Opt. Express 21(6), 6733–6738 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Eid, R. Boeck, H. Jayatilleka, L. Chrostowski, W. Shi, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “FSR-free silicon-on-insulator microring resonator based filter with bent contra-directional couplers,” Opt. Express 24(25), 29009–29021 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ding, M. Pu, L. Liu, J. Xu, C. Peucheret, X. Zhang, D. Huang, and H. Ou, “Bandwidth and wavelength-tunable optical bandpass filter based on silicon microring-MZI structure,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6462–6470 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Naghdi and L. R. Chen, “Silicon photonic contradirectional couplers using subwavelength grating waveguides,” Opt. Express 24(20), 23429–23438 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (8)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic configuration of the proposed silicon apodized-SWG-based contra-DC, (a) the 3D view, (b) the top view. G(n): the coupling gap of the n-th period of the grating.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Simulated transmission spectra of through and drop ports of contra-DCs with a uniform grating and one with an apodized grating, showing the sidelobe suppression in the apodized design. (b), (c) Calculated drop-port spectra of the contra-DCs with (b) varied apodization index a while Lc = 100.3 μm, Gmin = 200 nm and (c) varied Gmin with Lc = 100.3 μm, a = 5, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photo of a fabricated contra-DC based on apodized SWG. (b) Zoom-in SEM graph of the coupling region. (c) Magnified micrograph of the strip and SWG waveguide.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured drop-port spectra of the contra-DCs with different Gmin values.

Equations (1)

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G ( n ) = G min + R [ 1 e a ( n 0.5 N ) 2 N 2 ] .

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