Abstract

Silicon nitride (SixNy) waveguides constitute a technology platform to realize optical signal processing based on the nonlinear Kerr effect. Varying the stoichiometry of the core (i.e., x and y in silicon nitride) provides an additional degree of freedom for engineering the waveguide properties, such as nonlinear Kerr parameter and dispersion. We demonstrate low-stress high-confinement silicon-rich nitride waveguides with flat and anomalous dispersion over the entire C and L optical wavelength transmission bands for optical signal processing based on cross-phase modulation. The waveguides do not show any nonlinear loss for a measured optical input intensity of up to 1.5 × 109 W/cm2. In particular, we achieve wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s signals across the C band; XPM broadening is also observed in the O band. In addition, we highlight the use of SixNy waveguides for nonlinear microwave photonics. Specifically, we demonstrate radio-frequency spectral monitoring of optical signals with a bandwidth of hundreds of gigahertz.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (1)

C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, A. Z. Khokhar, T. D. Bucio, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, D. J. Richardson, and P. Petropoulos, “Si-rich silicon nitride for nonlinear signal processing applications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 22 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, C.-H. Cheng, S.-P. Su, B.-J. Huang, J.-H. Chang, C.-I. Wu, C.-K. Lee, and G.-R. Lin, “Enriching Si quantum dots in a Si-rich SiNx matrix for strong χ(3) optical nonlinearity,” J. Mater. Chem. 4, 1405–1413 (2016).

X. Liu, M. H. Pu, B. B. Zhou, C. J. Krückel, A. Fülöp, V. T. Company, and M. Bache, “Ocatve-spanning supercontinuum generation in a silicon-rich nitride waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 41(12), 2719–2722 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

C. J. Krückel, A. Fülöp, T. Klintberg, J. Bengtsson, P. A. Andrekson, and V. Torres-Company, “Linear and nonlinear characterization of low-stress high-confinement silicon-rich nitride waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(20), 25827–25837 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, S. K. Ng, Y. T. Toh, A. K. L. Chee, G. F. R. Chen, Q. Wang, and D. T. H. Tan, “Supercontinuum generation in bandgap engineered, back-end CMOS compatible silicon rich nitride waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 498–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

G.-R. Lin, S.-P. Su, C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, B.-J. Huang, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, C.-I. Wu, and Y.-C. Chi, “Si-rich SiNx based Kerr switch enables optical data conversion up to 12 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9611 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, S.-P. Su, B.-J. Huang, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang, Y.-C. Chi, C.-I. Wu, and G.-R. Lin, “Enhancing optical nonlinearity in a nonstoichiometric SiN waveguide for cross-wavelength all-optical data processing,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1141–1154 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (1)

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2011 (4)

Y.-H. Lin, C.-L. Wu, Y. H. Pai, and G. R. Lin, “A 533-nm self-luminescent Si-rich SiNx/SiOx distributed Bragg reflector,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6563–6570 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Bauters, M. J. R. Heck, D. D. John, J. S. Barton, C. M. Bruinink, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, “Planar waveguides with less than 0.1 dB/m propagation loss fabricated with wafer bonding,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24090–24101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-D. Lin, C.-H. Cheng, Y.-H. Lin, C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Pai, and G.-R. Lin, “Comparing retention and recombination of electrically injected carriers in Si quantum dots embedded in Si-rich SiNx films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(24), 243501 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 141–148 (2011).

2010 (5)

2009 (2)

J. Yao, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 314–335 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyser with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

M. Galili, L. Oxenløwe, H. Mulvad, A. Clausen, and P. Jeppesen, “Optical wavelength conversion by cross-phase modulation of data signals up to 640 Gb/s,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 573–579 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (5)

Z. Li, Y. Dong, J. Mo, Y. Wang, and C. Lu, “Cascaded all-optical wavelength conversion for RZ-DPSK signal based on four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1685–1687 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Tanemura, C. S. Goh, K. Kikuchi, and S. Y. Set, “Highly efficient arbitrary wavelength conversion within entire C-band based on nondegenerate fiber four-wave mixing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 551–553 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Philipp, K. N. Andersen, W. Svendsen, and H. Ou, “Amorphous silicon rich silicon nitride optical waveguides for high density integrated optics,” Electron. Lett. 40(7), 419–421 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Dorrer and D. N. Maywar, “RF spectrum analysis of optical signals using nonlinear optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 266–274 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Barwicz, M. Popović, P. Rakich, M. Watts, H. Haus, E. Ippen, and H. Smith, “Microring-resonator-based add-drop filters in SiN: fabrication and analysis,” Opt. Express 12(7), 1437–1442 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

B. E. Olsson, P. Ohlen, L. Rau, and D. J. Blumenthal, “A simple and robust 40-Gb/s wavelength converter using fiber cross-phase modulation and optical filtering,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(7), 846–848 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

J. P. R. Lacey, G. J. Pendock, and R. S. Tucker, “All-optical 1300-nm to 1550-nm wavelength conversion using cross-phase modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(7), 885–887 (1996).
[Crossref]

Andersen, K. N.

H. Philipp, K. N. Andersen, W. Svendsen, and H. Ou, “Amorphous silicon rich silicon nitride optical waveguides for high density integrated optics,” Electron. Lett. 40(7), 419–421 (2004).
[Crossref]

Andrekson, P. A.

Astar, W.

Bache, M.

Barton, J. S.

Barwicz, T.

Bauters, J. F.

Bengtsson, J.

Blumenthal, D. J.

J. F. Bauters, M. J. R. Heck, D. D. John, J. S. Barton, C. M. Bruinink, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, “Planar waveguides with less than 0.1 dB/m propagation loss fabricated with wafer bonding,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24090–24101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. E. Olsson, P. Ohlen, L. Rau, and D. J. Blumenthal, “A simple and robust 40-Gb/s wavelength converter using fiber cross-phase modulation and optical filtering,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(7), 846–848 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bogoni, A.

Bowers, J. E.

Bruinink, C. M.

Bucio, T. D.

C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, A. Z. Khokhar, T. D. Bucio, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, D. J. Richardson, and P. Petropoulos, “Si-rich silicon nitride for nonlinear signal processing applications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 22 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bulla, D. A.

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyser with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bulla, D. A. P.

Carter, G. M.

Caspani, L.

Chang, J.-H.

C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, C.-H. Cheng, S.-P. Su, B.-J. Huang, J.-H. Chang, C.-I. Wu, C.-K. Lee, and G.-R. Lin, “Enriching Si quantum dots in a Si-rich SiNx matrix for strong χ(3) optical nonlinearity,” J. Mater. Chem. 4, 1405–1413 (2016).

Chee, A. K. L.

T. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, S. K. Ng, Y. T. Toh, A. K. L. Chee, G. F. R. Chen, Q. Wang, and D. T. H. Tan, “Supercontinuum generation in bandgap engineered, back-end CMOS compatible silicon rich nitride waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 498–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, G. F. R.

T. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, S. K. Ng, Y. T. Toh, A. K. L. Chee, G. F. R. Chen, Q. Wang, and D. T. H. Tan, “Supercontinuum generation in bandgap engineered, back-end CMOS compatible silicon rich nitride waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 498–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.-Y.

Cheng, C.-H.

C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, C.-H. Cheng, S.-P. Su, B.-J. Huang, J.-H. Chang, C.-I. Wu, C.-K. Lee, and G.-R. Lin, “Enriching Si quantum dots in a Si-rich SiNx matrix for strong χ(3) optical nonlinearity,” J. Mater. Chem. 4, 1405–1413 (2016).

C.-D. Lin, C.-H. Cheng, Y.-H. Lin, C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Pai, and G.-R. Lin, “Comparing retention and recombination of electrically injected carriers in Si quantum dots embedded in Si-rich SiNx films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(24), 243501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chi, Y.-C.

G.-R. Lin, S.-P. Su, C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, B.-J. Huang, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, C.-I. Wu, and Y.-C. Chi, “Si-rich SiNx based Kerr switch enables optical data conversion up to 12 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9611 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, S.-P. Su, B.-J. Huang, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang, Y.-C. Chi, C.-I. Wu, and G.-R. Lin, “Enhancing optical nonlinearity in a nonstoichiometric SiN waveguide for cross-wavelength all-optical data processing,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1141–1154 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chitgarha, M. R.

Choi, D. Y.

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyser with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. G. Ta’eed, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “All optical wavelength conversion via cross phase modulation in chalcogenide glass rib waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(23), 11242–11247 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, D.-Y.

Chu, S. T.

Clausen, A.

M. Galili, L. Oxenløwe, H. Mulvad, A. Clausen, and P. Jeppesen, “Optical wavelength conversion by cross-phase modulation of data signals up to 640 Gb/s,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 573–579 (2008).
[Crossref]

Clerici, M.

Company, V. T.

Corcoran, B.

Dadap, J.

Dadap, J. I.

Densmore, A.

Dong, Y.

Z. Li, Y. Dong, J. Mo, Y. Wang, and C. Lu, “Cascaded all-optical wavelength conversion for RZ-DPSK signal based on four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1685–1687 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dorrer, C.

Driscoll, J. B.

Eggleton, B. J.

Espinola, R.

Ferrera, M.

Foster, M. A.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12949–12958 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freude, W.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 535–544 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fülöp, A.

Gaeta, A. L.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12949–12958 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galili, M.

M. Galili, L. Oxenløwe, H. Mulvad, A. Clausen, and P. Jeppesen, “Optical wavelength conversion by cross-phase modulation of data signals up to 640 Gb/s,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 573–579 (2008).
[Crossref]

Galle, M. A.

Gardes, F. Y.

C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, A. Z. Khokhar, T. D. Bucio, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, D. J. Richardson, and P. Petropoulos, “Si-rich silicon nitride for nonlinear signal processing applications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 22 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goh, C. S.

T. Tanemura, C. S. Goh, K. Kikuchi, and S. Y. Set, “Highly efficient arbitrary wavelength conversion within entire C-band based on nondegenerate fiber four-wave mixing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 551–553 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gondarenko, A.

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G.-R. Lin, S.-P. Su, C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, B.-J. Huang, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, C.-I. Wu, and Y.-C. Chi, “Si-rich SiNx based Kerr switch enables optical data conversion up to 12 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9611 (2015).
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McNab, S.

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Motamedi, A. R.

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Pai, Y.-H.

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Peccianti, M.

Pelusi, M.

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Richardson, D. J.

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Stankovic, S.

C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, A. Z. Khokhar, T. D. Bucio, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, D. J. Richardson, and P. Petropoulos, “Si-rich silicon nitride for nonlinear signal processing applications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 22 (2017).
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G.-R. Lin, S.-P. Su, C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, B.-J. Huang, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, C.-I. Wu, and Y.-C. Chi, “Si-rich SiNx based Kerr switch enables optical data conversion up to 12 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9611 (2015).
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C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, S.-P. Su, B.-J. Huang, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang, Y.-C. Chi, C.-I. Wu, and G.-R. Lin, “Enhancing optical nonlinearity in a nonstoichiometric SiN waveguide for cross-wavelength all-optical data processing,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1141–1154 (2015).
[Crossref]

Svendsen, W.

H. Philipp, K. N. Andersen, W. Svendsen, and H. Ou, “Amorphous silicon rich silicon nitride optical waveguides for high density integrated optics,” Electron. Lett. 40(7), 419–421 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ta’eed, V. G.

Tan, D. T. H.

T. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, S. K. Ng, Y. T. Toh, A. K. L. Chee, G. F. R. Chen, Q. Wang, and D. T. H. Tan, “Supercontinuum generation in bandgap engineered, back-end CMOS compatible silicon rich nitride waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 498–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

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T. Tanemura, C. S. Goh, K. Kikuchi, and S. Y. Set, “Highly efficient arbitrary wavelength conversion within entire C-band based on nondegenerate fiber four-wave mixing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 551–553 (2004).
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T. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, S. K. Ng, Y. T. Toh, A. K. L. Chee, G. F. R. Chen, Q. Wang, and D. T. H. Tan, “Supercontinuum generation in bandgap engineered, back-end CMOS compatible silicon rich nitride waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 498–506 (2015).
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Tsai, C.-T.

G.-R. Lin, S.-P. Su, C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, B.-J. Huang, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, C.-I. Wu, and Y.-C. Chi, “Si-rich SiNx based Kerr switch enables optical data conversion up to 12 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9611 (2015).
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C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, S.-P. Su, B.-J. Huang, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang, Y.-C. Chi, C.-I. Wu, and G.-R. Lin, “Enhancing optical nonlinearity in a nonstoichiometric SiN waveguide for cross-wavelength all-optical data processing,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1141–1154 (2015).
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Tucker, R. S.

J. P. R. Lacey, G. J. Pendock, and R. S. Tucker, “All-optical 1300-nm to 1550-nm wavelength conversion using cross-phase modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(7), 885–887 (1996).
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Turner, A. C.

Turner-Foster, A. C.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
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Vlasov, Y. A.

Vo, T. D.

Wang, H.-Y.

C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, S.-P. Su, B.-J. Huang, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang, Y.-C. Chi, C.-I. Wu, and G.-R. Lin, “Enhancing optical nonlinearity in a nonstoichiometric SiN waveguide for cross-wavelength all-optical data processing,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1141–1154 (2015).
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G.-R. Lin, S.-P. Su, C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, B.-J. Huang, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, C.-I. Wu, and Y.-C. Chi, “Si-rich SiNx based Kerr switch enables optical data conversion up to 12 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9611 (2015).
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Z. Li, Y. Dong, J. Mo, Y. Wang, and C. Lu, “Cascaded all-optical wavelength conversion for RZ-DPSK signal based on four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1685–1687 (2004).
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Willner, A. E.

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G.-R. Lin, S.-P. Su, C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, B.-J. Huang, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, C.-I. Wu, and Y.-C. Chi, “Si-rich SiNx based Kerr switch enables optical data conversion up to 12 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9611 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, S.-P. Su, B.-J. Huang, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang, Y.-C. Chi, C.-I. Wu, and G.-R. Lin, “Enhancing optical nonlinearity in a nonstoichiometric SiN waveguide for cross-wavelength all-optical data processing,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1141–1154 (2015).
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Wu, C.-L.

C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, C.-H. Cheng, S.-P. Su, B.-J. Huang, J.-H. Chang, C.-I. Wu, C.-K. Lee, and G.-R. Lin, “Enriching Si quantum dots in a Si-rich SiNx matrix for strong χ(3) optical nonlinearity,” J. Mater. Chem. 4, 1405–1413 (2016).

G.-R. Lin, S.-P. Su, C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, B.-J. Huang, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, C.-I. Wu, and Y.-C. Chi, “Si-rich SiNx based Kerr switch enables optical data conversion up to 12 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9611 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, S.-P. Su, B.-J. Huang, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang, Y.-C. Chi, C.-I. Wu, and G.-R. Lin, “Enhancing optical nonlinearity in a nonstoichiometric SiN waveguide for cross-wavelength all-optical data processing,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1141–1154 (2015).
[Crossref]

C.-D. Lin, C.-H. Cheng, Y.-H. Lin, C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Pai, and G.-R. Lin, “Comparing retention and recombination of electrically injected carriers in Si quantum dots embedded in Si-rich SiNx films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(24), 243501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Lin, C.-L. Wu, Y. H. Pai, and G. R. Lin, “A 533-nm self-luminescent Si-rich SiNx/SiOx distributed Bragg reflector,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6563–6570 (2011).
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Wu, X.

Xu, D. X.

Yan, L.

Yao, J.

Yi, A.

Yilmaz, O. F.

Zhou, B. B.

Zhu, E. Y.

ACS Photonics (1)

C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, S.-P. Su, B.-J. Huang, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang, Y.-C. Chi, C.-I. Wu, and G.-R. Lin, “Enhancing optical nonlinearity in a nonstoichiometric SiN waveguide for cross-wavelength all-optical data processing,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1141–1154 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C.-D. Lin, C.-H. Cheng, Y.-H. Lin, C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Pai, and G.-R. Lin, “Comparing retention and recombination of electrically injected carriers in Si quantum dots embedded in Si-rich SiNx films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(24), 243501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. Philipp, K. N. Andersen, W. Svendsen, and H. Ou, “Amorphous silicon rich silicon nitride optical waveguides for high density integrated optics,” Electron. Lett. 40(7), 419–421 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Galili, L. Oxenløwe, H. Mulvad, A. Clausen, and P. Jeppesen, “Optical wavelength conversion by cross-phase modulation of data signals up to 640 Gb/s,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 573–579 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (4)

Z. Li, Y. Dong, J. Mo, Y. Wang, and C. Lu, “Cascaded all-optical wavelength conversion for RZ-DPSK signal based on four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1685–1687 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Tanemura, C. S. Goh, K. Kikuchi, and S. Y. Set, “Highly efficient arbitrary wavelength conversion within entire C-band based on nondegenerate fiber four-wave mixing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 551–553 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. P. R. Lacey, G. J. Pendock, and R. S. Tucker, “All-optical 1300-nm to 1550-nm wavelength conversion using cross-phase modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(7), 885–887 (1996).
[Crossref]

B. E. Olsson, P. Ohlen, L. Rau, and D. J. Blumenthal, “A simple and robust 40-Gb/s wavelength converter using fiber cross-phase modulation and optical filtering,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(7), 846–848 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, C.-H. Cheng, S.-P. Su, B.-J. Huang, J.-H. Chang, C.-I. Wu, C.-K. Lee, and G.-R. Lin, “Enriching Si quantum dots in a Si-rich SiNx matrix for strong χ(3) optical nonlinearity,” J. Mater. Chem. 4, 1405–1413 (2016).

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

T. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, S. K. Ng, Y. T. Toh, A. K. L. Chee, G. F. R. Chen, Q. Wang, and D. T. H. Tan, “Supercontinuum generation in bandgap engineered, back-end CMOS compatible silicon rich nitride waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 498–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (5)

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 141–148 (2011).

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyser with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 535–544 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (12)

C. J. Krückel, A. Fülöp, T. Klintberg, J. Bengtsson, P. A. Andrekson, and V. Torres-Company, “Linear and nonlinear characterization of low-stress high-confinement silicon-rich nitride waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(20), 25827–25837 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Barwicz, M. Popović, P. Rakich, M. Watts, H. Haus, E. Ippen, and H. Smith, “Microring-resonator-based add-drop filters in SiN: fabrication and analysis,” Opt. Express 12(7), 1437–1442 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Lin, C.-L. Wu, Y. H. Pai, and G. R. Lin, “A 533-nm self-luminescent Si-rich SiNx/SiOx distributed Bragg reflector,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6563–6570 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. G. Ta’eed, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “All optical wavelength conversion via cross phase modulation in chalcogenide glass rib waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(23), 11242–11247 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Espinola, J. Dadap, R. Osgood, S. McNab, and Y. Vlasov, “C-band wavelength conversion in silicon photonic wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(11), 4341–4349 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12949–12958 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Bauters, M. J. R. Heck, D. D. John, J. S. Barton, C. M. Bruinink, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, “Planar waveguides with less than 0.1 dB/m propagation loss fabricated with wafer bonding,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24090–24101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Galle, E. Y. Zhu, S. S. Saini, W. S. Mohammed, and L. Qian, “Characterizing short dispersion-length fiber via dispersive virtual reference interferometry,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14275–14284 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. R. Motamedi, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, A. Khilo, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical studies of silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4085–4101 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Vo, M. D. Pelusi, J. Schröder, F. Luan, S. J. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Simultaneous multi-impairment monitoring of 640 Gb/s signals using photonic chip based RF spectrum analyzer,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3938–3945 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Corcoran, T. D. Vo, M. D. Pelusi, C. Monat, D. X. Xu, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, D. J. Moss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Silicon nanowire based radio-frequency spectrum analyzer,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20190–20200 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ferrera, C. Reimer, A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, M. Clerici, L. Caspani, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, R. Morandotti, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS compatible integrated all-optical radio frequency spectrum analyzer,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21488–21498 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sci. Rep. (2)

G.-R. Lin, S.-P. Su, C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, B.-J. Huang, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, C.-I. Wu, and Y.-C. Chi, “Si-rich SiNx based Kerr switch enables optical data conversion up to 12 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 9611 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, A. Z. Khokhar, T. D. Bucio, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, D. J. Richardson, and P. Petropoulos, “Si-rich silicon nitride for nonlinear signal processing applications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 22 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, A. Khokhar, T. Dominguez, F. Gardes, D. J. Richardson, G. T. Reed, and P. Petropoulos, “CMOS-compatible silicon-rich nitride waveguides for ultrafast nonlinear signal processing,” in Conf. Laser and Electro-Optics (2016), paper Stu4Q.7.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Optical properties of the SRN waveguide: (a) Measured and simulated group velocity dispersion showing relatively flat and anomalousdispersion in the C&L bands. (b) Output received peak power vs. input launched peak power, showing negligible nonlinear loss. Inset: waveguide cross-section.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup for XPM-based wavelength conversion. PPG: pulse pattern generator. PF: programmable filter. BERT: bit error rate tester.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Optical spectra after the SRNwaveguide for different probe wavelengths. (b) BER for different wavelength-converted signals. Insets: electrical eye diagrams for the data signal (back-to-back) as well as the wavelength converted signal at 1562 nm for error-free operation (50 ps/div).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Optical spectrum at the output of the SRN waveguide showing XPM-based spectral broadening,(b) Zoom of the optical spectra at the input and output of the waveguide at the probe wavelength.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Experimental setup for the all-optical RF spectrum analyzer, CW: continuous wave, BPF: band pass filter, OSA: optical spectrum analyzer. (b) Bandwidth measurement results for the photonic RFSA showing the XPM-tone peak power as a function of frequency detuning Δf. The measurement data are fitted to a Sinc2 function for an estimation of the 3 dB bandwidth of the RF spectrum analyzer.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured RF spectrum of pulse trains at (a) 9.95 GHz, (b) 39.8 GHz, (c) 159.2 GHz using a high resolution OSA with 20 MHz resolution.

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