Abstract

A tunable polarization-independent dual-band plasmonically induced transparency (PIT) device based on metal-graphene nanostructures is proposed theoretically and numerically at mid-infrared frequencies, which is composed of two kinds of center-symmetric metallic nanostructure array with different sizes and element numbers placed on separate graphene interdigitated finger sets, respectively. The coupled Lorentz oscillator model is used to explain the physical mechanism of PIT effect at multiple frequency domains. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solutions are employed to simulate the characteristics of the polarization-independent metal-graphene PIT device, which is consistent with the theoretical analysis. The PIT peaks, obtained at two frequency domains, are separately and dynamically modulated by varying the Fermi energy of corresponding graphene finger set without changing the geometrical parameter of the metallic nanostructure. By the carefully selected element numbers of nanostructure arrays, the resonance strength of the PIT peaks at two frequency domains are nearly close. And the PIT device has identical response to the various polarized incident field due to the center symmetry of the metallic nanostructure, which have advantages in practical applications with no polarization-dependent loss.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (1)

2015 (4)

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, W. Liu, Z. Li, J. Li, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable broadband infrared anomalous refraction based on graphene metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1744–1749 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, W. Liu, Z. Li, B. Xie, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Optical polarization encoding using graphene-loaded plasmonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 91–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Zhao, C. Yuan, W. Lv, S. Xu, and J. Yao, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterial based on graphene and split-ring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1321–1324 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Shi, X. Su, and Y. Yang, “Enhanced tunability of plasmon induced transparency in graphene strips,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 143101 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (7)

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 203112 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, Q. Li, W. Cao, J. Gu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Polarization-independent plasmon-induced transparency in a fourfold symmetric terahertz metamaterial,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8400707 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, J. Li, B. Xie, Z. Li, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable broadband mid-infrared cross polarization converter based on graphene metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 223102 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Tassin, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Graphene for terahertz applications,” Science 341, 620–621 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Hopkins, W. Liu, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Optically isotropic responses induced by discrete rotational symmetry of nanoparticle clusters,” Nanoscale 5, 6395 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, J. Li, L. Deng, and J. Tian, “Mid-infrared tunable optical polarization converter composed of asymmetric graphene nanocrosses,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1567 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Shi, D. Han, Y. Dai, Z. Yu, Y. Sun, H. Chen, X. Liu, and J. Zi, “Plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in nanostructure graphene,” Opt. Express 21, 28438 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

X. Liu, J. Gu, R. Singh, Y. Ma, J. Zhu, Z. Tian, M. He, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz plasmonic metamaterials via dual excitation pathways of the dark mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131101 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Yang, H. Cheng, J. Li, W. Liu, C. Gu, and J. Tian, “Polarization-insensitive and wide-angle plasmonically induced transparency by planar metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 143105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, L. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, K. Wen, Z. Guo, and X. Luo, “Electromagnetically induced transparency (eit)-like transmission in side-coupled complementary split-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 20, 24348–24355 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (7)

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Multispectral plasmon induced transparency in coupled meta-atoms,” Nano Lett. 11, 1685–1689 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal-superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332, 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, Y. Ma, R. Huang, R. Singh, J. Gu, Z. Tian, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Manipulating the plasmon-induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19, 8912 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhou, T. Ye, and J. Chen, “Coherent interference induced transparency in self-coupled optical waveguide-based resonators,” Opt. Lett. 36, 13–15 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Planar designs for electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials,” Opt. Express 17, 5595–5605 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. E. Miroshnichenko, S. Flach, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in nanoscale structures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2257–2298 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Dong, H. Liu, J. X. Cao, T. Li, S. M. Wang, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Enhanced sensing performance by the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in active metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 114101 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 238–242 (2008).

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189–193 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altug, H.

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Multispectral plasmon induced transparency in coupled meta-atoms,” Nano Lett. 11, 1685–1689 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anlage, S. M.

C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal-superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Artar, A.

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Multispectral plasmon induced transparency in coupled meta-atoms,” Nano Lett. 11, 1685–1689 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bechtel, H. A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, J. X.

Z. G. Dong, H. Liu, J. X. Cao, T. Li, S. M. Wang, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Enhanced sensing performance by the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in active metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 114101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cao, W.

X. Zhang, Q. Li, W. Cao, J. Gu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Polarization-independent plasmon-induced transparency in a fourfold symmetric terahertz metamaterial,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8400707 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, H.

Chen, H.-T.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

Chen, S.

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, W. Liu, Z. Li, J. Li, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable broadband infrared anomalous refraction based on graphene metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1744–1749 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, W. Liu, Z. Li, B. Xie, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Optical polarization encoding using graphene-loaded plasmonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 91–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, J. Li, B. Xie, Z. Li, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable broadband mid-infrared cross polarization converter based on graphene metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 223102 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 203112 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, J. Li, L. Deng, and J. Tian, “Mid-infrared tunable optical polarization converter composed of asymmetric graphene nanocrosses,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1567 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Yang, H. Cheng, J. Li, W. Liu, C. Gu, and J. Tian, “Polarization-insensitive and wide-angle plasmonically induced transparency by planar metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 143105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H.

J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, W. Liu, Z. Li, B. Xie, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Optical polarization encoding using graphene-loaded plasmonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 91–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, W. Liu, Z. Li, J. Li, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable broadband infrared anomalous refraction based on graphene metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1744–1749 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, J. Li, B. Xie, Z. Li, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable broadband mid-infrared cross polarization converter based on graphene metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 223102 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 203112 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, J. Li, L. Deng, and J. Tian, “Mid-infrared tunable optical polarization converter composed of asymmetric graphene nanocrosses,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1567 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Yang, H. Cheng, J. Li, W. Liu, C. Gu, and J. Tian, “Polarization-insensitive and wide-angle plasmonically induced transparency by planar metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 143105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dai, Y.

Deng, L.

Deng, X.

Dong, Z.

Dong, Z. G.

Z. G. Dong, H. Liu, J. X. Cao, T. Li, S. M. Wang, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Enhanced sensing performance by the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in active metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 114101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Duan, X.

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 203112 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Yang, H. Cheng, J. Li, W. Liu, C. Gu, and J. Tian, “Polarization-insensitive and wide-angle plasmonically induced transparency by planar metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 143105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Economou, E. N.

Engheta, N.

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332, 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flach, S.

A. E. Miroshnichenko, S. Flach, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in nanoscale structures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2257–2298 (2010).
[Crossref]

Geng, B.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genov, D. A.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 238–242 (2008).

Girit, C.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, C.

X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Yang, H. Cheng, J. Li, W. Liu, C. Gu, and J. Tian, “Polarization-insensitive and wide-angle plasmonically induced transparency by planar metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 143105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gu, J.

X. Zhang, Q. Li, W. Cao, J. Gu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Polarization-independent plasmon-induced transparency in a fourfold symmetric terahertz metamaterial,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8400707 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, J. Gu, R. Singh, Y. Ma, J. Zhu, Z. Tian, M. He, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz plasmonic metamaterials via dual excitation pathways of the dark mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, Y. Ma, R. Huang, R. Singh, J. Gu, Z. Tian, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Manipulating the plasmon-induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19, 8912 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, Y.

Guo, Z.

Han, D.

Han, J.

X. Zhang, Q. Li, W. Cao, J. Gu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Polarization-independent plasmon-induced transparency in a fourfold symmetric terahertz metamaterial,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8400707 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, J. Gu, R. Singh, Y. Ma, J. Zhu, Z. Tian, M. He, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz plasmonic metamaterials via dual excitation pathways of the dark mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131101 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, Y. Ma, R. Huang, R. Singh, J. Gu, Z. Tian, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Manipulating the plasmon-induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19, 8912 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanson, G. W.

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hao, Z.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, M.

X. Liu, J. Gu, R. Singh, Y. Ma, J. Zhu, Z. Tian, M. He, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz plasmonic metamaterials via dual excitation pathways of the dark mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hopkins, B.

B. Hopkins, W. Liu, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Optically isotropic responses induced by discrete rotational symmetry of nanoparticle clusters,” Nanoscale 5, 6395 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horng, J.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 630–634 (2011).
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Huang, R.

Ju, L.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
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Kivshar, Y. S.

B. Hopkins, W. Liu, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Optically isotropic responses induced by discrete rotational symmetry of nanoparticle clusters,” Nanoscale 5, 6395 (2013).
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A. E. Miroshnichenko, S. Flach, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in nanoscale structures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2257–2298 (2010).
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Koschny, T.

P. Tassin, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Graphene for terahertz applications,” Science 341, 620–621 (2013).
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C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal-superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Planar designs for electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials,” Opt. Express 17, 5595–5605 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kurter, C.

C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal-superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, W. Liu, Z. Li, J. Li, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable broadband infrared anomalous refraction based on graphene metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1744–1749 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, W. Liu, Z. Li, B. Xie, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Optical polarization encoding using graphene-loaded plasmonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 91–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, J. Li, B. Xie, Z. Li, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable broadband mid-infrared cross polarization converter based on graphene metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 223102 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, J. Li, L. Deng, and J. Tian, “Mid-infrared tunable optical polarization converter composed of asymmetric graphene nanocrosses,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1567 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Yang, H. Cheng, J. Li, W. Liu, C. Gu, and J. Tian, “Polarization-insensitive and wide-angle plasmonically induced transparency by planar metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 143105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, Q.

X. Zhang, Q. Li, W. Cao, J. Gu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Polarization-independent plasmon-induced transparency in a fourfold symmetric terahertz metamaterial,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8400707 (2013).
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Z. G. Dong, H. Liu, J. X. Cao, T. Li, S. M. Wang, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Enhanced sensing performance by the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in active metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 114101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, W. Liu, Z. Li, B. Xie, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Optical polarization encoding using graphene-loaded plasmonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 91–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, W. Liu, Z. Li, J. Li, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable broadband infrared anomalous refraction based on graphene metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1744–1749 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, J. Li, B. Xie, Z. Li, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable broadband mid-infrared cross polarization converter based on graphene metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 223102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, Y. Ma, R. Huang, R. Singh, J. Gu, Z. Tian, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Manipulating the plasmon-induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19, 8912 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 630–634 (2011).
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Z. G. Dong, H. Liu, J. X. Cao, T. Li, S. M. Wang, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Enhanced sensing performance by the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in active metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 114101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 238–242 (2008).

Liu, W.

J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, W. Liu, Z. Li, B. Xie, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Optical polarization encoding using graphene-loaded plasmonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 91–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, W. Liu, Z. Li, J. Li, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable broadband infrared anomalous refraction based on graphene metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1744–1749 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Hopkins, W. Liu, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Optically isotropic responses induced by discrete rotational symmetry of nanoparticle clusters,” Nanoscale 5, 6395 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Yang, H. Cheng, J. Li, W. Liu, C. Gu, and J. Tian, “Polarization-insensitive and wide-angle plasmonically induced transparency by planar metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 143105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

X. Shi, D. Han, Y. Dai, Z. Yu, Y. Sun, H. Chen, X. Liu, and J. Zi, “Plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in nanostructure graphene,” Opt. Express 21, 28438 (2013).
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J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
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X. Liu, J. Gu, R. Singh, Y. Ma, J. Zhu, Z. Tian, M. He, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz plasmonic metamaterials via dual excitation pathways of the dark mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131101 (2012).
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Luo, B.

Luo, X.

Lv, W.

X. Zhao, C. Yuan, W. Lv, S. Xu, and J. Yao, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterial based on graphene and split-ring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1321–1324 (2015).
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Ma, Y.

X. Liu, J. Gu, R. Singh, Y. Ma, J. Zhu, Z. Tian, M. He, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz plasmonic metamaterials via dual excitation pathways of the dark mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131101 (2012).
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J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
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Z. Li, Y. Ma, R. Huang, R. Singh, J. Gu, Z. Tian, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Manipulating the plasmon-induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19, 8912 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, M.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miroshnichenko, A. E.

B. Hopkins, W. Liu, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Optically isotropic responses induced by discrete rotational symmetry of nanoparticle clusters,” Nanoscale 5, 6395 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Miroshnichenko, S. Flach, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in nanoscale structures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2257–2298 (2010).
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E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189–193 (2006).
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Shen, Y. R.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 630–634 (2011).
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Shi, X.

X. Shi, X. Su, and Y. Yang, “Enhanced tunability of plasmon induced transparency in graphene strips,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 143101 (2015).
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X. Shi, D. Han, Y. Dai, Z. Yu, Y. Sun, H. Chen, X. Liu, and J. Zi, “Plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in nanostructure graphene,” Opt. Express 21, 28438 (2013).
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Si, J.

Singh, R.

X. Zhang, Q. Li, W. Cao, J. Gu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Polarization-independent plasmon-induced transparency in a fourfold symmetric terahertz metamaterial,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8400707 (2013).
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J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
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X. Liu, J. Gu, R. Singh, Y. Ma, J. Zhu, Z. Tian, M. He, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz plasmonic metamaterials via dual excitation pathways of the dark mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, Y. Ma, R. Huang, R. Singh, J. Gu, Z. Tian, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Manipulating the plasmon-induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19, 8912 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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P. Tassin, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Graphene for terahertz applications,” Science 341, 620–621 (2013).
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C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal-superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043901 (2011).
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P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Planar designs for electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials,” Opt. Express 17, 5595–5605 (2010).
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X. Shi, X. Su, and Y. Yang, “Enhanced tunability of plasmon induced transparency in graphene strips,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 143101 (2015).
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Sun, C.

Sun, Y.

Tai, N. H.

Tassin, P.

P. Tassin, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Graphene for terahertz applications,” Science 341, 620–621 (2013).
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C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal-superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043901 (2011).
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P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Planar designs for electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials,” Opt. Express 17, 5595–5605 (2010).
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Taylor, A. J.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
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Tian, J.

J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, W. Liu, Z. Li, B. Xie, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Optical polarization encoding using graphene-loaded plasmonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 91–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, W. Liu, Z. Li, J. Li, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable broadband infrared anomalous refraction based on graphene metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1744–1749 (2015).
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H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, J. Li, B. Xie, Z. Li, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable broadband mid-infrared cross polarization converter based on graphene metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 223102 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 203112 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, J. Li, L. Deng, and J. Tian, “Mid-infrared tunable optical polarization converter composed of asymmetric graphene nanocrosses,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1567 (2013).
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X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Yang, H. Cheng, J. Li, W. Liu, C. Gu, and J. Tian, “Polarization-insensitive and wide-angle plasmonically induced transparency by planar metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 143105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tian, Z.

X. Zhang, Q. Li, W. Cao, J. Gu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Polarization-independent plasmon-induced transparency in a fourfold symmetric terahertz metamaterial,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8400707 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, J. Gu, R. Singh, Y. Ma, J. Zhu, Z. Tian, M. He, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz plasmonic metamaterials via dual excitation pathways of the dark mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131101 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
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Z. Li, Y. Ma, R. Huang, R. Singh, J. Gu, Z. Tian, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Manipulating the plasmon-induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19, 8912 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Ustinov, A. V.

C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal-superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043901 (2011).
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L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S. M.

Z. G. Dong, H. Liu, J. X. Cao, T. Li, S. M. Wang, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Enhanced sensing performance by the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in active metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 114101 (2010).
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Wang, Y.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 238–242 (2008).

Wen, K.

Xie, B.

J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, W. Liu, Z. Li, B. Xie, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Optical polarization encoding using graphene-loaded plasmonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 91–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, W. Liu, Z. Li, J. Li, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable broadband infrared anomalous refraction based on graphene metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1744–1749 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, J. Li, B. Xie, Z. Li, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable broadband mid-infrared cross polarization converter based on graphene metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 223102 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 203112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, S.

X. Zhao, C. Yuan, W. Lv, S. Xu, and J. Yao, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterial based on graphene and split-ring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1321–1324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yan, L.

Yang, H.

X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Yang, H. Cheng, J. Li, W. Liu, C. Gu, and J. Tian, “Polarization-insensitive and wide-angle plasmonically induced transparency by planar metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 143105 (2012).
[Crossref]

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X. Shi, X. Su, and Y. Yang, “Enhanced tunability of plasmon induced transparency in graphene strips,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 143101 (2015).
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[Crossref]

Ye, T.

Yen, T. J.

Yin, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, P.

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, W. Liu, Z. Li, J. Li, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable broadband infrared anomalous refraction based on graphene metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1744–1749 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, W. Liu, Z. Li, B. Xie, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Optical polarization encoding using graphene-loaded plasmonic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 91–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, J. Li, B. Xie, Z. Li, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable broadband mid-infrared cross polarization converter based on graphene metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 223102 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 203112 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, J. Li, L. Deng, and J. Tian, “Mid-infrared tunable optical polarization converter composed of asymmetric graphene nanocrosses,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1567 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Z.

Yuan, C.

X. Zhao, C. Yuan, W. Lv, S. Xu, and J. Yao, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterial based on graphene and split-ring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1321–1324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zentgraf, T.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zettl, A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal-superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Planar designs for electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials,” Opt. Express 17, 5595–5605 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 238–242 (2008).

Zhang, W.

X. Zhang, Q. Li, W. Cao, J. Gu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Polarization-independent plasmon-induced transparency in a fourfold symmetric terahertz metamaterial,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 8400707 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, J. Gu, R. Singh, Y. Ma, J. Zhu, Z. Tian, M. He, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz plasmonic metamaterials via dual excitation pathways of the dark mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, Y. Ma, R. Huang, R. Singh, J. Gu, Z. Tian, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Manipulating the plasmon-induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19, 8912 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

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[Crossref]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
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M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. G. Dong, H. Liu, J. X. Cao, T. Li, S. M. Wang, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Enhanced sensing performance by the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in active metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 114101 (2010).
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S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 238–242 (2008).

Zhao, X.

X. Zhao, C. Yuan, W. Lv, S. Xu, and J. Yao, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterial based on graphene and split-ring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 1321–1324 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Zhu, J.

X. Liu, J. Gu, R. Singh, Y. Ma, J. Zhu, Z. Tian, M. He, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz plasmonic metamaterials via dual excitation pathways of the dark mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131101 (2012).
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Z. G. Dong, H. Liu, J. X. Cao, T. Li, S. M. Wang, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Enhanced sensing performance by the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in active metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 114101 (2010).
[Crossref]

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C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal-superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043901 (2011).
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H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, J. Li, B. Xie, Z. Li, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable broadband mid-infrared cross polarization converter based on graphene metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 223102 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, J. Gu, R. Singh, Y. Ma, J. Zhu, Z. Tian, M. He, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz plasmonic metamaterials via dual excitation pathways of the dark mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 131101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Dong, H. Liu, J. X. Cao, T. Li, S. M. Wang, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Enhanced sensing performance by the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in active metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 114101 (2010).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 238–242 (2008).

C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal-superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043901 (2011).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the polarization-independent dual-band metal-graphene PIT device. The black dashed box represents a unit cell.(b) Top view of the unit cell, containing two kinds of c-SRRs structures array(S1 and S2) with different sizes and element numbers.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The simulated transmission spectra of small size cross only structure array, SRRs only structure array and the c-SRRs structure array when Fermi energy Ef1 = 0.4eV and (d1 = 1200nm). (b) The top view of small size cross only structure array and the electric field distributions at the resonance notch of the bright mode. (c)The top view of small size SRRs only structure array and the electric field distributions at the resonance notch of the dark mode. (d) The top view of small size c-SRRs structure array and the electric field distributions at the PIT peak. (e) The simulated transmission spectra of the big size cross only structure array, SRRs only structure array and c-SRRs structure array (d2 = 1600nm) when Fermi energy Ef2 = 0.4eV. (f) The top view of big size cross only structure array and the electric field distributions at the resonance notch of the bright mode. (g)The top view of big size SRRs only structure array and the electric field distributions at the resonance notch of the dark mode. (h)The top view of big size c-SRRs structure array and the electric field distributions at the PIT peak.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Simulated transmission spectra of the metal-graphene PIT device with different parameter d1 when Fermi energy Ef1/Ef2 = 0.4eV/0.4eV and d2 = 1600nm. (b) Simulated transmission spectra of the metal-graphene PIT device with different parameter d2 when Fermi energy Ef1/Ef2 = 0.4eV/0.4eV and d1 = 1200nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a)Simulated transmission spectra of the metal-graphene PIT device with different Ef1 while maintaining Ef2 at 0.4eV. (b)Simulated transmission spectra of the metal-graphene PIT device with different Ef2 while maintaining Ef1 at 0.4eV. (c)The electric field intensity distributions in the gap of the SRR without and with the graphene layer.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The simulated transmission spectra of the metal-graphene PIT device under various incidence polarizations ϕ from 0° to 90°, when Fermi energy Ef1/Ef2 = 0.4eV/0.4eV and d1/d2 = 1200nm/1600nm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The black point and red asterisk are theoretical calculated transmission spectrum of the metal-graphene PIT device at Ef1/Ef2 = 0.4/0.4eV and Ef1/Ef2 = 0.5/0.3eV, respectively. The black curve and red curve are the corresponding simulated results. The parameters d1/d2 = 1200/1600nm.

Equations (4)

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σ ( ω ) = i e 2 ( ω 2 i Γ ) π 2 [ 1 ( ω 2 i Γ ) 2 0 ϵ ( f d ( ϵ ) ϵ f d ( ϵ ) ϵ ) d ϵ 0 f d ( ϵ ) f d ( ϵ ) ( ω 2 i Γ ) 2 4 ( ϵ / ) 2 d ϵ ]
[ ω ω D , 1 / 2 + i γ D , 1 / 2 κ 1 / 2 κ 1 / 2 ω ω Q , 1 / 2 + i γ D , 1 / 2 ] [ D ˜ 1 / 2 Q ˜ 1 / 2 ] = [ g 1 / 2 E ˜ 0 0 ]
D ˜ 1 / 2 = g 1 / 2 E ˜ 0 ( ω ω Q , 1 / 2 + i γ Q , 1 / 2 ) ( ω ω D , 1 / 2 + i γ D , 1 / 2 ) ( ω ω Q , 1 / 2 + i γ Q , 1 / 2 ) ( κ 1 / 2 ) 2
T ( ω ) = 1 | D ˜ 1 E ˜ 0 | 2 | D ˜ 2 E ˜ 0 | 2 .

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