Abstract

Terahertz sensing of highly absorptive aqueous solutions remains challenging due to strong absorption of water in the terahertz regime. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a cost-effective metamaterial-based sensor integrated with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for highly absorptive water-methanol mixture sensing. This metamaterial has simple asymmetric wire structures that support multiple resonances including a fundamental Fano resonance and higher order dipolar resonance in the terahertz regime. Both the resonance modes have strong intensity in the transmission spectra which we exploit for detection of the highly absorptive water-methanol mixtures. The experimentally characterized sensitivities of the Fano and dipole resonances for the water-methanol mixtures are found to be 160 and 305 GHz/RIU, respectively. This method provides a robust route for metamaterial-assisted terahertz sensing of highly absorptive chemical and biochemical materials with multiple resonances and high accuracy.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. R. Singh, I. Al-Naib, D. R. Chowdhury, L. Cong, C. Rockstuhl, and W. Zhang, “Probing the transition from an uncoupled to a strong near-field coupled regime between bright and dark mode resonators in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 081108 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  41. L. Cong, M. Manjappa, N. Xu, I. Al-Naib, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “W., Zhang, and R. Singh, “Fano resonances in terahertz metasurfaces: A figure of merit optimization,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(11), 1537–1543 (2015).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  43. E. Arik, H. Altan, and O. Esenturk, “Dielectric properties of ethanol and gasoline mixtures by terahertz spectroscopy and an effective method for determination of ethanol content of gasoline,” J. Phys. Chem. A 118(17), 3081–3089 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  45. M. L. T. Asaki, A. Redondo, T. A. Zawodzinski, and A. J. Taylor, “Dielectric relaxation of electrolyte solutions using terahertz transmission spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 116(19), 8469–8482 (2002).
    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

M. Hasegawa, K. Yamamoto, E. Shirai-Kitanishi, K. Mori, Y. Inoue, Y. Inagaki, R. Sasaki, T. Mizukami, N. Shirai, Y. Miura, Y. Ogawa, M. Banju, S. Kamba, and T. Kondo, “Surface coating of a metal mesh device sensor with gold to improve the separation and sensing of mammalian cells,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(13), 5129–5135 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Chen, Y. Wei, X. Zang, Y. Zhu, and S. Zhuang, “Excitation of dark multipolar plasmonic resonances at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22027 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (6)

N. Xu, R. Singh, and W. Zhang, “Collective coherence in nearest neighbor coupled metamaterials: A metasurface ruler equation,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(16), 163102 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Seto, S. Kamba, T. Kondo, Y. Ogawa, Y. Hoshino, and Y. Miura, “Label-free detection of antigen protein using a metal mesh device surface-modified by an antibody,” Anal. Sci. 31(3), 173–176 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Xie, W. Gao, J. Shu, Y. Ying, and J. Kono, “Extraordinary sensitivity enhancement by metasurfaces in terahertz detection of antibiotics,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8671 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cong, M. Manjappa, N. Xu, I. Al-Naib, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “W., Zhang, and R. Singh, “Fano resonances in terahertz metasurfaces: A figure of merit optimization,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(11), 1537–1543 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

E. Arik, H. Altan, and O. Esenturk, “Dielectric properties of ethanol and gasoline mixtures by terahertz spectroscopy and an effective method for determination of ethanol content of gasoline,” J. Phys. Chem. A 118(17), 3081–3089 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Singh, I. Al-Naib, D. R. Chowdhury, L. Cong, C. Rockstuhl, and W. Zhang, “Probing the transition from an uncoupled to a strong near-field coupled regime between bright and dark mode resonators in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 081108 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, L. Cong, W. Withayachumnankul, and W. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive terahertz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171101 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Miyamaru, K. Hattori, K. Shiraga, S. Kawashima, S. Suga, T. Nishida, and Y. Ogawa, “Highly sensitive terahertz sensing of glycerol-water mixtures with metamaterials,” Hongwai Yu Haomibo Xuebao 35(2), 198–207 (2014).

2013 (2)

X. Wu, X. Pan, B. Quan, X. Xu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Self-referenced sensing based on terahertz metamaterial for aqueous solutions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151109 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, B. Quan, X. Pan, X. Xu, X. Lu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Alkanethiol-functionalized terahertz metamaterial as label-free, highly-sensitive and specific biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 626–631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

T. Chen, S. Li, and H. Sun, “Metamaterials application in sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 12(3), 2742–2765 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Reinhard, K. M. Schmitt, V. Wollrab, J. Neu, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Metamaterial near-field sensor for deep-subwavelength thickness measurements and sensitive refractometry in the terahertz frequency range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, I. A. Al-Naib, J. Gu, M. Wang, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, and W. Zhang, “Membrane metamaterial resonators with a sharp resonance: A comprehensive study towards practical terahertz filters and sensors,” AIP Adv. 2(2), 022109 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (6)

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, “Tunability of subradiant dipolar and fano-type plasmon resonances in metallic ring/disk cavities: implications for nanoscale optical sensing,” ACS Nano 3(3), 643–652 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tian, J. Han, X. Lu, J. Gu, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, “Surface plasmon enhanced terahertz spectroscopic distinguishing between isotopes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 475(1), 132–134 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Gu, J. Han, X. Lu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, “A close-ring pair terahertz metamaterial resonating at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20307–20312 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (7)

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, C. M. Bingham, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterials on free-standing highly-flexible polyimide substrates,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(23), 232004 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Magnetoinductive and electroinductive coupling in plasmonic metamaterial molecules,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4521–4525 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. J. Lee and J. G. Yook, “Biosensing using split-ring resonators at microwave regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 254103 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, X. Xia, H. Feng, H. Yang, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Modulated terahertz responses of split ring resonators by nanometer thick liquid layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221101 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. A. I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Thin-film sensing with planar asymmetric metamaterial resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 083507 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, “Frequency selective surfaces for high sensitivity terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 184102 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y. J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, “Magnifying superlens in the visible frequency range,” Science 315(5819), 1699–1701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. L. T. Asaki, A. Redondo, T. A. Zawodzinski, and A. J. Taylor, “Dielectric relaxation of electrolyte solutions using terahertz transmission spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 116(19), 8469–8482 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Far-infrared dielectric properties of polar liquids probed by femtosecond terahertz pulse spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 100(24), 10373–10379 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 240(4), 330–333 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ahn, Y. H.

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al-Naib, I.

L. Cong, M. Manjappa, N. Xu, I. Al-Naib, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “W., Zhang, and R. Singh, “Fano resonances in terahertz metasurfaces: A figure of merit optimization,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(11), 1537–1543 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, I. Al-Naib, D. R. Chowdhury, L. Cong, C. Rockstuhl, and W. Zhang, “Probing the transition from an uncoupled to a strong near-field coupled regime between bright and dark mode resonators in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 081108 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, L. Cong, W. Withayachumnankul, and W. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive terahertz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Al-Naib, I. A.

Y. Chen, I. A. Al-Naib, J. Gu, M. Wang, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, and W. Zhang, “Membrane metamaterial resonators with a sharp resonance: A comprehensive study towards practical terahertz filters and sensors,” AIP Adv. 2(2), 022109 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, I. A. Al-Naib, M. Koch, and W. Zhang, “Sharp Fano resonances in THz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6312–6319 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al-Naib, I. A. I.

I. A. I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Thin-film sensing with planar asymmetric metamaterial resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 083507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Altan, H.

E. Arik, H. Altan, and O. Esenturk, “Dielectric properties of ethanol and gasoline mixtures by terahertz spectroscopy and an effective method for determination of ethanol content of gasoline,” J. Phys. Chem. A 118(17), 3081–3089 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arik, E.

E. Arik, H. Altan, and O. Esenturk, “Dielectric properties of ethanol and gasoline mixtures by terahertz spectroscopy and an effective method for determination of ethanol content of gasoline,” J. Phys. Chem. A 118(17), 3081–3089 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asaki, M. L. T.

M. L. T. Asaki, A. Redondo, T. A. Zawodzinski, and A. J. Taylor, “Dielectric relaxation of electrolyte solutions using terahertz transmission spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 116(19), 8469–8482 (2002).
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R. Singh, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, L. Cong, W. Withayachumnankul, and W. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive terahertz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171101 (2014).
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S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
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E. Arik, H. Altan, and O. Esenturk, “Dielectric properties of ethanol and gasoline mixtures by terahertz spectroscopy and an effective method for determination of ethanol content of gasoline,” J. Phys. Chem. A 118(17), 3081–3089 (2014).
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H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
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H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, C. M. Bingham, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterials on free-standing highly-flexible polyimide substrates,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(23), 232004 (2008).
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L. Xie, W. Gao, J. Shu, Y. Ying, and J. Kono, “Extraordinary sensitivity enhancement by metasurfaces in terahertz detection of antibiotics,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8671 (2015).
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N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
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X. Wu, X. Pan, B. Quan, X. Xu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Self-referenced sensing based on terahertz metamaterial for aqueous solutions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151109 (2013).
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Y. Sun, X. Xia, H. Feng, H. Yang, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Modulated terahertz responses of split ring resonators by nanometer thick liquid layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221101 (2008).
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Y. Chen, I. A. Al-Naib, J. Gu, M. Wang, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, and W. Zhang, “Membrane metamaterial resonators with a sharp resonance: A comprehensive study towards practical terahertz filters and sensors,” AIP Adv. 2(2), 022109 (2012).
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Hejase, J. A.

N. Wiwatcharagoses, K. Y. Park, J. A. Hejase, L. Williamson, and P. Chahal, “Microwave artificially structured periodic media microfluidic sensor,” in Electronic Components and Technology Conference (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1889–1893.
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A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
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N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
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Hoshino, Y.

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I. I. Smolyaninov, Y. J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, “Magnifying superlens in the visible frequency range,” Science 315(5819), 1699–1701 (2007).
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M. Hasegawa, K. Yamamoto, E. Shirai-Kitanishi, K. Mori, Y. Inoue, Y. Inagaki, R. Sasaki, T. Mizukami, N. Shirai, Y. Miura, Y. Ogawa, M. Banju, S. Kamba, and T. Kondo, “Surface coating of a metal mesh device sensor with gold to improve the separation and sensing of mammalian cells,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(13), 5129–5135 (2016).
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L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 240(4), 330–333 (1995).
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D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
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N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Magnetoinductive and electroinductive coupling in plasmonic metamaterial molecules,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4521–4525 (2008).
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Kamba, S.

M. Hasegawa, K. Yamamoto, E. Shirai-Kitanishi, K. Mori, Y. Inoue, Y. Inagaki, R. Sasaki, T. Mizukami, N. Shirai, Y. Miura, Y. Ogawa, M. Banju, S. Kamba, and T. Kondo, “Surface coating of a metal mesh device sensor with gold to improve the separation and sensing of mammalian cells,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(13), 5129–5135 (2016).
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H. Seto, S. Kamba, T. Kondo, Y. Ogawa, Y. Hoshino, and Y. Miura, “Label-free detection of antigen protein using a metal mesh device surface-modified by an antibody,” Anal. Sci. 31(3), 173–176 (2015).
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H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
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H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
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N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
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F. Miyamaru, K. Hattori, K. Shiraga, S. Kawashima, S. Suga, T. Nishida, and Y. Ogawa, “Highly sensitive terahertz sensing of glycerol-water mixtures with metamaterials,” Hongwai Yu Haomibo Xuebao 35(2), 198–207 (2014).

Keiding, S. R.

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 240(4), 330–333 (1995).
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Kim, D. S.

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
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S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
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Koch, M.

R. Singh, I. A. Al-Naib, M. Koch, and W. Zhang, “Sharp Fano resonances in THz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6312–6319 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. A. I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Thin-film sensing with planar asymmetric metamaterial resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 083507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kondo, T.

M. Hasegawa, K. Yamamoto, E. Shirai-Kitanishi, K. Mori, Y. Inoue, Y. Inagaki, R. Sasaki, T. Mizukami, N. Shirai, Y. Miura, Y. Ogawa, M. Banju, S. Kamba, and T. Kondo, “Surface coating of a metal mesh device sensor with gold to improve the separation and sensing of mammalian cells,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(13), 5129–5135 (2016).
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H. Seto, S. Kamba, T. Kondo, Y. Ogawa, Y. Hoshino, and Y. Miura, “Label-free detection of antigen protein using a metal mesh device surface-modified by an antibody,” Anal. Sci. 31(3), 173–176 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kono, J.

L. Xie, W. Gao, J. Shu, Y. Ying, and J. Kono, “Extraordinary sensitivity enhancement by metasurfaces in terahertz detection of antibiotics,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8671 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koschny, T.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Langguth, L.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
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H. J. Lee and J. G. Yook, “Biosensing using split-ring resonators at microwave regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 254103 (2008).
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S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
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S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
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Li, S.

T. Chen, S. Li, and H. Sun, “Metamaterials application in sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 12(3), 2742–2765 (2012).
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Linden, S.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
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Liu, M.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
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N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Magnetoinductive and electroinductive coupling in plasmonic metamaterial molecules,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4521–4525 (2008).
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X. Wu, B. Quan, X. Pan, X. Xu, X. Lu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Alkanethiol-functionalized terahertz metamaterial as label-free, highly-sensitive and specific biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 626–631 (2013).
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J. Gu, J. Han, X. Lu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, “A close-ring pair terahertz metamaterial resonating at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20307–20312 (2009).
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F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, “Tunability of subradiant dipolar and fano-type plasmon resonances in metallic ring/disk cavities: implications for nanoscale optical sensing,” ACS Nano 3(3), 643–652 (2009).
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F. Miyamaru, K. Hattori, K. Shiraga, S. Kawashima, S. Suga, T. Nishida, and Y. Ogawa, “Highly sensitive terahertz sensing of glycerol-water mixtures with metamaterials,” Hongwai Yu Haomibo Xuebao 35(2), 198–207 (2014).

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H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
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X. Wu, B. Quan, X. Pan, X. Xu, X. Lu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Alkanethiol-functionalized terahertz metamaterial as label-free, highly-sensitive and specific biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 626–631 (2013).
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J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
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D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
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X. Wu, X. Pan, B. Quan, X. Xu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Self-referenced sensing based on terahertz metamaterial for aqueous solutions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151109 (2013).
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B. Reinhard, K. M. Schmitt, V. Wollrab, J. Neu, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Metamaterial near-field sensor for deep-subwavelength thickness measurements and sensitive refractometry in the terahertz frequency range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(22), 221101 (2012).
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M. L. T. Asaki, A. Redondo, T. A. Zawodzinski, and A. J. Taylor, “Dielectric relaxation of electrolyte solutions using terahertz transmission spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 116(19), 8469–8482 (2002).
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B. Reinhard, K. M. Schmitt, V. Wollrab, J. Neu, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Metamaterial near-field sensor for deep-subwavelength thickness measurements and sensitive refractometry in the terahertz frequency range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(22), 221101 (2012).
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M. Hasegawa, K. Yamamoto, E. Shirai-Kitanishi, K. Mori, Y. Inoue, Y. Inagaki, R. Sasaki, T. Mizukami, N. Shirai, Y. Miura, Y. Ogawa, M. Banju, S. Kamba, and T. Kondo, “Surface coating of a metal mesh device sensor with gold to improve the separation and sensing of mammalian cells,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(13), 5129–5135 (2016).
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B. Reinhard, K. M. Schmitt, V. Wollrab, J. Neu, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Metamaterial near-field sensor for deep-subwavelength thickness measurements and sensitive refractometry in the terahertz frequency range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(22), 221101 (2012).
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R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
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J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
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D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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H. Seto, S. Kamba, T. Kondo, Y. Ogawa, Y. Hoshino, and Y. Miura, “Label-free detection of antigen protein using a metal mesh device surface-modified by an antibody,” Anal. Sci. 31(3), 173–176 (2015).
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R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
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F. Miyamaru, K. Hattori, K. Shiraga, S. Kawashima, S. Suga, T. Nishida, and Y. Ogawa, “Highly sensitive terahertz sensing of glycerol-water mixtures with metamaterials,” Hongwai Yu Haomibo Xuebao 35(2), 198–207 (2014).

Shirai, N.

M. Hasegawa, K. Yamamoto, E. Shirai-Kitanishi, K. Mori, Y. Inoue, Y. Inagaki, R. Sasaki, T. Mizukami, N. Shirai, Y. Miura, Y. Ogawa, M. Banju, S. Kamba, and T. Kondo, “Surface coating of a metal mesh device sensor with gold to improve the separation and sensing of mammalian cells,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(13), 5129–5135 (2016).
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M. Hasegawa, K. Yamamoto, E. Shirai-Kitanishi, K. Mori, Y. Inoue, Y. Inagaki, R. Sasaki, T. Mizukami, N. Shirai, Y. Miura, Y. Ogawa, M. Banju, S. Kamba, and T. Kondo, “Surface coating of a metal mesh device sensor with gold to improve the separation and sensing of mammalian cells,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(13), 5129–5135 (2016).
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L. Xie, W. Gao, J. Shu, Y. Ying, and J. Kono, “Extraordinary sensitivity enhancement by metasurfaces in terahertz detection of antibiotics,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8671 (2015).
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N. Xu, R. Singh, and W. Zhang, “Collective coherence in nearest neighbor coupled metamaterials: A metasurface ruler equation,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(16), 163102 (2015).
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L. Cong, M. Manjappa, N. Xu, I. Al-Naib, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “W., Zhang, and R. Singh, “Fano resonances in terahertz metasurfaces: A figure of merit optimization,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(11), 1537–1543 (2015).
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L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
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R. Singh, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, L. Cong, W. Withayachumnankul, and W. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive terahertz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171101 (2014).
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R. Singh, I. Al-Naib, D. R. Chowdhury, L. Cong, C. Rockstuhl, and W. Zhang, “Probing the transition from an uncoupled to a strong near-field coupled regime between bright and dark mode resonators in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 081108 (2014).
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R. Singh, I. A. Al-Naib, M. Koch, and W. Zhang, “Sharp Fano resonances in THz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6312–6319 (2011).
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J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
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Smith, D. R.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
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D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
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F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, “Tunability of subradiant dipolar and fano-type plasmon resonances in metallic ring/disk cavities: implications for nanoscale optical sensing,” ACS Nano 3(3), 643–652 (2009).
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H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
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H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, C. M. Bingham, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterials on free-standing highly-flexible polyimide substrates,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(23), 232004 (2008).
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F. Miyamaru, K. Hattori, K. Shiraga, S. Kawashima, S. Suga, T. Nishida, and Y. Ogawa, “Highly sensitive terahertz sensing of glycerol-water mixtures with metamaterials,” Hongwai Yu Haomibo Xuebao 35(2), 198–207 (2014).

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H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
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H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, C. M. Bingham, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterials on free-standing highly-flexible polyimide substrates,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(23), 232004 (2008).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. T. Asaki, A. Redondo, T. A. Zawodzinski, and A. J. Taylor, “Dielectric relaxation of electrolyte solutions using terahertz transmission spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 116(19), 8469–8482 (2002).
[Crossref]

Thrane, L.

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 240(4), 330–333 (1995).
[Crossref]

Tian, Z.

J. Gu, J. Han, X. Lu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, “A close-ring pair terahertz metamaterial resonating at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20307–20312 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tian, J. Han, X. Lu, J. Gu, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, “Surface plasmon enhanced terahertz spectroscopic distinguishing between isotopes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 475(1), 132–134 (2009).
[Crossref]

Uhd Jepsen, P.

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 240(4), 330–333 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ulin-Avila, E.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Dorpe, P.

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, “Tunability of subradiant dipolar and fano-type plasmon resonances in metallic ring/disk cavities: implications for nanoscale optical sensing,” ACS Nano 3(3), 643–652 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

X. Wu, X. Pan, B. Quan, X. Xu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Self-referenced sensing based on terahertz metamaterial for aqueous solutions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151109 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, B. Quan, X. Pan, X. Xu, X. Lu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Alkanethiol-functionalized terahertz metamaterial as label-free, highly-sensitive and specific biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 626–631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, X. Xia, H. Feng, H. Yang, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Modulated terahertz responses of split ring resonators by nanometer thick liquid layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

Y. Chen, I. A. Al-Naib, J. Gu, M. Wang, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, and W. Zhang, “Membrane metamaterial resonators with a sharp resonance: A comprehensive study towards practical terahertz filters and sensors,” AIP Adv. 2(2), 022109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wegener, M.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, Y.

L. Chen, Y. Wei, X. Zang, Y. Zhu, and S. Zhuang, “Excitation of dark multipolar plasmonic resonances at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22027 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
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N. Wiwatcharagoses, K. Y. Park, J. A. Hejase, L. Williamson, and P. Chahal, “Microwave artificially structured periodic media microfluidic sensor,” in Electronic Components and Technology Conference (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1889–1893.
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R. Singh, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, L. Cong, W. Withayachumnankul, and W. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive terahertz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171101 (2014).
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N. Wiwatcharagoses, K. Y. Park, J. A. Hejase, L. Williamson, and P. Chahal, “Microwave artificially structured periodic media microfluidic sensor,” in Electronic Components and Technology Conference (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1889–1893.
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Wollrab, V.

B. Reinhard, K. M. Schmitt, V. Wollrab, J. Neu, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Metamaterial near-field sensor for deep-subwavelength thickness measurements and sensitive refractometry in the terahertz frequency range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

X. Wu, X. Pan, B. Quan, X. Xu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Self-referenced sensing based on terahertz metamaterial for aqueous solutions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151109 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, B. Quan, X. Pan, X. Xu, X. Lu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Alkanethiol-functionalized terahertz metamaterial as label-free, highly-sensitive and specific biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 626–631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wurtz, G. A.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xia, X.

Y. Sun, X. Xia, H. Feng, H. Yang, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Modulated terahertz responses of split ring resonators by nanometer thick liquid layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xie, L.

L. Xie, W. Gao, J. Shu, Y. Ying, and J. Kono, “Extraordinary sensitivity enhancement by metasurfaces in terahertz detection of antibiotics,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8671 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xing, Q.

Z. Tian, J. Han, X. Lu, J. Gu, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, “Surface plasmon enhanced terahertz spectroscopic distinguishing between isotopes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 475(1), 132–134 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Gu, J. Han, X. Lu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, “A close-ring pair terahertz metamaterial resonating at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20307–20312 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, N.

L. Cong, M. Manjappa, N. Xu, I. Al-Naib, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “W., Zhang, and R. Singh, “Fano resonances in terahertz metasurfaces: A figure of merit optimization,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(11), 1537–1543 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Xu, R. Singh, and W. Zhang, “Collective coherence in nearest neighbor coupled metamaterials: A metasurface ruler equation,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(16), 163102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

X. Wu, X. Pan, B. Quan, X. Xu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Self-referenced sensing based on terahertz metamaterial for aqueous solutions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151109 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, B. Quan, X. Pan, X. Xu, X. Lu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Alkanethiol-functionalized terahertz metamaterial as label-free, highly-sensitive and specific biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 626–631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yahiaoui, R.

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, K.

M. Hasegawa, K. Yamamoto, E. Shirai-Kitanishi, K. Mori, Y. Inoue, Y. Inagaki, R. Sasaki, T. Mizukami, N. Shirai, Y. Miura, Y. Ogawa, M. Banju, S. Kamba, and T. Kondo, “Surface coating of a metal mesh device sensor with gold to improve the separation and sensing of mammalian cells,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(13), 5129–5135 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yan, F.

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

Y. Sun, X. Xia, H. Feng, H. Yang, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Modulated terahertz responses of split ring resonators by nanometer thick liquid layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ying, Y.

L. Xie, W. Gao, J. Shu, Y. Ying, and J. Kono, “Extraordinary sensitivity enhancement by metasurfaces in terahertz detection of antibiotics,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8671 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yook, J. G.

H. J. Lee and J. G. Yook, “Biosensing using split-ring resonators at microwave regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 254103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zang, X.

L. Chen, Y. Wei, X. Zang, Y. Zhu, and S. Zhuang, “Excitation of dark multipolar plasmonic resonances at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22027 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zawodzinski, T. A.

M. L. T. Asaki, A. Redondo, T. A. Zawodzinski, and A. J. Taylor, “Dielectric relaxation of electrolyte solutions using terahertz transmission spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 116(19), 8469–8482 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zayats, A. V.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Cong, M. Manjappa, N. Xu, I. Al-Naib, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “W., Zhang, and R. Singh, “Fano resonances in terahertz metasurfaces: A figure of merit optimization,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(11), 1537–1543 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Xu, R. Singh, and W. Zhang, “Collective coherence in nearest neighbor coupled metamaterials: A metasurface ruler equation,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(16), 163102 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, I. Al-Naib, D. R. Chowdhury, L. Cong, C. Rockstuhl, and W. Zhang, “Probing the transition from an uncoupled to a strong near-field coupled regime between bright and dark mode resonators in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 081108 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, L. Cong, W. Withayachumnankul, and W. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive terahertz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, I. A. Al-Naib, J. Gu, M. Wang, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, and W. Zhang, “Membrane metamaterial resonators with a sharp resonance: A comprehensive study towards practical terahertz filters and sensors,” AIP Adv. 2(2), 022109 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, I. A. Al-Naib, M. Koch, and W. Zhang, “Sharp Fano resonances in THz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6312–6319 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gu, J. Han, X. Lu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, “A close-ring pair terahertz metamaterial resonating at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20307–20312 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tian, J. Han, X. Lu, J. Gu, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, “Surface plasmon enhanced terahertz spectroscopic distinguishing between isotopes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 475(1), 132–134 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
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Zhang, X.

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, C. M. Bingham, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterials on free-standing highly-flexible polyimide substrates,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(23), 232004 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y.

L. Chen, Y. Wei, X. Zang, Y. Zhu, and S. Zhuang, “Excitation of dark multipolar plasmonic resonances at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22027 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhuang, S.

L. Chen, Y. Wei, X. Zang, Y. Zhu, and S. Zhuang, “Excitation of dark multipolar plasmonic resonances at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22027 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, and S. A. Maier, “Tunability of subradiant dipolar and fano-type plasmon resonances in metallic ring/disk cavities: implications for nanoscale optical sensing,” ACS Nano 3(3), 643–652 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (2)

H. Tao, L. R. Chieffo, M. A. Brenckle, S. M. Siebert, M. Liu, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Metamaterials on paper as a sensing platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(28), 3197–3201 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, “Magnetoinductive and electroinductive coupling in plasmonic metamaterial molecules,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4521–4525 (2008).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

L. Cong, M. Manjappa, N. Xu, I. Al-Naib, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “W., Zhang, and R. Singh, “Fano resonances in terahertz metasurfaces: A figure of merit optimization,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(11), 1537–1543 (2015).
[Crossref]

AIP Adv. (1)

Y. Chen, I. A. Al-Naib, J. Gu, M. Wang, T. Ozaki, R. Morandotti, and W. Zhang, “Membrane metamaterial resonators with a sharp resonance: A comprehensive study towards practical terahertz filters and sensors,” AIP Adv. 2(2), 022109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Anal. Sci. (1)

H. Seto, S. Kamba, T. Kondo, Y. Ogawa, Y. Hoshino, and Y. Miura, “Label-free detection of antigen protein using a metal mesh device surface-modified by an antibody,” Anal. Sci. 31(3), 173–176 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, X. Pan, B. Quan, X. Xu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Self-referenced sensing based on terahertz metamaterial for aqueous solutions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151109 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, W. Cao, I. Al-Naib, L. Cong, W. Withayachumnankul, and W. Zhang, “Ultrasensitive terahertz sensing with high-Q Fano resonances in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(17), 171101 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Cong, S. Tan, R. Yahiaoui, F. Yan, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, “Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031107 (2015).
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C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, “Frequency selective surfaces for high sensitivity terahertz sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 184102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Sun, X. Xia, H. Feng, H. Yang, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Modulated terahertz responses of split ring resonators by nanometer thick liquid layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221101 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. A. I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Thin-film sensing with planar asymmetric metamaterial resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 083507 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Reinhard, K. M. Schmitt, V. Wollrab, J. Neu, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Metamaterial near-field sensor for deep-subwavelength thickness measurements and sensitive refractometry in the terahertz frequency range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. J. Lee and J. G. Yook, “Biosensing using split-ring resonators at microwave regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 254103 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, I. Al-Naib, D. R. Chowdhury, L. Cong, C. Rockstuhl, and W. Zhang, “Probing the transition from an uncoupled to a strong near-field coupled regime between bright and dark mode resonators in metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 081108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

X. Wu, B. Quan, X. Pan, X. Xu, X. Lu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Alkanethiol-functionalized terahertz metamaterial as label-free, highly-sensitive and specific biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 626–631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

Z. Tian, J. Han, X. Lu, J. Gu, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, “Surface plasmon enhanced terahertz spectroscopic distinguishing between isotopes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 475(1), 132–134 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Thrane, R. H. Jacobsen, P. Uhd Jepsen, and S. R. Keiding, “THz reflection spectroscopy of liquid water,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 240(4), 330–333 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hongwai Yu Haomibo Xuebao (1)

F. Miyamaru, K. Hattori, K. Shiraga, S. Kawashima, S. Suga, T. Nishida, and Y. Ogawa, “Highly sensitive terahertz sensing of glycerol-water mixtures with metamaterials,” Hongwai Yu Haomibo Xuebao 35(2), 198–207 (2014).

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

M. Hasegawa, K. Yamamoto, E. Shirai-Kitanishi, K. Mori, Y. Inoue, Y. Inagaki, R. Sasaki, T. Mizukami, N. Shirai, Y. Miura, Y. Ogawa, M. Banju, S. Kamba, and T. Kondo, “Surface coating of a metal mesh device sensor with gold to improve the separation and sensing of mammalian cells,” IEEE Sens. J. 16(13), 5129–5135 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Xu, R. Singh, and W. Zhang, “Collective coherence in nearest neighbor coupled metamaterials: A metasurface ruler equation,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(16), 163102 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. L. T. Asaki, A. Redondo, T. A. Zawodzinski, and A. J. Taylor, “Dielectric relaxation of electrolyte solutions using terahertz transmission spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 116(19), 8469–8482 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Far-infrared dielectric properties of polar liquids probed by femtosecond terahertz pulse spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 100(24), 10373–10379 (1996).
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J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

E. Arik, H. Altan, and O. Esenturk, “Dielectric properties of ethanol and gasoline mixtures by terahertz spectroscopy and an effective method for determination of ethanol content of gasoline,” J. Phys. Chem. A 118(17), 3081–3089 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, C. M. Bingham, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz metamaterials on free-standing highly-flexible polyimide substrates,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(23), 232004 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (3)

L. Xie, W. Gao, J. Shu, Y. Ying, and J. Kono, “Extraordinary sensitivity enhancement by metasurfaces in terahertz detection of antibiotics,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8671 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chen, Y. Wei, X. Zang, Y. Zhu, and S. Zhuang, “Excitation of dark multipolar plasmonic resonances at terahertz frequencies,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22027 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (5)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
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J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sensors (Basel) (1)

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

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[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Microscopic image of the ADWR with the inset showing the schematic unit structure where Px = 80 μm, Py = 126 μm, L1 = 60 μm, L2 = 106 μm, d = 20 μm, and ω = 6 μm. (b) Schematic diagram of liquid sample measurement by ADWR combined with THz-TDS.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Simulated transmission of (a) the ADWR with L1 = 60 μm, L2 = 106 μm (red solid circle) and the two individual wire structures with L1 = 60 μm, L2 = 0 μm (black triangle) and L1 = 0 μm, L2 = 106 μm (blue square) with the insets depicting the surface current distributions of the ADWR at 1.038 and 1.734 THz, and (b) DWRs with different asymmetries where L2 was increased from 60 to 120 μm, but a constant L1 = 60 μm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Simulated electric field distribution of ADWR with L1 = 60 μm and L2 = 106 μm at (a) 1.038 THz, Fano resonance dip and (b) 1.734 THz, dipole resonance dip without analyte coated on the metasurface.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Measured transmission and (b) refractive indices of the water-methanol mixtures with different water contents ranging from 0% to 100%.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Experimental and simulated transmission through the bare ADWR metamaterial. (b) Normalized measured transmission of the water-methanol mixtures obtained by ADWR-assisted THz-TDS.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured frequency shifts of (a) Fano resonance dip, Fano transmittance peak, and dipole resonance dip with the changes of refractive indices of different water contents. (b) Resonance frequencies and transmission values of the Fano transmittance peak with the changes of refractive indices of different water contents.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Summary of the simulated Fano and dipole resonances sensitivity (unit: GHz/RIU) and Fano intensity of the ADWRs with varying L2 (unit: μm).

Equations (3)

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t ( ω ) = | E ˜ s ( ω ) E ˜ r ( ω ) | ,
n ( ω ) = c | Ф s Ф r | ωd + n r ,
T ( ω ) = t mixture + ADWR ( ω ) t methanol ( ω ) ,

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